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Waste Incineration and Public Health (2000)

Chapter: Index

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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Waste Incineration and Public Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5803.
×

Index

A

Acidic gases and aerosols, 2, 23, 50, 51-52, 104, 110

air pollution control devices, 42, 43, 45-46, 49, 51, 103

fly ash, 64-65

Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT),

risk assessments, 113, 134-139, 166, 178

standards, 113, 188, 193

urban areas, 138

see also Hydrogen chloride;

Nitrogen and

nitrogen oxides;

Sulfates

Accidents, see Upset conditions, accidents and malfunctions

Adolescents, 139

Advocacy, 13, 21, 193, 209-210, 211-212, 218-

African-Americans, 162, 231

Age factors, human, 118, 123, 126, 127, 128, 175

adolescents, 139

elderly persons, 132, 140, 162, 193

food contamination effects, 90

particulates, 132, 133

see also Children;

Elderly persons

Age of incinerators, 8, 38, 42, 126, 130, 184, 188, 197-198, 214, 215, 234

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)

arsenic, 88

cadmium, 86, 141-142

dioxins and furans, 93

lead, 91

local population studies, 120

mercury, 90

risk assessments, 116, 141-142

Superfund sites, 200

Agriculture, see Rural areas

AIDS, 24

Air dispersion coefficients, 6, 70, 76-77, 99, 132

Air-injection systems, 2-3, 40, 46, 48, 66-69 (passim)

Air pollution, general, 4-5, 14, 71, 109, 248

air-dispersion coefficients, 6, 70, 76-77, 99, 132

cadmium, 86, 87, 106-107

dioxins, 93-94, 95, 96

hazardous waste, 22, 23

lead, 91, 92, 106

multimedia transport models, 79-80, 108-109, 255

plant contamination and, 77, 107

process emissions, 1, 2-4, 50-56, 211

see also Air pollution control devices;

Ambient pollutant concentrations;

specific pollutants

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Waste Incineration and Public Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5803.
×

Air pollution control devices, 3, 10-11, 17, 24, 27, 30, 31-32, 34, 35, 42-50, 68-69, 163-164, 166, 179

acid gases and aerosols, 42, 43, 45-46, 49, 51, 103

ash, 64, 65

best practices, 67

carbon absorption, 42, 47, 49, 52-53, 56, 66, 67, 188-189

dioxins, 3, 42, 47-48, 52, 54-56, 58-59, 62, 188

dry-sorbent injection, 3, 45-46, 65, 66, 67

foreign countries, 8, 22, 23, 214-215

Europe, 42, 47, 48, 49

fugitive emissions, 35, 63, 187, 191, 251

furans, 42, 47, 49, 54-56, 62

hazardous wastes, 23, 43, 45, 49

historical perspectives, 63

hydrogen chloride, 3, 45, 49, 51, 55, 56, 66

information on, 4, 69-70

lead, 53-54

medical wastes, 203, 204, 215

mercury,

metals, 3, 43, 63

municipal solid waste, 21, 42-46 (passim), 55-56, 215, 301

nitrogen and nitrogen oxides, 42, 46-47, 49, 52, 66, 67

occupation exposures due to,

particulate matter, 42, 43-45, 47, 51, 54, 63, 103

standards, 188, 194, 195, 203, 204, 205, 215;

see also Maximum Achievable

Control Technology (MACT) sulfates, 3, 45, 49, 51, 55, 66

temperature factors, 42, 43, 44, 46, 47, 53, 55

see also Carbon absorption;

Dry-sorbent injection;

Electrostatic precipitators;

Emission monitoring;

Fabric filters;

Filters;

Wet scrubbers

Allergies, 138-139

Aluminum, 31, 55, 127, 137, 164

Ambient pollutant concentrations, 1, 5, 15, 75, 79, 80, 82, 98-110, 113, 179

carbon monoxide, 97

data collection, 98-100, 180

dioxins, 100-110 (passim), 172, 179

epidemiological studies, 123

furans, 100-107 (passim), 109-110, 179

hazardous waste emissions, 98-103

health effects, 4, 11, 179, 180, 181

hydrogen chloride, 97

lead, 91, 92, 100, 102

Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT),

monitoring, 103-110

nitrogen oxides, 136

particulates, 100, 101, 102, 103, 108, 131-

standards, 2, 5, 91, 97, 155, 189

American Cancer Society, 133-134

American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 49, 69, 188, 208-209, 303

Animals and animal studies, 15, 73-74, 75, 81, 94, 110, 115, 116, 128-129, 163

arsenic, 151

cadmium, 141

carbon monoxide, 140

dioxins, 157, 158, 159, 172, 174

hydrogen chloride, risk assessments, 136-137

medical wastes defined, 200

PAHs, 160-161

PCBs, 159

sulfates, 139

see also Dairy products;

Fish;

Meat

Antimony, 196

Arches, furnaces, 41

Arsenic, 50, 87-88, 109, 127, 151, 153-154, 196, 197

Ash, 14, 50, 51, 63-65

acidic, 64-65

air pollution control devices, 64, 65

bottom ash, 2, 3, 14, 17, 31, 34, 35, 53, 55, 63, 65, 66, 187

design of facilities and, 4

dioxins and furans, 55, 109

fly ash, 3, 31, 37, 50, 51, 53, 54, 55, 63-64, 65, 66, 163, 164, 187

epidemiological studies, 127-128

lead, 53, 54

occupational exposures, 64, 207-208

output controls, 30

standards, 187, 191, 207-208

Asthma, 122, 123, 133, 134, 135, 136, 138, 139, 162

ATSDR, see Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

Attitudes, see Psychological factors;

Public opinion

Autoclaving, 26

Auxiliary burners, 3, 41, 49, 66, 67, 301

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Waste Incineration and Public Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5803.
×

B

Bag houses, see Fabric filters

Batteries, 31, 32, 64, 67, 85, 91, 192

Belgium, 23

Benzo(a)pyrene, 161

Beryllium, 50, 155, 156, 157, 196, 197

Best practices, 67, 186

see also Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT)

Bill boarding, 214-215

Biological markers, 113, 114, 118, 119-120, 142, 181

Biological waste, see Hazardous waste;

Medical waste

Black persons, see African-Americans

Blood, see Hematology

Boilers and industrial furnaces (BIFs), 13, 17, 64, 303

hazardous waste, 23, 24, 41, 193, 194-195

national statistics, 18

standards, 193, 194-195

Bottom ash, see Ash

Bronchitis, 133, 138-139, 156

Bull noses, 41

C

Cadmium, 3, 6, 32, 50, 65, 86, 87, 98, 106-107, 109

food contamination, 86, 87, 98, 143

health effects, epidemiological studies, 127

exposure, 6, 85-87, 165, 168

exposure pathways, 82, 98, 140-142, 143

risk assessments, 113, 140-142, 143, 144

Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT),

medical waste, 26, 201, 202, 203, 205

occupational exposures, 165, 168

soil contamination, 85, 86, 87, 106

standards other than MACT, 190

California Air Resources Board, 182

Canada, 193

arsenic ingestion, 88

dioxin ingestion, 94

hazardous waste, 23

Cancer and carcinogenicity, 162, 163

arsenic, 151, 152, 153

beryllium, 155, 156

cadmium, 144

chromium, 151, 152

dioxins, 124, 157, 174

epidemiological studies, 124-126, 128

lead, 143, 144, 147

PAHs, 160

respiratory, 124, 125, 151, 155, 156, 157

risk assessments, 114, 116, 130, 143, 144, 147, 151-157 (passim), 162, 163

Carbon absorption, 42, 47, 49, 52-53, 56, 66, 67, 188-189

Carbon dioxide, 2, 31, 37, 50, 97, 309

Carbon monoxide (CO), 2, 31, 37, 49, 50, 97, 98, 110

incomplete combustion, 56

Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT),

medical waste, 200-204 (passim), 303

off-normal operation, 60, 62, 303, 305, 307-309

risk assessments, 113, 139-140, 178

standards, 97, 113, 184, 191, 192, 195, 197, 199-205 (passim), 214, 305, 308

Carcinogenicity, see Cancer and carcinogenicity

Cardiovascular effects, 128

arsenic, 153

cadmium, 143

carbon monoxide, 139, 140

lead, 144, 147, 175

mercury, 148, 149

Cement kilns, see Kilns

CEMS, see Continuous emission monitoring systems

CERCLA-Superfund sites, see Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act

Chemicals and chemical waste, see Hazardous

waste;

specific chemicals

Children, 94, 123, 162, 193, 225

acidic aerosols, 139

adolescents, 139

cadmium, 141

environmental justice, 231

hand-to-mouth behavior, 162

infants, 132, 161-162, 174

lead poisoning, 91, 142, 146, 174, 175, 176

respiratory effects, 121, 122, 132, 136, 138, 139

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Waste Incineration and Public Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5803.
×

Chlorine, 3, 23, 31, 32, 55, 194, 196, 198, 199

see also Hydrogen chloride

Chlorobenzenes, 55, 62, 104, 126, 309

Chlorofluorocarbons, 31

Chlorophenols, 62, 93, 104, 119, 126, 305, 308, 309

Chromium, 50, 109, 148, 151, 152, 196, 197

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 134, 155

see also Emphysema

Cities,

see Urban areas

Civil Rights Act, 232-233

Clean Air Act, 184-185, 186-187, 188, 193, 194, 211

see also Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT)

Clean Water Act, 184, 193

Combustion processes and efficiency, 2-3, 4, 17, 31, 24, 37-41, 66-67, 68, 183, 195

best practices, 67, 186

dioxins, 55, 56, 58, 61, 62

mercury vaporization, 53, 66

municipal solid waste, 21-22

operations factors, 48-49

sizing of furnace, 40

standards, 187-188, 195

turbulence, 2, 3, 38, 66-67

uncontrolled, 21-22

see also Incomplete combustion;

Temperature factors;

Upset conditions, accidents and malfunctions

Composting, 17, 19, 20, 21, 27, 28-29, 30, 32

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (Superfund),

Computer applications, 5

continuous emission monitors, 8-9, 211

epidemiological mapping and smoothing, 129

see also Databases;

Internet

Continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS),

Control of emissions,

see Air pollution control devices

Convective heat transfer, 24, 42, 74

Court cases,

see Litigation

Criteria pollutants,

see Carbon monoxide;

Nitrogen dioxide;

Particulates;

Photochemical oxidants;

Sulfates Crushing,

Cytogenic effects, 125-126, 149

D

Dairy products, 5, 81, 104-106, 107

dioxins, 5, 94, 95, 96, 104-106, 107

Databases, 6, 56-57, 181, 196

stack emission rate information, 56-57

Data collection, 3-4, 9, 49, 196

ambient pollutant concentrations, 98-100, 180

health effects, 7, 69-70

medical wastes, 203, 204, 205, 206

regulatory requirements, 194, 203, 204, 205, 206, 212, 214-216

upset conditions, 3-4, 9, 181

see also Epidemiology;

Information dissemination;

Monitoring;

Risk assessments

Department of Health and Human Services,

see Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)

Dermal absorption and effects, 80, 81, 111, 114

arsenic, 151, 153

beryllium, 156

cadmium, 87

chromium, 148, 151

dioxins, 157, 174

lead, 142

mercury, 147-148, 149, 150

PAHs, 160

risk assessments, 117, 136, 142, 147-148, 149, 150, 151, 153, 156, 159

Design of facilities, 1-2, 4, 27, 37-38, 39-41, 59, 68-69, 194, 259-260

acid gas scrubbers, 45-46

ash production, 4

committee charge, 13

fugitive emissions, 63

health effects and, 166(n.a), 169, 179

lead in ash, 53, 54

municipal solid waste, 29-30

particulate matter reduction, 51

sizing, 29-30

transport pathways and, 76

see also Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT)

Destruction and removal efficiency, 3, 55, 66, 195, 305

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Waste Incineration and Public Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5803.
×

Developmental effects, human

dioxins, 158

lead, 144, 146

mercury, 148, 149

PAHs, 160

PCBs, 159

sensitive populations, 161-162

Diet, see Food contamination

Dioxins, 2, 31, 50, 50-56, 93-94, 95, 96

air pollution control devices, 3, 42, 47-48, 54-56, 58-59, 52, 62, 188

ambient concentration levels, 100-110 (passim), 172, 179

ash, 55, 109

biomarkers, 119

combustion processes, 55, 56, 58, 61, 62, 193

dairy products, 5, 94, 95, 96, 104-106, 107

emission monitoring, 39, 58, 62, 68, 304

fish, 5, 95, 96, 111

flue gases, 55, 301, 302

food contamination, 5, 82, 94-97, 98, 111, 162, 169

health effects, 6, 7, 166, 179

animal studies, 157, 158, 159, 172, 174

carcinogenicity, 124, 157, 174

blood, 106, 157

epidemiological studies, 123, 124, 126-127, 128, 157

exposure, 4-5, 6, 82, 91, 93-97, 98, 106, 109, 110-111

occupational exposure, 6, 124, 155, 157, 163, 164, 166, 171

risk assessments, 113, 114, 155, 157-159, 166, 169, 171-174, 180, 181, 253-254

Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT),

medical waste, 26, 200-205 (passim)

municipal solid waste, 55-56, 82, 104-106

off-normal operation, 61, 301-308

rural areas, 94, 104-106

sediment contamination, 96

soil contamination, 94, 95, 96, 105, 107, 109

stack emission rate information, 58-59, 62

standards, other than MACT, 188, 194, 199

transport pathways, 75, 93-95, 98, 110-111

urban diets, 94

vegan diets, 162

vegetation, 94, 95, 96

water contamination, 95, 96

Dispersion of emissions, 4, 5, 6, 34, 57, 70, 71, 73, 75, 76, 79, 98, 103-104, 181

air dispersion coefficients, 6, 70, 76-77, 99, 132

local factors, 76-77, 94, 98

Dose-response analysis, 13, 116, 117, 118, 130

arsenic, 153-154

cadmium, 143

chromium, 152

dioxins, 172

hydrogen chloride, 137

lead, 144-145

mercury, 149-150

uncertainty, 116, 117, 118, 246, 248, 250, 254-257

Dow Chemical Company, 60

Dry-sorbent injection, 3, 45-46, 65, 66, 67

E

Economic factors, 1, 9, 10, 217-218, 219-220, 223-225, 226, 227, 228, 230-231, 242-243, 244

compensation measures, 10, 183, 225, 241-242, 244

composting, 29

emission monitoring, 116

hazardous waste, 22, 23-24, 193

Maximum Achievable Control Technology, 187, 188

municipal solid waste, 21, 29, 221, 224

property values, 9, 218, 219, 223, 225, 226, 227, 230, 232, 239, 240, 241, 242, 247

recycling, 29

regulatory compliance, 210;

see also Fines and penalties

risk assessments, 116, 253

see also Environmental justice

Education and training, see Professional

education and training;

Public education

Efficiency, see Combustion processes and efficiency;

Destruction and removal efficiency

Elderly persons, 132, 140, 162, 193

see also Environmental justice

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Waste Incineration and Public Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5803.
×

Electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), 3, 42, 43, 44, 49, 52, 58-59, 103

best practices, 67

off-normal operations, 62, 304-305, 306

worker exposure due to, 164-165, 168

Emission-control devices,

see Air pollution control devices

Emission monitoring, 4, 8, 49, 67, 68, 103-110

best practices, 67

continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS),

databases, 56-57

dioxins, 39, 58, 62, 68, 304

flue gases, 49, 56-62, 70, 188, 194, 301

inspection of facilities, 48-49, 67, 184, 194, 199, 204, 206, 210-213

medical wastes, 203, 204, 205

particulates, 45

regulatory issues, 8-9, 49, 68, 203, 204, 205, 211, 214-215, 303

risk assessments, 116

stack emission rate information, 56-62, 70

standards, 188, 194, 195, 199, 203, 204, 205

startup conditions, 9, 60, 61

see also Performance testing

Employee issues,

see Occupational exposures;

Professional education and training

Emphysema, 133

Energy recovery, 12, 26, 27, 41-42, 219, 308-309

hazardous waste, 23-24, 41, 193, 194-195, 199

medical waste, 42

municipal solid waste, 18, 21, 22, 38, 41, 109

see also Boilers and industrial furnaces (BIFs);

Kilns;

Steam generation

Environmental justice, 213-214, 227, 231-233, 243, 245

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 27, 183-184, 189

ambient pollutant concentrations, databases, 98-100

batteries, 32

composting, 28

continuous emission monitors, 8-9, 215

dispersion models, 76

feed preparation and feeding practices, 36

hazardous air pollutants, 184-185, 193

hazardous waste, 22, 23, 57, 64, 186, 193, 194, 196, 213

health effects, 7, 111

enforcement, 210, 212, 213-214

lead, 91, 147

medical waste, 200, 202

mercury, 8, 53, 89, 215

municipal solid waste, 18, 21, 186-187, 188-192, 215, 305

occupational exposures, 207, 208, 214, 216

off-normal operation, 60-61

particulates, 84-85, 132, 133

risk assessments, 111, 116

stack emission rate information, 56, 57-58, 59

uncertainty analysis, 215

see also Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT)

Epidemiology, 6, 7, 15, 112-113, 114, 115, 120-129, 179, 181, 248, 252, 253

beryllium, 155

biological markers, 113, 114, 118, 119-120, 142, 181

cancer, 124-126, 128

dioxins, 123, 124, 126-127, 128, 157

furans, 123, 127, 128

gender factors, 120, 123, 128, 133

hydrogen chloride, 122-123

lead, 127-128, 146

local, 120-126

medical wastes, 122, 123

municipal solid waste, 122-123, 124, 125-127

respiratory effects, 120-123, 124, 125, 132, 133

sulfates, 121, 122-123, 133

Risk assessments

Europe, 23, 106

air pollution control devices, 42, 47, 48, 49

Exposure and exposure pathways, 4-6, 7, 15, 71, 72, 73, 80, 81-82, 114, 169, 181

arsenic, 87-88, 151, 153-154

beryllium, 155

biological markers, 113, 114, 119-120, 142, 181

cadmium, 6, 82, 85-87, 98, 140-143, 143, 165, 168

committee methodology, 13, 14

dioxins, 4-5, 6, 82, 91, 93-97, 98, 106, 109, 110-111

epidemiological findings, 114, 115, 126, 127

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Waste Incineration and Public Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5803.
×

furans, 4-5, 93-97, 111

lead, 6, 91, 92, 98, 144-145, 146

local factors, 8, 98, 111, 114, 117, 159

mercury, 4-5, 6, 82, 89-90, 98, 106, 107, 147-148, 149-150

metals, general, 4, 6, 82, 128, 140-155 (passim)

models, 81-82, 94, 111

PCBs, 159

particulate matter, 72, 82-85, 98, 110, 131-132

regional factors, 110, 114, 117

risk assessment, 111, 112, 116-117, 131-132, 250, 252-254

stack emission rate information, 58

see also Ambient pollutant concentrations;

Dermal absorption and effects;

Dose-response analysis;

Food contamination;

Inhalation;

Occupational exposures;

Risk assessments;

Soil contamination;

Water contamination

Eyes, see Ocular effects

F

Fabric filters, 3, 42, 43-44, 49, 51, 53, 67, 168

Federal government, 7, 27

committee charge, 13

General Accounting Office, 207, 212, 213

hazardous waste, 22

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH),

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA),

see also Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry;

Environmental Protection Agency;

Legislation;

Regulatory measures;

Standards

Feedstream composition and preparation, 2, 14, 15, 31, 35-37, 56

best practices, 67

durables, 28

fugitive emissions, 63

hazardous waste, 23, 36, 194, 195-196

historical perspectives, 30-31

inspections, 211-212

liquid-injection furnaces, 36, 38, 39, 60, 107, 195

medical waste, 25

monitoring, 49, 203, 204, 205

municipal solid waste, 18-19, 36, 41, 64, 67, 192

national statistics, 18-19, 23, 28

secondary waste streams, 23

shredding, 23, 38

standards, 182, 183, 188, 189, 192, 194, 195-196, 199, 203, 204, 205

see also Liquid waste;

Solid waste

Females, see Gender factors

Filters, 23, 48, 51

see also Fabric filters

Fines and penalties, 196, 207, 211, 213, 214

Fish, 5, 81, 82

cadmium, 86

PCBs, 159

dioxins, 5, 95, 96, 111

mercury, 5, 82, 89-90, 111, 148

Flue gas, 3, 31, 37, 40, 41, 64, 174, 183

best practices, 67

dioxins and furans, 55, 301, 302

lead, 53

monitoring, 49, 56-62, 70, 188, 194, 301

residence time, 2, 3, 37, 38, 40, 49, 52, 55, 56, 57, 65, 66, 76, 81, 98, 118, 195, 308

standards, 188, 192-193, 194, 195

temperature factors, 41, 188, 192-193

see also Particulate matter;

Stack conditions

Fly ash, see Ash

Food and Drug Administration, 90

Food contamination, 4, 98, 111, 114, 248

arsenic, 88, 153, 154

cadmium, 86, 87, 98, 143

children, hand-to-mouth behavior, 162

chromium, 148

dioxins, 5, 82, 94-97, 98, 111, 162, 169

exposure pathways, 80, 81, 117, 142, 143, 147, 148, 149, 153, 154, 160, 162

lead, 142

mercury, 5, 82, 89-90, 98, 111, 147, 148, 149

PAHs, 160-161

PCBs, 159

risk assessments, 114, 117, 142, 249, 255

transport pathways, 5, 72, 73-74, 79, 255

vegan diets, 162

see also Dairy products;

Fish;

Meat;

Vegetation

Food waste, 18, 19, 25, 28, 29, 31-32

Forced vital capacity, 139

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Waste Incineration and Public Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5803.
×

Foreign countries,

see International perspectives

Fugitive emissions, 35, 63, 187, 191, 251

Furans, 2, 5, 31, 50, 55-56, 59, 62, 68

air pollution control devices, 42, 47, 49, 54-56, 62

ambient concentration levels, 100-107 (passim),

biomarkers, 119

flue gases, 55, 301, 302

health effects, 5, 7, 119, 179

epidemiological studies, 123, 127, 128

exposure, 4-5, 93-97, 111

risk assessment, 113, 114, 155, 158, 169, 181

incomplete combustion products, 54

Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT),

medical waste, 26, 201-205 (passim)

off-normal operations, 303, 304, 306, 308

standards, other than MACT, 188, 190, 194

G

Gastrointestinal effects, 124, 125, 151

arsenic, 152, 153

cadmium, 143

lead, 142, 144

mercury, 148, 149

Gaussian models, 76-77, 79

Gender factors

animal studies, reproductive effects, 129

dioxins, 157

epidemiological studies, 120, 123, 128, 133

food contamination effects, 90

particulates, 133, 138

risk assessments, 133, 138, 157

General Accounting Office, 207, 212, 213

Germany, 106

Glass, 19, 26, 28, 29, 30, 32, 53, 63, 87

Government role

continuous emission monitors, 8

databases, 6

information collection, 4, 10, 69

information dissemination, 10, 69

see also Federal government;

Local government;

Regulatory measures;

Standards;

State government

Grates, 40, 41,

Groundwater, 23, 65, 114, 160

H

Hair, mercury concentrations, 106, 107

Hazardous air pollutant standards, 184-185, 193

see also specific pollutants

Hazardous waste, 12, 17, 22-24, 107

air pollution control devices, 23, 43, 45, 49

ambient concentrations, 98-103

boilers, 23, 24, 41, 193, 194-195

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (Superfund),

defined, 22

economic factors, 22, 23-24, 193

energy recovery, 23-24, 41, 193, 194-195, 199

EPA, 22, 23, 57, 64, 186, 193, 194, 196, 213

epidemiological studies, 124, 125

feed preparation and feeding practices, 23, 36, 194, 195-196

fugitive emissions, 63

furnace types, 30, 39

health effects, general, 22-23

historical perspectives, 22-23, 194

kilns, 23-24, 38, 64, 99, 108-109

land disposal, 22-23

lead emissions, 175

liquid, 23, 36, 38, 39, 51, 63, 107

liquid-injection furnaces, 36, 38, 39, 60, 107, 195

Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT),

national statistics, 18

number of incineration facilities, 1

off-normal operation, 60

regulatory measures, 23, 184

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA),

social factors, 221

soil contamination, 22-23

solid, 23, 63

standards, 22, 48-49, 57, 99, 184, 186, 193-200, 207

water contamination, 22-23

wet scrubbers, 23, 43, 49

see also specific types of waste

Hazardous Waste Civil Enforcement Response Policy,

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Waste Incineration and Public Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5803.
×

Health effects, 1-7 (passim), 8, 11, 12, 34, 70, 112-181

acidic gases and aerosols, 113, 134-139, 166, 178

allergies, 138-139

ambient pollutant concentrations and, 4, 11, 179, 180, 181

arsenic, 127, 151, 153-154

asthma, 122, 123, 133, 134, 135, 136, 138, 139, 162

beryllium, 155, 157

biological markers, 113, 114, 118, 119-120, 142, 181

cadmium, 6, 82, 85-87, 98, 127, 140-142, 143. 144, 165, 168

carbon monoxide, 113, 139-140, 178

cardiovascular, 128, 139, 140, 143, 144, 147, 148, 149, 153, 175

chromium, 148, 151, 152

committee charge and methodology, 13, 14

cytogenic, 125-126, 149

data collection, 7, 69-70

design of facilities, 166, 169, 179

developmental effects, 144, 146, 148, 149, 158, 160, 161-162

dioxins, 6, 7, 166, 179

animal studies, 157, 158, 159, 172, 174

blood, 106, 157

carcinogenicity, 124, 157, 174

epidemiological studies, 123, 124, 126-127, 128

exposure, 4-5, 6, 82, 91, 93-97, 98, 106, 109, 110-111

risk assessments, 113, 114, 155, 157-159, 166, 169, 171-174, 180, 181, 253-254

EPA, 7, 111

furans, 4-5, 7, 93-97, 111, 119, 123, 127, 128, 155, 158, 169, 179, 181

gastrointestinal, 124, 125, 142, 143, 144, 148, 149, 151, 152, 153

hazardous wastes, general, 22-23

hepatic effects, 124, 144, 146, 157, 162, 163

lead, 6, 7, 127-128, 144, 146, 147, 166, 175

children, 91, 142, 146, 174, 175, 176

risk assessments, 113, 130-131, 142, 144-147, 166, 174-177, 180, 181

local factors, 73, 129-130, 131, 159, 166, 174, 178

Maximum Achievable Control Technology and,

mercury, 6, 7, 148, 149, 166

exposure, 4-5, 6, 82, 89-90, 98, 106, 107, 147-148, 149-150

risk assessments, 147-148, 149-150, 166, 169, 177-178, 180, 181

metals, general, 4, 6, 68, 82, 127, 128, 140-155, 166, 168, 179

monitoring, 113, 114, 118, 119, 194, 195, 209-210

municipal solid waste, 6, 122-123, 124, 125-127

neurological effects, 141, 145, 146, 154, 155, 159, 160, 175, 176, 177

nitrogen and nitrogen oxides, 113, 134-136

occupational exposures, 6, 124, 155, 157, 163, 164, 166, 171

ocular effects, 136, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159

off-normal conditions, 7, 160, 169, 180, 181

particulate matter, 6, 7, 166

epidemiological studies, 122-123, 131-133

exposure, 72, 82-85, 98, 110

gender factors, 133, 138

respiratory, 132, 133-134, 137, 138-139

risk assessments, 113, 130, 131-134, 137, 138-139, 166, 168, 170-171, 179, 181

performance testing, health-based, 13, 15, 49

regulatory issues, 13, 194, 195, 209-210

renal effects, 141, 142, 143, 145, 146, 147, 148, 150, 152, 162, 176

reproductive effects, 125-126, 128-129, 137, 140, 145, 146-147, 148, 150, 157, 158, 159, 160, 176

shutdown conditions, 160, 180

social factors, 209-210, 224, 227

variability analysis, 11, 117, 118, 180, 247-257, 260

uncertainty analysis, 11, 81, 116, 117, 118, 170, 173, 175, 176, 180, 246, 247-259

upset conditions, 7, 169, 180, 181

see also Age factors, human;

Animals and animal studies;

Biological markers;

Cancer and carcinogenicity;

Dermal absorption and effects;

Dose-response analysis;

Epidemiology;

Exposure and exposure pathways;

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Waste Incineration and Public Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5803.
×

Gender factors;

Hematology;

Occupational exposures;

Psychological factors;

Respiratory effects;

Risk assessments;

specific chemicals

Heart disease,

see Cardiovascular effects

Hematology, 126, 130-131

arsenic, 152, 154

biomarkers, 119

cadmium, 143

dioxins and furans, 106, 157

hydrogen chloride, 137

lead, 127-128, 142, 144, 146, 147, 165, 175, 176

mercury, 148, 150

PAHs, 160, 163

Hepatic effects, 124, 144, 146, 157, 162, 163

Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 126

Historical perspectives, 26-27, 182

air pollution control devices, 63

air-injection systems, 40

beryllium, 155

epidemiological studies, 124

hazardous waste, 22-23, 194

kilns, 23

legislation, 27

medical waste, 24

municipal solid waste, 19-21, 22, 30

packaging waste, 28

sensitive populations, 161

worker training, 48

HIV,

see AIDS

Hospitals and hospitalization

cardiovascular effects, 140

respiratory effects, 134, 135, 138, 171

wastes, 24, 25, 200, 201

Hydrocarbons, 49, 50, 55, 56, 60, 62, 91, 129, 172

off-normal operations, 307, 308, 309

standards, 194, 195, 196, 197, 199

see also Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

Hydrogen bromide, 51

Hydrogen chloride (HCl), 50, 51, 52, 97, 98, 215

emission controls, 3, 45, 49, 51, 55, 56, 66

epidemiological studies, 122-123

medical wastes, 201, 202, 203, 205

risk assessments, 113, 136-137, 178

standards, 186, 188, 190, 192, 194, 195, 196, 198, 201, 202, 203, 205

Hydrogen fluoride, 51, 137

Hydrogen iodide, 51

Hypertension, 128, 162

I

Immune system, 159, 162

Incomplete combustion, 2, 3, 37, 50, 54, 55, 65, 66, 68

risk assessments, 118, 159-161, 174

standards, 183, 194, 195

see also Dioxins;

Furans;

Particulate matter

Industrial Source Complex models, 76

Infants, 132, 161-162, 174

Infectious medical waste, 24, 25-26, 36, 200

Information dissemination, 2, 4

air pollution control devices, 4, 69-70

committee charge, 13

continuous emission monitors, 8-9

foreign technologies, 8

risk communication, 2, 9, 13, 118, 228, 229, 233-242, 244, 245, 259

stack emission rate information, 56-62, 70

upset conditions, 4, 9, 182, 210, 215

see also Databases;

Data collection;

Internet;

Professional education and training;

Public education

Ingestion,

see Food contamination

Inhalation, 4, 5, 72, 80, 81, 98, 111, 114

arsenic, 88, 151, 152, 153, 154

beryllium, 155, 156

cadmium, 87, 98, 141-142, 143

chromium, 148

lead, 142, 144-145

mercury, 147, 149, 150

particulates, 84, 98

see also Respiratory effects

Inspection of facilities, 48-49, 67, 184, 194, 199, 204, 206, 210-213

Integrated Risk Information System, 116

Integrated Waste Services Association, 18, 22

International perspectives

air pollution control devices, 8, 22, 23, 42, 47, 48, 49, 214-215

Belgium, 23

Europe, 23, 42, 47, 48, 49

hazardous waste, 23

municipal waste, 22

technologies, 8, 22, 214-215

see also Canada

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Waste Incineration and Public Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5803.
×

Internet

citizen-group networks, 218-219

energy recovery, 18, 22

Industrial Source Complex models, 76

Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT),

regulatory compliance, 215

stack emission rate information, 57, 58

K

Kidneys, see Renal effects

Kilns, 13, 17, 43

ambient pollutant concentrations, 99

fugitive emissions, 63

hazardous waste, 23-24, 38, 64, 99, 108-109

lead, 175

national statistics, 18

number of, 1, 18

particulates, 64, 171

stack emission rate information, 57

standards, 184, 189, 196, 197, 198

L

Land disposal, hazardous waste, 22-23

Landfills

medical waste, 26

municipal solid waste, 17, 20, 21, 27, 32, 228

Lead (Pb), 50, 53-54, 65, 66, 91, 92, 106

air pollution control devices, 53-54

ambient concentration levels, 91, 92, 100, 102

ash, 53, 54

batteries, 32

blood levels, 127-128, 142, 144, 146, 147, 165, 175, 176

flue gas, 53

food contamination, 142

health effects, 6, 7, 166

children, 91, 142, 146, 174, 175, 176

epidemiological studies, 127-128, 146

exposure, 6, 91, 92, 98, 144-145, 146

risk assessments, 113, 130-131, 142, 144-147, 166, 174-177, 180, 181

Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT),

medical wastes, 201, 202, 203

rural areas, 91, 92, 106

soil contamination, 92, 106, 107, 109

standards, other than MACT, 91, 113, 164, 184, 190

transport pathways, 91, 98

Legal issues

environmental justice, 213-214, 227, 231-233, 243, 245

litigation, 132, 184, 189, 202, 213-214

risk communication, 236, 244

see also Regulatory measures

Legislation, 27

Civil Rights Act, 232-233

Clean Air Act, 184-185, 186-187, 188, 193, 194, 211

see also Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT)

Clean Water Act, 184, 193

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (Superfund),

Superfund Amendments an Reauthorization Act,

Toxic Substances Control Act, 184, 200

see also Regulatory measures;

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

Life-cycle assessment, 114, 118

Liquid-injection furnaces, 36, 38, 39, 60, 107, 195

Liquid waste, 26, 53, 55, 122

hazardous, 23, 36, 38, 39, 51, 63, 107

medical, 26

mercury, 53

Litigation, 132, 184, 189, 202, 213-214

Liver, see Hepatic effects

Local factors and impacts, 10, 73, 74, 111, 98, 99, 104-110, 111, 112, 169

air dispersion, 76-77, 94, 98

environmental justice, 213-214, 227, 231-233, 243, 245

epidemiological studies, 120-126

exposure, 8, 98, 111, 114, 117, 159

food contamination, 117

health impacts, 73, 159

risk assessments, 129-130, 131, 166, 174, 178

Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT),

off-normal operations, 44, 301-309

soils, 106-107

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Waste Incineration and Public Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5803.
×

weather, 6, 70, 83, 99, 110

see also Ambient pollutant concentrations;

Social factors;

Urban areas

Local government, 7, 10, 13, 26-27, 30, 65, 182, 189, 192, 230

see also Urban areas

Low-income persons, see Environmental justice

M

MACT, see Maximum Achievable Control Technology

Males, see Gender factors

Malfunctions, see Upset conditions, accidents and malfunctions

Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT),

acid gases and aerosols, 166, 178

cadmium, 187, 196, 197, 201, 202, 203, 205

carbon monoxide, 197, 199-205 (passim), 214

criticism of, 192-193, 202-203, 214

dioxins, 7, 8, 58, 101, 102, 103, 166, 169, 172, 180, 188, 190, 193, 196, 197, 200-205 (passim)

economic factors, 187, 188

furans, 7, 169, 196, 201-205 (passim)(passim)

hazardous wastes, 57, 99

health effects, 166-167, 169-181 (passim)

Internet, 57, 58

lead, 7, 8, 166, 174, 180, 187, 196, 197, 201, 202, 203

local factors, 7, 166, 174

medical wastes, 8, 169, 200-203, 204-206, 214

mercury, 7, 8, 166, 177, 178, 180, 187, 188-189, 190, 192, 193, 196, 197, 201-205 (passim)

metals, general, 7, 8, 166

occupational exposures, 7, 166, 169-170, 171, 177, 181, 207-208

particulates, 7, 8, 51, 101, 102, 103, 166, 170, 196, 197, 199, 200, 201, 202, 204

Meat, 5

arsenic, 88

dioxins, 5, 82, 94, 95, 96, 111

Medical waste, 12, 17, 19, 24-26

air pollution control devices, 203, 204, 215

amount generated, 24

autoclaving, 26

cadmium, 26, 201, 202, 203, 205

carbon monoxide, 200-204 (passim), 303

data collection, 203, 204, 205, 206

defined, 200

dioxins, 26, 200-205 (passim)

emission monitoring, 203, 204, 205

energy recovery, 42

EPA, 200, 202

epidemiological studies, 122, 123

feed preparation and feeding practices, 36

furans, 26, 201-205 (passim)

furnace types, 30, 39

hospitals, 24, 25, 200, 201

hydrogen chloride, 201, 202, 203, 205

infectious, 24, 25-26, 36, 200

lead, 201, 202, 203

Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT),

mercury, 201-205(passim)

national statistics, 18

nitrogen and nitrogen oxides, 201, 202

number of incineration facilities, 1

particulates, 200-205 (passim)

professional training about disposal, 25, 203, 204, 205, 206

rural areas, 202, 204

social factors, 221

standards, 8, 25, 169, 200-203, 204-206, 214

types of, 24, 25

urban areas, 25, 26

Mercury (Hg), 3, 50, 52, 56, 65

air pollution control devices, 3, 42, 47-48, 49, 52-53, 66

ambient concentration levels, 100, 101, 102, 103, 110

batteries, 32

combustion, vaporization, 53, 66

continuous emission monitors, 8-9, 69, 215

emission monitoring, 49

EPA, 8, 53, 89, 215

exposure and exposure pathways, 89-90, 106, 107, 110-111, 147-148

fish, 5, 82, 89-90, 111, 148

food contamination, 5, 82, 89-90, 98, 111, 147, 148, 149

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Waste Incineration and Public Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5803.
×

health effects, 6, 7, 166

exposure, 4-5, 6, 82, 89-90, 98, 106, 107, 147-148, 149-150

risk assessments, 113, 147-148, 149-150, 166, 169, 177-178, 180, 181

Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT),

medical wastes, 201-205 (passim)

occupational exposures, 6, 148, 166, 168, 177

soil contamination, 89, 107, 109

transport processes, 89-90, 98, 110-111

Metals, 3, 31, 32, 37, 53, 65, 68, 110, 163

air pollution control devices, 3, 43, 63

health effects, 68, 166, 179

epidemiological studies, 127

exposure, 4, 6, 82, 128, 140-155 (passim)

risk assessments, 140-155, 166, 168

Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT),

medical waste, 26

standards, 195

transport pathways, 75, 108, 109

see also specific metals

Meteorological conditions, see Weather conditions

Metropolitan areas, see Urban areas

Milk products, see Dairy products

Minorities, see African-Americans;

Civil Rights Act;

Environmental justice

Models and modeling, 103, 181

environmental transport, 5, 74, 75, 76-77, 78-80, 89, 103-104, 110-111, 117, 118

multimedia, 79-80, 107-109, 255

exposure pathways, 81-82, 94, 111

Gaussian, 76-77, 79

risk assessment, 115, 117, 130, 247-248, 249-250, 256-257, 258

uncertainty analysis, 247-248, 249-250, 256-257, 258

variance-propagation, 11, 257, 260

Monitoring, 103-110, 214-215

ambient pollutant concentrations, 103-110

feedstream composition and preparation, 49, 203, 204, 205

health, 113, 114, 118, 119, 194, 195, 209-210

regulatory issues, 194, 195, 203, 204, 205, 209-210, 214-215

social issues, 209-210, 218

temperature in incinerators, 203, 204, 205

see also Emission monitoring;

Inspection of facilities;

Performance testing

Municipal solid waste, 12, 17, 18-22, 40, 65, 104-106, 301-303, 307-308

air pollution control devices, 21, 42-46 (passim),

best practices, 67

composting, 17, 19, 20, 21, 27, 28-29, 30, 32

defined, 18-19

dioxins, 55-56, 82, 104-106

economic factors, 21, 29, 221, 224

energy recovery, 18, 21, 22, 38, 41, 109

EPA, 18, 21, 186-187, 188-192, 215, 305

epidemiological studies, 122-123, 124, 125-127

feed preparation and feeding practices, 18-19, 36, 41, 64, 67, 192

fugitive emissions, 63

furnace types, 30, 39

health effects, 6, 122-123, 124, 125-127, 127

historic perspectives, 19-21, 22, 30

landfills, 17, 20, 21, 27, 32, 228

medical waste in, 24

mercury, 89

national statistics, 18, 19-21

number of incineration facilities, 1

occupational exposures, 6, 125-127, 202, 204, 207

recycling and reuse, 19, 20, 21, 30

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA),

social factors, 221

standards, 8, 69, 186-193, 202, 204, 207, 211, 214, 215, 305

urban areas, 22, 30, 126-128

see also specific types of wastes

Mutagenic effects, 125-126

N

National Ambient Air Quality Standards, 185

carbon monoxide, 97

metals, 91

National Fire Prevention Association, 37

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Waste Incineration and Public Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5803.
×

National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES),

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH),

Neurological effects

arsenic, 154

cadmium, 141

dioxins, 155, 159

lead, 145, 146, 175, 176

mercury, 148, 150, 177

PAHs, 160

PCBs, 159

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)

epidemiological studies, 121, 123

risk assessments, 134, 136

standards, 184

Nitrogen and nitrogen oxides, 2, 3, 31, 37, 50, 51-52

air pollution control devices, 42, 46-47, 49, 52, 66, 67

best practices, 67

emission limits, 42

epidemiological studies, 121

food waste, 31-32

health effects, 113, 134-136

medical waste, 201, 202

off-normal operation, 9, 60, 61, 62, 308

standards, 118, 188, 191, 194, 195, 201, 202

temperature factors, 3, 51-52

yard waste, 31-32

O

Occupational exposures, 6, 7, 35, 181

air pollution control devices, exposure due to,

ash handling, 64, 207-208

beryllium, 155

biomarkers, 119

cadmium, 165, 168

dioxins, 6, 124, 155, 157, 163, 164, 166, 171

EPA, 207, 208, 214, 216

epidemiological studies, 120, 124, 125-128

health effects, general, 6, 124, 155, 157, 163, 164, 166, 171

lead, 165, 166, 168

Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT),

mercury, 6, 148, 166, 168, 177

municipal solid waste, 6, 125-127, 202, 204, 207

particulates, 166, 170

protective equipment, 127-128, 207

risk assessments, 130, 155, 157, 163-165, 166, 168, 171, 177

standards, other than MACT, 113-114, 203-204, 207, 214

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA),

Occupational training, see Professional education and training Ocular effects, 136, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159

Off-normal conditions, 60-62, 251

carbon monoxide, 60, 62, 303, 305, 307-309

dioxins, 61, 301-308

electrostatic precipitators, 62, 304-305, 306

furans, 303, 304, 306, 308

hydrocarbons, 307, 308, 309

health effects, 7, 160, 169, 180, 181

hydrocarbons, 307, 308, 309

local factors, 44, 301-309

nitrogen and nitrogen oxides, 9, 60, 61, 62, 308

regulatory measures, 60, 210

temperature factors, 61, 301-309 (passim)

vignettes, 301-309

see also Shutdown conditions;

Startup conditions;

Upset conditions, accidents and malfunctions

Opacity, see Visibility and visibility standards

Operating conditions, 1-2, 10-11,

age of incinerators, 8, 38, 42, 126, 130, 184, 188, 197-198, 214, 215, 234

ash production, 4

best practices, 67

committee charge, 13

databases, 6

emission controls, 4

information on, 4

lead in ash, 53, 54

particulate matter, 51

stack emission rate information, 56-62

standards, 188, 195-196

trial burns, 56, 57, 195, 196, 210, 211

see also Combustion processes and efficiency;

Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT);

Off-normal conditions

Ozone, 122, 133, 139, 184

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Waste Incineration and Public Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5803.
×

P

Packaging and containers, 27, 28, 31, 32

hazardous waste, 23

medical waste, 26

municipal solid waste, 19

recycling and reuse, 29, 31, 32-33

Paper waste, 19, 25, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32

PAHs, see Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

PCBs, see Polychlorinated biphenyls

Particulate matter, 2, 50-51, 68, 69

air pollution control devices, 42, 43-45, 47, 51, 54, 63, 103

ambient concentration levels, 100, 101, 102, 103, 108, 131-132, 134

cadmium, 86

EPA, 84-85, 132, 133

health effects, 6, 7, 166

epidemiological studies, 122-123, 131-133

exposure, 72, 82-85, 98, 110, 131-132

gender factors, 133, 138

respiratory, 132, 133-134, 137, 138-139

risk assessments, 113, 130, 131-134, 137, 138-139, 166, 168, 170-171, 179, 181

kilns, 64, 171

lead in, 54

Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT),

medical waste, 200-205 (passim)

monitoring, 45

occupational exposures, 166, 170

off-normal operation, 60

standards, other than MACT, 113, 131-132, 184, 186, 188, 190, 194

transport pathways, 82-84, 98

see also Ash;

Electrostatic precipitators;

Fabric filters;

Wet scrubbers

Penalties, see Fines and penalties

Performance testing, 4, 9, 49, 67, 69, 181, 184, 186, 188, 195, 196, 200, 203, 204, 205, 206, 210, 212, 214, 215-216, 251-252, 301

health-based, 13, 15, 49

see also Monitoring

Persistence, 4, 5, 8, 55, 74-76

regional factors, 5, 73, 74

Photochemical oxidants, 194

PICs, see Incomplete combustion

Plants, see Vegetation

Plastics, 19, 25, 31, 32

Pneumonia, 134

Political factors, 222, 255

advocacy, 13, 21, 193, 209-210, 211-212, 218-219, 221-223, 227, 229

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 23, 50, 62, 98, 104, 106, 126, 159, 174

standards, 193, 199, 200

Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, see Dioxins

Polychlorinated dibenzofurans, see Furans

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 2, 50, 54, 55, 62, 98, 104, 107-108, 126, 160-161, 163, 174, 309

Polystyrene, 31

Polyvinyl chloride, 31

Poverty, see Environmental justice

Process emissions, 1, 2-4, 50-56, 211

Products of incomplete combustion (PICs), see Incomplete combustion

Professional education and training, 3, 48-49, 67, 188, 196, 207-208

medical waste, 25, 203, 204, 205, 206

standards, 48, 69, 188, 196, 203-209 (passim)

Property values, 9, 218, 219, 223, 225, 226, 227, 230, 232, 239, 240, 241, 242, 247

Protective equipment, incinerator workers, 127-128, 207

Psychological factors, 1, 9, 10, 182, 183, 217, 223, 224, 225-226, 228, 229, 241, 242, 244, 246, 250-251

see also Public opinion

Public education, 2, 9-10, 214, 222-223, 225, 228, 229

risk communication, 2, 9, 13, 118, 228, 229, 233-242, 244, 245, 259

Public Health Service, see Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

Public opinion, 2, 12, 21, 24, 26-27, 227, 229, 235, 241-242, 243

advocacy, 13, 21, 193, 209-210, 211-212, 218-219, 221-223, 227, 229

committee charge and methodology, 13, 14

community relations, 10, 182, 183, 212, 214, 221-223, 242-243, 244-245, 260

risk assessments, 9, 209

see also Psychological factors

PVC, see Polyvinyl chloride

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Waste Incineration and Public Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5803.
×

R

Race/ethnicity, see African-Americans;

Environmental justice

Radioactive waste, 14

RCRA, see Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

Recycling and reuse of waste, 2, 17, 27, 28-29, 31, 32-33

batteries, 32

durables, 28

hazardous waste, 23

medical waste, 25, 26

municipal solid waste, 19, 20, 21, 30

packaging, 29, 31, 32-33

see also Energy recovery;

Kilns

Red bag waste, see Infectious medical waste

Regional factors and impacts, 5, 110, 230-231

exposure, 110, 114, 117

life-cycle assessment, 114, 118

persistence of pollutants, 5, 73, 74

regulatory compliance, 210

risk assessments, 166, 169, 172, 178, 180, 181

total regional emissions, 97

transport pathways, 73, 74, 98, 107

Regulatory measures, 7-9, 12, 68, 182-216

compliance and enforcement, 7, 184, 194, 195, 209-214

fines and penalties, 196, 207, 211, 213, 214

criticism of, 192-193, 202-203, 209-210, 212, 214

data collection requirements, 194, 203, 204, 205, 206, 212, 214-216

emission monitoring, 8-9, 49, 68, 203, 204, 205, 211, 214-215, 303

environmental justice, 213-214, 227, 231-233, 243, 245

hazardous waste, 23, 184

health effects, 13, 194, 195, 209-210

kilns, 184, 189, 196, 197, 198

inspection of facilities, 48-49, 67, 184, 194, 199, 204, 206, 210-213

Integrated Risk Information System, 116

monitoring requirements, 194, 195, 203, 204, 205, 209-210

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH),

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA),

off-normal operations, 60, 210

recycling, 29

upset conditions, 9, 169, 210

see also Environmental Protection Agency;

Legislation;

Local government;

Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT);

Performance testing;

Standards;

State government

Renal effects, 162

arsenic, 152

cadmium, 141, 142, 143

lead, 142, 145, 146, 147, 176

mercury, 148, 150

Reproductive effects

animal studies, 128-129, 137

carbon monoxide, 140

dioxins, 157, 158

hydrogen chloride, 137

lead, 145, 146-147, 176

mercury, 148, 150

mutagenic, 125-126

PAHs, 160

PCBs, 159

see also Developmental effects

Residence time, 2, 3, 37, 38, 40, 49, 52, 55, 56, 57, 65, 66, 76, 81, 98, 118, 195, 308

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA),

fugitive emissions, 63

municipal solid waste, 65, 189

hazardous waste, 22, 24, 48, 49, 63, 64, 65, 186, 193, 194-196, 199

medical waste, 24

monitoring, 49, 211

worker training, 48

see also Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT)

Respiratory effects, 120-123

acidic gases and aerosols, 138-139, 178

arsenic, 152, 154

asthma, 122, 123, 133, 134, 135, 136, 138, 139, 162

beryllium, 155, 156

bronchitis, 133, 138-139, 156

cadmium, 141, 143

cancer, 124, 125, 151, 155, 156, 157

carbon monoxide, 139-140

children, 121, 122, 132, 136, 138, 139

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 134, 155

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Waste Incineration and Public Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5803.
×

dioxins, 156, 157

emphysema, 133

epidemiological studies, 120-123, 124, 125, 132, 133

hospitalization, 134, 135, 138, 171

hydrogen chloride, 136-137

mercury, 148, 150

nitrogen oxides, 134-136

particulates, 132, 133-134, 137, 138-139

PCBs, 159

pneumonia, 134

risk assessments, 132-141 (passim)

smoking, 84, 120, 122, 127, 133, 139-140, 155, 163

see also Inhalation

Risk assessments, 2, 6, 7, 111, 112-114, 115-118, 129-181

acidic gases and aerosols, 113, 134-139, 166, 178

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry,

arsenic, 113, 114, 151, 153-154

beryllium, 155, 156

biological markers, 113, 114, 118

cadmium, 113, 140-142, 143, 144

carbon monoxide, 113, 139-140, 178

carcinogenicity, 114, 116, 130, 143, 144, 147, 151-157 (passim), 162, 163

chromium, 148, 151, 152

committee charge and methodology, 13, 14, 15

dermal absorption and effects, 117, 136, 142, 147-148, 149, 150, 151, 153, 156, 159

developmental effects, 144, 146, 148, 149, 158, 160, 161-162

dioxins, 113, 114, 155, 157-159, 166, 169, 171-174, 180, 181, 253-254

economic factors, 116, 253

emission monitoring, 116

EPA, 111, 116

exposure and exposure pathways, 111, 112, 116-117, 131-132, 250, 252-254

food contamination, 114, 117, 142, 249, 255

furans, 113, 114, 155, 158, 169, 181

gender factors, 133, 138, 157

hazardous air pollutants, general, 184-185

hydrogen chloride, 113, 136-137, 178

incomplete combustion, 118, 159-161, 174

lead, 113, 130-131, 142, 144-147, 166, 174-177, 180, 181

life-cycle assessments and, 118

local factors, 129-130, 131, 166, 174, 178

mercury, 113, 147-148, 149-150, 166, 169, 177-178, 180, 181

metals, general, 140-155, 166, 168

models, 115, 117, 130, 247-248, 249-250, 256-257, 258

nitrous oxides, 113, 134, 136

occupational exposures, 130, 155, 157, 163-165, 166, 168, 171, 177

particulates, 113, 130, 131-134, 137, 138-139, 166, 168, 170-171, 179, 181

PCBs, 159-160

polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 113

polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 113, 160-161

public opinion, 9, 209;

see also Risk communication

regional, 166, 169, 172, 178, 180, 181

respiratory effects, 132-141 (passim)

sensitive populations, 132, 139, 146, 159, 161-163, 193;

see also Age factors;

Gender factors

standards, 13, 129

sulfates, 113, 133, 135, 136, 138, 178

transport processes,

uncertainty, 11, 81, 116, 117, 118, 170, 173, 175, 176, 180, 246, 247-259

variability, 11, 117, 118, 180, 247, 249-257, 260

see also Dose-response analysis;

Epidemiology

Risk communication, 2, 9, 13, 118, 228, 229, 233-242, 244, 245, 259

Rural areas, 108

arsenic, 87, 151

cadmium, 107

dioxins, 94, 104-106

lead concentrations, 91, 92, 106

medical waste, 202, 204

radioactive fallout studies, 77

S

SCREEN3, 76

Scrubbers, 42, 43-44, 45-46, 65, 195

see also Wet scrubbers

Sediment contamination, 78-79

arsenic, 88

cadmium, 85-86

dioxins, 96

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Waste Incineration and Public Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5803.
×

Selective catalytic/noncatalytic reduction, 46-47

Semivolatile metals, see Cadmium;

Lead

Sensitivity analysis, 11, 82, 115, 249, 260

Sensitive populations, 132, 139, 146, 159, 161-163, 193

see also Age factors;

Environmental justice;

Gender factors;

Occupational exposures

Sex-related factors, see Gender factors

Shredding, 23, 38

Shutdown conditions, 66, 160, 180, 307

defined, 60

emission monitoring, 9

health effects, 160, 180

information on, 4, 9, 215

stack-gas testing, 60

standards, 183, 195, 199

Skin, see Dermal absorption and effects

Smoking, 84, 120, 122, 127, 133, 139-140, 155, 163

Smog, see Photochemical oxidants;

Visibility and visibility standards

Source reduction and control, 4, 27-33 (passim), 51, 54

Stack factors, 34, 195

databases, 6

dioxins, 58-59, 62

emission rate information, 56-62, 70

standards, 56, 70, 195, 203, 204, 205, 210

see Flue gas

State government, 7, 27, 114, 182, 183, 185, 189, 192, 194, 206, 207, 210, 213, 230, 233, 303

Steam generation, 12, 34, 38

see also Boilers and industrial furnaces (BIFs)

Storage of waste, 14, 17, 34, 36

Social factors, 1, 9-10, 12, 29, 210, 217-245, 260

committee charge and methodology, 13, 14, 15

community relations, 10, 182, 209-210, 212, 214, 221-223, 242-243, 244-245, 260

environmental justice, 213-214, 227, 231-233, 243, 245

health effects, 209-210, 224, 227

monitoring programs, 209-210, 218

public education, 2, 9-10, 214, 222-223, 225, 228, 229

risk communication, 2, 9, 13, 118, 228, 229, 233-242, 244, 245, 259

see also Economic factors;

Health effects;

Psychological factors;

Public opinion

Soil contamination, 4, 5, 105, 107-109, 248, 255

arsenic, 88, 109

cadmium, 85, 86, 87, 106

carbon monoxide, 97

dioxins, 94, 95, 96, 105, 107, 109

hazardous waste, general, 22-23

lead, 92, 106, 107, 109

local factors, 106-107

mercury, 89, 107, 109

multimedia transport models, 79-80, 108-109, 255

plant contamination and, 77-78, 86, 107

standards, 189

transport pathways, 73, 74, 75, 77, 79-80, 108-109, 255

see also Groundwater;

Sediment contamination

Solid waste, 23, 27, 63

see also Municipal solid waste

Spray-dryer absorbers, 3, 42, 45-46, 62, 65, 66

Standards, 68, 168, 183-216

acidic gases and particles, 113, 188, 193

age of incinerators, 184, 188, 197-198, 214, 215

air pollution control devices, 188, 194, 195, 203, 204, 205, 215;

see also Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT)

ambient pollution levels, 2, 5, 91, 97, 155, 189

ash, 187, 191, 207-208

beryllium, 155

best practices, 67, 186;

see also Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT)

cadmium, 190

carbon monoxide, 97, 113, 184, 191, 192, 195, 197, 199-205 (passim), 214, 305, 308

chlorine, 194, 196, 198, 199

criticism of, 192-193, 202-203, 209

compliance and enforcement, 7, 184, 194, 195, 209-214

fines and penalties, 196, 207, 211, 213, 214

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Waste Incineration and Public Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5803.
×

databases, 6, 70

dioxins, 188, 194, 199

electrostatic precipitators, 43, 44

emission monitoring, 188, 194, 195, 199, 203, 204, 205

epidemiological studies, 123

feedstream, 182, 183, 188, 189, 192, 194, 195-196, 199, 203, 204, 205

flue gases, 188, 192-193, 194, 195

furans, 188, 190, 194

hazardous air pollutants, 184-185, 193

hazardous wastes, 22, 48-49, 57, 99, 184, 186, 193-200, 207

hydrocarbons, 194, 195, 196, 197, 199

hydrogen chloride, 186, 188, 190, 192, 194, 195, 196, 198, 201, 202, 203, 205

incomplete combustion, 183, 194, 195

kilns, 184, 189, 196, 197, 198

lead, 91, 113, 164, 184, 190

medical waste, 8, 25, 169, 200-203, 204-206, 214

metals, 91

nitrogen and nitrogen oxides, 118, 188, 191, 194, 195, 201, 202

National Ambient Air Quality Standards, 91, 97, 185

occupational exposures, 113-114, 203-204, 207, 214

particulates, 113, 131-132, 184, 186, 188, 190, 194

performance criteria, 13

risk assessments, 13, 129

shutdown, 183, 195, 199

soil, 189

stack factors, 56, 70, 195, 203, 204, 205, 210

sulfates, 184, 187, 188, 190, 192, 194, 195, 201, 202

temperature, 187-188, 192-193, 195

worker training, 48, 69, 188, 196, 203-209 (passim)

see also Legislation;

Regulatory measures

Startup conditions, 4, 9, 66, 169, 304-305, 307

defined, 60

emission monitoring, 9, 60, 61

health effects, 169, 180

information on, 4, 9, 215

stack-gas testing, 60, 61

Sulfates, 2, 3, 31, 37, 38, 50, 51

air pollution control devices, 3, 45, 49, 51, 55, 66

epidemiological studies, 121, 122-123, 133

risk assessments, 113, 133, 135, 136, 138, 178

standards, 184, 187, 188, 190, 192, 194, 195, 201, 202

Superfund, see Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act

Superfund Amendments an Reauthorization Act,

Switzerland, 23

T

Telemetering, 214-215

Temperature factors, 2-3, 6, 31, 38, 40, 63, 68

air pollution control devices, 42, 43, 44, 46, 47, 53, 55

auxiliary burners, 3, 41, 49, 66, 67, 301

best practices, 67

cool spots, furnace walls, 37, 38

dioxins, 55, 56, 58, 61, 62, 193

flue gas, 41, 188, 192-193

furans, 55, 56

gas temperature reduction, 34, 41-42

lead emissions, 53

monitoring requirements, 203, 204, 205

nitrous oxide formation, 3, 51-52

off-normal operation, 61, 301-309 (passim)

sizing of furnace, 40

standards, 187-188, 192-193, 195

Time factors, 5, 9

environmental monitoring, 119

inspections, frequency of, 211-212, 213

residence time, 2, 3, 37, 38, 40, 49, 52, 55, 56, 57, 65, 66, 76, 81, 98, 118, 195, 308

temperature and, 38

transport pathways, 73, 75, 76

Time-series analysis, 131-132

Tobacco, see Smoking

Toxic Substances Control Act, 184, 200

Trace compounds, 31, 33, 54, 308

see also specific compounds

Training, see Professional education and training

Transport processes (environmental), 5, 7, 12, 71, 72, 73-80, 98

arsenic, 88-89

cadmium, 85-86, 98

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Waste Incineration and Public Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5803.
×

carbon monoxide, 97

dioxins, 75, 93-95, 98, 110-111

food contamination, 5, 72, 73-74, 79, 255

hydrogen chloride, 97, 98

lead, 91, 98

mercury, 89-90, 98, 110-111

metals, general, 75, 108, 109

models, 5, 74, 75, 76-77, 78-80, 89, 103-104, 110-111, 117, 118

multimedia, 79-80, 107-109, 255

particulates, 82-84, 98

regional factors, 73, 74, 98, 107

risk assessment and, 117, 118, 252-254

soil, 73, 74, 75, 77, 79-80, 108-109, 255

time factors, 73, 75, 76

vegetation, 73, 74, 75, 77-78, 79-80, 108-109, 255

water, 4, 5, 73, 74, 75, 78-80

wind, 72, 76, 77, 79-80, 105, 255

see also Dispersion of emissions

Trial burns, 56, 57, 195, 196, 210, 211

Turbulence, combustion, 2, 3, 38, 66-67

U

Uncertainty and uncertainty analysis, 10-11, 103, 165, 215, 246-260

dose-response analysis, 116, 117, 118, 246, 248, 250, 254-257

epidemiology, 119-120

exposure pathways, 81, 82, 115, 117

models, 247-248, 249-250, 256-257, 258

risk assessment, 11, 81, 116, 117, 118, 170, 173, 175, 176, 180, 246, 247-259

social distrust, 229

weather, 69

Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society,

Upset conditions, accidents and malfunctions, 3, 11, 35, 66, 183

community relations, 182, 210

data collection during, 3-4, 9, 181

defined, 60

health effects, 7, 169, 180, 181

information on, 4, 9, 182, 210, 215

regulatory issues, 9, 169, 210

stack-gas testing, 60-62

trial burns, 56, 57, 195, 196, 210, 211

Urban areas, 7

acidic aerosols, 138

carbon monoxide, 97

dioxins, 94

environmental justice, 231

hydrogen chloride, 97

medical waste, 25, 26

municipal solid waste, 22, 30, 126-128

nitrogen dioxide, 136

particulates, 84-85, 132, 133, 171

transport pathways, 76

see also Municipal solid wastes

U.S. Air Force, 137

V

Variability analysis, 11, 246-260

exposure pathways, 117

propagation models, 11, 257, 260

risk assessment, 11, 117, 118, 180, 247, 249-257, 260

Vegetation

cadmium, 86

dioxins, 94, 95, 96

disposition rates, 5, 77-78

exposure pathways, 82, 86

lead, 92, 106, 107

mercury, 107

metals, general, 106, 107

multimedia transport models, 79-80, 108-109, 255

PAHs, 107-108

PCBs, 106

standards, 189

transport pathways, 73, 74, 75, 77-78, 79-80, 108-109, 255

vegan diets, 162

Venturi scrubbers, 43, 45, 49, 51

Visibility and visibility standards, 44, 49, 133, 186, 189, 191, 195, 202-205 (passim)

Volatile organic compounds, 2, 74, 75, 83, 194

see also specific compounds

Volume source reduction, 27-28

W

Waste Energy Technologies, Inc., 26

Waste stream, see Feedstream composition and preparation

Waste-to-energy facilities, see Energy recovery

Water contamination, 5, 14, 249

arsenic, 87-88, 151

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Waste Incineration and Public Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5803.
×

cadmium, 85-86

dioxins, 95, 96

groundwater, 23, 65, 114, 160

hazardous waste, 22-23

lead, 92

mercury, 89

multimedia transport models, 79-80, 255

PAHs, 160

transport pathways, 4, 5, 73, 74, 75, 78-80, 108-109, 255

see also Fish;

Groundwater;

Sediment contamination

Water vapor, 31, 37, 50

Weather conditions, 72, 76, 77, 83, 99

databases, 6, 70

local factors, 6, 70, 83, 99, 110

plant contamination and, 77-78

wind, 72, 76, 77, 79-80, 105, 255

Wet scrubbers, 3, 35, 42, 44-46, 47, 51, 52, 64, 65, 66, 103

best practices, 67

dioxins and furans, 55

hazardous waste, 23, 43, 49

venturi scrubbers, 43, 45, 49, 51

Wind, 72, 76, 77, 79-80, 105, 255

Workers, see Occupational exposures;

Professional education and training

World Health Organization, 134

World Wide Web, see Internet

Y

Yard waste, 18, 19, 28, 29, 31-32

Z

Zinc, food chain, 87

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Waste Incineration and Public Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5803.
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Waste Incineration and Public Health Get This Book
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Incineration has been used widely for waste disposal, including household, hazardous, and medical waste--but there is increasing public concern over the benefits of combusting the waste versus the health risk from pollutants emitted during combustion. Waste Incineration and Public Health informs the emerging debate with the most up-to-date information available on incineration, pollution, and human health--along with expert conclusions and recommendations for further research and improvement of such areas as risk communication. The committee provides details on:

  • Processes involved in incineration and how contaminants are released.
  • Environmental dynamics of contaminants and routes of human exposure.
  • Tools and approaches for assessing possible human health effects.
  • Scientific concerns pertinent to future regulatory actions.

The book also examines some of the social, psychological, and economic factors that affect the communities where incineration takes place and addresses the problem of uncertainty and variation in predicting the health effects of incineration processes.

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