Mary J. Osborn is professor and head of microbiology at the University of Connecticut Health Center. Dr. Osborn's fields of specialization are biochemistry, microbiology, and molecular biology. Current research interests include biogenesis of bacterial membranes. Dr. Osborn has served on numerous distinguished committees, including the National Science Board (1980-1986), the President's Committee on the National Medal of Sciences (1981-1982), the Advsiory Council of the National Institutes of Health's Division of Research Grants (1989-1994; chair, 1992-1994), the Advisory Council of the Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology (1974-1978), the Board of Scientific Advisors for the Roche Institute for Molecular Biology (1981-1985; chair, 1983-1985), and the Governing Board of the National Research Council (1990-1993). Memberships include the National Academy of Sciences, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (president, 1981-1982), American Chemical Society (chairman, Division Biological Chemistry, 1975-1976), the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (fellow; council, 1988-1992), Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (president, 1982-1983), American Society for Microbiology, and American Academy of Microbiology. Dr. Osborn received a B.A. from the University of California, Berkeley, and a Ph.D. (biochemistry) from the University of Washington.
Norma Allewell is a professor of biochemistry (and of chemistry and computational science, as well as vice provost for Research and Graduate/Professional Education, at the University of Minnesota. Dr. Allewell has expertise in the fields of molecular biophysics, structural biology, and biochemistry. Research interests include protein structure, function, and design; macromolecular interactions; and computer modeling. Memberships include the Biophysical Society (president, 1993-1994), American Association for the Advancement of Science (fellow), American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and Sigma Xi. Dr. Allewell received a B.Sc. (honors) from McMaster University and a Ph.D. (molecular biophysics) from Yale University.
Robert Cleland is a professor of botany and director of the Biology Program at the University of Washington. His expertise is in physiology, plant hormones, and cell walls. The main focus of Dr. Cleland's research has been the mechanism by which plant cell elongation is controlled. He has served on the gravitropism panel and has had experience with National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs while serving on internal NASA Advisory Committees. In addition to his experience in plant physiology, he has familiarity with biological issues associated with closed ecological life support systems (CELSS). This is important in the context of the Space Station and long-duration human exploration of space. Memberships include the American Society of Plant Physiologists (secretary, 1971-1973; president, 1974-1975), the American Association for the Advancement of Science (fellow), and the American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology. Dr. Cleland received a B.A. from Oberlin College and a Ph.D. (plant physiology) from the California Institute of Technology.
F. Andrew (Drew) Gaffney is professor of medicine and director of Clinical Cardiology at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Dr. Gaffney's expertise is in the medical aspects of spaceflight, and his central interest is the elucidation of interactions between body fluid distribution and neurohumoral regulatory mechanisms of cardiovascular control. His recent studies have addressed mechanisms of orthostatic hypotension, especially those associated with exposure to the microgravity of space. Since 1984, Dr. Gaffney has been heavily involved in the space program, which has given him unique perspective and insight into NASA's life sciences research program. As a payload specialist on the Spacelab Life Sciences 1 Mission, Dr. Gaffney went into space with a central venous catheter in place, which provided the first critical invasive data on the cardiovascular effects of weightlessness. Dr. Gaffney received an M.D. from the University of New Mexico.
James R. Lackner, who is director of Brandeis University's Ashton Graybiel Spatial Orientation Laboratory and Riklis Professor of Physiology, is an expert on neurovestibular systems. Research interests concern human spatial orientation and motor control, and his research concentrates on adaptation to spaceflight and the etiology of space motion sickness. Memberships include the American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology, the Aerospace Medical Association, the Society for Neuroscience, the Psychonomics Society, and the International Brain Research Organization. He has been honored by election to the Bárány Society and the International Academy of Astronautics, and has been awarded the Arnold B. Tuttle Award of the Aerospace Medical Association for "Outstanding Contributions to Aviation Medicine." Dr. Lackner received a B.Sc. and a Ph.D. (psychology and brain sciences) from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Anthony P. Mahowald is the Lewis Block Professor and chairman of the Department of Molecular Genetics and Cell Biology and the Committee on Developmental Biology at the University of Chicago. Dr. Mahowald specializes in developmental genetics and developmental biology. Research interests include developmental and molecular genetics of Drosophila; vitellogenesis; molecular analysis of maternal effect mutations affecting both germ cell formation and gastrulation; oogenesis; and sex determination of germ cells. Memberships include the National Academy of Sciences, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Genetics Society of America (secretary, 1986-1988), American Society of Cell Biologists (council, 1996-1999), Society for Developmental Biology (president, 1989), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (fellow). Dr. Mahowald received a B.S. from Spring Hill College and a Ph.D. (biology) from Johns Hopkins University.
Elliot Meyerowitz is a professor of biology at the California Institute of Technology. Dr. Meyerowitz has expertise in molecular genetic methods for plant and animal research. Recent work of his laboratory has concentrated on three areas: the origin of developmental patterns in flowers, the control of cell division in meristems, and the mechanisms of plant hormone action. Memberships include the National Academy of Sciences, Genetics Society of America, American Association for the Advancement of Science (fellow), American Academy of Arts and Sciences, International Society for Plant Molecular Biology, American Society of Plant Physiologists, and Botanical Society of America. He has received the Pelton Award of the Botanical Society of America and the Conservation and Research Foundation, the Gibbs Medal of the American Society of Plant Physiologists, the Genetics Society of America Medal, the Mendel Medal of the U.K. Genetical Society, and the International Prize for Biology. Dr. Meyerowitz received an A.B. from Columbia University and an M.Phil. and a Ph.D. (biology) from Yale University; he did postdoctoral research at the Stanford University School of Medicine.
Lawrence A. Palinkas is director of research in the Division of Family Medicine; director of the Immigrant/Refugee Health Studies Program; and professor in the Department of Family and Preventive Medicine at the University of California at San Diego. He is a medical anthropologist and a leading expert on behavioral adaptation by groups to extreme and isolated environments, and his studies have included a focus on both the care and the prevention of adverse effects. He has expertise in medical ecological and applied anthropology; social, cultural, and psychiatric epidemiology; and environmental and health psychology. He has served on numerous NASA and U.S. Navy advisory groups on behavioral issues. He is a member of the American Public Health Association, American Anthropological Association (fellow), Society for Medical Anthropology, the Society for Psychological Anthropology, Society for Applied Anthropology (fellow), Society for Behavioral Medicine, and American Psychosomatic Society. Dr. Palinkas received a B.A. from the University of Chicago and an M.A. and a Ph.D. in anthropology from the University of California, San Diego.
Kenna D. Peusner is a professor of anatomy and cell biology at the George Washington University School of Medicine. Dr. Peusner is a neurobiologist specializing in intracellular electrophysiological and microscopic techniques to investigate neural structure and function. Her research is focused on characterizing synaptic transmission and ionic conductances and their role in the emergence of excitability in the developing and damaged central vestibular system. Memberships include the Neuroscience Society, Association for Research in Otolaryngology, New York Academy of Science, and American Association for the Advancement of Science. She received the Lindback Foundation award for distinguished teaching in the basic medical sciences, Jefferson Medical College. She is a grantee of the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communicative Disorders, National Institutes of Health. Dr. Peusner received a B.S. from Simmons College and a Ph.D. (anatomy) from Harvard University.
Steven E. Pfeiffer is a professor of microbiology at the University of Connecticut Health Center. Dr. Pfeiffer has expertise in molecular cell biology and neurobiology. His research interests are in molecular, cell, and developmental biology of the nervous system and myelinogenesis. He is the recipient of the Javitz Neuroscience Investigator Award from the National Institutes of Health. Memberships include the American Association of Cell Biologists; American Society for Neurochemistry; International Society for Neurochemistry, of which he is president; and Society for Neuroscience. Dr. Pfeiffer received a B.A. from Carleton College and a Ph.D. (molecular biology) from Washington University.
Danny A. Riley is a professor of cell biology, neurobiology, and anatomy at the Medical College of Wisconsin. Dr. Riley's expertise is in the mechanisms of muscle atrophy and nerve regeneration in animal models and humans, with emphasis on space biology. He was a recipient of the American Institute of Aviation and Astronautics Jeffries Medical Research Award in 1992 for outstanding contributions to the advancement of aerospace medical research and two NASA Group Achievement awards, for the Cosmos 2044 Biosatellite Team (1991) and the Spacelab Life Sciences-2 Team (1993). He is an elected emeber of the Board of Directors of the American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology (1989-1993, 1997-). Other memberships include the American Association of Anatomists, International Society of Electromyographic Kinesiology, Society for Neuroscience, American Society for Cell Biology, Aerospace Medical Association, and American Institute of Biological Sciences. Dr. Riley received a B.S. and a Ph.D. (anatomy) from the University of Wisconsin, Madison.
Gideon A. Rodan is the vice president for bone biology and osteoporosis research at the Merck Laboratories, in West Point, PA. Dr. Rodan is an expert in the field of hard tissues, and his research interests include cell biology of hard tissues, and the hormonal control of growth and differentiation in bone-derived cells. Dr. Rodan's research has focused on the relationship of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in bone resorption, bone formation, and osteoporosis. Dr. Rodan is a member of the American Society for Cell Biology, the Endocrine Society, the International Bone and Mineral Society, and has served as President of the American Society of Bone and Mineral Research. Dr. Rodan is the recipient of the Neuman Award, for pioneering research in the field of bone metabolism. He received his M.D. from Hebrew University, and his PhD from the Weizmann Institute of Science.
Richard Setlow is associate director for Life Sciences at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Dr. Setlow is an expert in the fields of radiation biophysics and molecular biology. He has served on numerous National Research Council committees. Research interests include far-ultraviolet spectroscopy; ionizing and nonionizing radiation; molecular biophysics; action of light on proteins, viruses, and cells; nucleic acids; repair mechanisms; and environmental carcinogensis. Dr. Setlow received the Finsen Medal in 1980 for "Outstanding Contribution to Photobiology and Repair of Nucleic Acids" and the Enrico Fermi Award in 1989 from the U.S. Department of Energy for "pioneering and far-reaching contributions to the fields of radiation biophysics and molecular biology." Memberships include the National Academy of Sciences, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Biophysical Society, the American Society for Photobiology, Environmental Mutagen Society, and American Association for Cancer Research. Dr. Setlow received an A.B. from Swarthmore College and a Ph.D. (physics) from Yale University.
Gerald Sonnenfeld is director of research immunology and a senior scientist at the Carolinas Medical Center. He is also adjunct professor of diagnostic sciences at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. His expertise in the field of immunology is interferon and cytokine research. Dr. Sonnenfeld has served on numerous peer review and advisory groups for immunology research programs of NASA and other agencies, and is currently program director of NASA's Space Biology Research Associates Program. Dr. Sonnenfeld is president of the American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology. Other memberships include the American Association of Immunologists, American Society for Microbiology, American Society for Virology, International Cytokine Society, International Society for Interferon Research (charter member), International Society for Antiviral Research, Sigma Xi, Society for Leukocyte
Biology, and Tissue Engineering Society (founding board member). Dr. Sonnenfeld received a B.S. from the City College of New York and a Ph.D. (microbiology/immunology) from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. He carried out a postdoctoral fellowship in immunology and infectious diseases at the Stanford University School of Medicine.
T. Peter Stein is a professor of surgery and nutrition at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. His expertise is in the areas of clinical nutrition and protein and energy metabolism during spacelift, lipid metabolism, clinical nutrition, nutritional assessment, and lung biochemistry. Dr. Stein was a co-winner of the American Institute of Aviation and Astronautics Jeffries Medical Research Award in 1992 for his work on Spacelab Life Sciences-1. Memberships include the American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Institute of Nutrition, American Society for Clinical Nutrition, American Physiological Society, Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, American Chemical Society, American College of Nutrition, and American Society for Gravitational Physiology. Dr. Stein received a B.Sc. from the Imperial College of Science and Technical University of London; an M.Sc. (biochemistry) from University College, University of London; and a Ph.D. (molecular biology/chemistry) from Cornell University.