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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 2001. Information Systems and the Environment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6322.
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Index

A

Academic research, see University research

Accidents, industrial, 85, 92, 93, 117–118, 129–130

Acid Deposition Monitoring and Evaluation Program, 175

Agricultural sector, 24

biotechnology, 26

chemicals, 87

Air pollution, 1, 4, 5

acid deposition, 175

automobiles, 15, 16, 152, 153, 156

Clean Air Act, 120–121, 137(n.16), 152

historical perspectives, 1, 2, 15

public access to information, 175, 177

supply-chain factors, 128

Air Resources Board, 156

Allenby, Braden, 5, 15–43, 211

American Foundrymen’s Society, 156

American National Standards Institute, 176

Art on the Internet, 193

Attitudes

chemical industry, public opinion, 81

distrust of technology, 75

supply-chain design, public relations, 120–121

AT&T, 27

Automobile industry, 5, 15–19, 123

air pollution and emission control, 15, 16, 152, 153, 156

collaborative efforts, 151–158

fuel efficiency, 15–16, 152

historical perspectives, 1, 2, 15–16, 151–154

international collaboration, 151–152

product design, 17, 18, 152

safety, 16, 152, 153

B

Best practice technology, 11, 62, 69, 70, 89, 106, 118, 120, 133, 134, 196

Biodiversity, 2, 11

Biotechnology, 26

Browner, Carol, 177

Browsers, Internet, 9, 18, 72, 145, 163, 171, 198, 200

Bureau of Census, 36, 39–40

C

Carberry, John, 7, 81–86, 212

Carbon monoxide

Carnot project, see InfoSleuth™

CD-ROMs, 7, 36, 38, 41, 45, 83, 84, 157

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 2001. Information Systems and the Environment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6322.
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Chemicals sector

accidents, industrial, 85, 92, 93, 117–118, 129–130

cost and cost-effectiveness factors

process redesign, 88–90

regulatory compliance, 81, 117, 118

supply-chain factors, 123

DuPont, 7, 81–96

employees, 81, 83, 87, 92

occupational health and safety, 83, 87, 92–93, 119

energy conservation and efficiency, 82, 83

human health issues, 85, 87–93 (passim)

occupational health and safety, 83, 87, 92–93, 119

knowledge-management systems, 7, 16, 81–86

liability for environmental damage, 117–119

process control, 83, 87–93

product design, 83, 84, 86

product life cycle, 83, 84, 86, 89

regulatory issues, 81, 88

standards, 82, 83, 89, 90, 91

Toxics Release Inventory, 10, 85, 91, 120, 130, 135, 173, 175, 177, 182

Rhône-Poulenc, information management systems, 7, 87–93

supply-chain design, 116, 117–119, 123, 124

waste management, 83, 84–85

recycling of waste materials, 83, 85, 123

wildlife, effects on, 82, 86

Chips, see Semiconductors

Choucri, Nazli, 10, 195–210, 212

Clean Air Act, 120–121, 137(n.16), 152

Clean Water Act, 179

Climate change, 2, 11, 128

see also Greenhouse gases

Cohen, Julie, 5–6, 45–55, 212–213

Collections of Information Antipiracy Act, 50–51

Colleges and universities, see University research

Communication technologies, 4, 5, 23, 24, 28, 30, 31, 77

see also Internet

extranets, 72, 74, 84

historical perspectives, 28, 30, 37, 38

information density of an economy, 34, 35, 37, 38, 39

intranets, 22, 59, 72, 74, 83, 84, 90, 157, 158

synchronous vs asynchronous, 140–141

telecommuting, 5, 77

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 119

Compton, W.Dale, 211–212

Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, 4, 17, 18, 100, 153

Computer Devices International, see General Dynamics Information Systems

Computer technologies, general, 23, 140

see also Databases;

Electronics industry;

Extranets;

Internet;

Intranets;

Networks, computer;

Process control;

Software

automobiles, 16–18

historical perspectives, 27–29

information density of an economy, 38–40, 41

semiconductors, 4, 21

Confidentiality, see Privacy and confidentiality

Consortia of firms, 8

Contractors and contracting, see Outsourcing

Cooperative Research and Development Act, 152, 153

Copyright, see Intellectual property

Copyright Act, 47, 49

Corporate Average Fuel Economy, 152

Corporate-level actions, 2, 6–8, 11(n.1), 59–148

see also Product design;

Recycling of waste materials;

Small and medium-sized enterprises;

Supply-chain factors

collaborative efforts, 8, 9, 62, 69–72, 77, 139, 143–144, 151–209

automotive industry, 151–158

databases, 9, 69, 143–144

government role, 8, 9, 62, 69, 70, 71, 73, 143–144, 146, 152–154, 155, 156–157, 165–171

models, 8, 139–148, 185–194

small enterprises, 11, 139–140, 141, 142

technology transfer, 8, 9, 62, 69–72, 77, 139, 143–144, 151–209

databases, 9, 69, 83, 84, 85, 90, 92–93, 143–144

document management systems, 59, 72

DuPont, 7, 81–86

extranets, 72, 74, 84

intranets, 22, 59, 72, 74, 83, 84, 90, 157, 158

outsourcing, 4, 63, 73, 75, 76, 89

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 2001. Information Systems and the Environment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6322.
×

Rhône-Poulenc, 7, 87–93

standards, 11, 59–60, 176

best practice technology, 11, 62, 69, 70, 89, 106, 118, 120, 133, 134, 196

chemical industry, 82, 83, 89, 90, 91

supply-chain design, 116, 117, 120, 131–133, 135

Cost and cost-effectiveness factors, 4

automobiles, fuel efficiency/air quality regulations, 152

chemical sector,

process redesign, 88–90

regulatory compliance, 81, 117, 118

supply-chain factors, 123

energy technologies, 32

historical perspectives, 28, 142–143

information density of an economy, 34, 38

information sharing, 141, 142–143, 147

intellectual property, 6, 53–54

liability,

environmental damage, 117–120, 122, 124, 125, 126, 129, 134, 135, 178

intellectual property, 6, 47, 48, 49, 50, 54–55

product design,

knowledge-sharing, 95, 96, 97, 98, 102

recycling, modular design for, 105, 107, 108

public access to information, 176

regulatory compliance, 81, 117, 118, 134

substitution of information for energy/ materials, 5, 32

supply-chain design, 117–118, 121, 122–124, 129, 134

Court cases, see Litigation

D

Database Investment and Intellectual Property Antipiracy Act, 49–50

Databases, 140, 158

see also Knowledge-management systems

CD-ROM, 7, 36, 38, 41, 45, 83, 84, 157

corporate-level actions, 9, 69, 83, 84, 85, 90, 92–93, 143–144

distributed data systems, 9, 10, 18, 28, 147, 160, 180, 185

Global System for Sustainable Development, 10, 196–209

InfoSleuth™, 9, 159–171

Environmental Data Exchange Network, 9, 160, 165–171

expert systems, 83, 84

government agency collaboration, 9, 69, 143–144

information density of an economy, 36

InfoSleuth™, 9, 159–171

intellectual property issues, 6, 45–55, 144, 146–147, 155

Internet access, general, 26–27

Internet access software, 9, 159–171

browsers, 9, 18, 72, 145, 163, 171, 198, 200

privacy and confidentiality, 52–53

public access, 9, 85, 173–194

de Geus, Arie, 33

Decision-making systems, 1

corporate-level, 59, 60, 76, 78

see also Product design

peer review, 11

public access to information, 174

simulation models for information sharing, 142

Department of Defense, 156

Environmental Data Exchange Network, 9, 160, 165–171

Department of Energy

Environmental Data Exchange Network, 9, 160, 165–171

Design of products, see Product design

Diffusion of technology, see Intellectual property;

Technology transfer

Distributed data systems, 9, 10, 18, 28, 147, 160, 180, 185

Global System for Sustainable Development, 10, 196–209

InfoSleuth™, 9, 159–171

Document management systems, 59, 72, 74

Downsizing, 76, 77

DuPont, 7, 81–96

Dutch Management Network, 77

E

Eagan, Patrick, 9, 173–184, 213

Ecological approaches, 2–4, 5, 11

see also Biodiversity;

Wildlife industrial ecology, 2–6, 13–55, 116

intellectual property rights, 45–55

supply-chain design, 116–135

sustainability, 15–43

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 2001. Information Systems and the Environment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6322.
×

Economic factors, 33

see also Globalization;

Intellectual property

downsizing, 76, 77

GDP, 32, 34, 37

GNP, Japan, 31

incentive-based approaches, 1, 74, 75

information density, 34–41

Internet, 10, 195, 197

liability,

environmental damage, 117–120, 122, 124, 125, 126, 129, 134, 135, 178

intellectual property, 6, 47, 48, 49, 50, 54–55

market forces, 19, 20, 26, 33, 34, 67, 96, 115, 139

see also Globalization

intellectual property, 6, 46, 47, 49, 50, 51, 53–55

recycling, modular design for, 105

regional development initiatives, 72

service sector, general, 3, 22, 24, 25, 33

supply-chain design, 122–128

Economic Policy Advisory Board, 33

Education

consumer, 67, 69, 70

corporate personnel, in-house efforts, 78, 88, 90, 91, 106

intellectual property protection and professional, 50

mass media, 81, 185–187, 189–190

public access, 9, 11, 85, 173–194

Educational attainment

information density of an economy, 38–39

Electronics industry

see also Computer technology, general

GDP, 37, 38

information density of an economy, 39, 40

product life cycle, 21–22

publishing, 27, 35

semiconductors, 4, 21

sensor technology, 4, 21, 128

automobiles, 16, 17, 18, 19

intelligent vehicle highway system, 46–47, 48, 49, 51

E-mail, 19, 72, 75

collaborations, 156

information density of the economy, 34, 40

software upgrades, 26

Employment and employees

see also Occupational health and safety

chemical sector, 81, 83, 87, 92

education, in-house effects, 78, 88, 90, 91, 106

incentives, 74, 75

information density of an economy, 39–40

knowledge management, 74, 75, 76–77

service sector, 24

small manufacturing enterprises, 139–140

telecommuting, 5, 77

Energy conservation and efficiency, 4

automobiles, 15–16, 152

chemical sector, 82, 83

semiconductor manufacturing, 21

Energy consumption, 1, 3, 4, 11, 32

substitution of information for, 28, 32

Energy Information Administration, 32

Energy Policy Act, 124

Energy Policy and Conservation Act, 15

EnviroArts, 193

EnviroLink Network, 59, 192–194

Environmental Data Exchange Network, 9, 160, 165–171

see also InfoSleuth™

Environmental Defense Fund, 72

Environmental management systems, 130–133

Environmental Protection and Community Right-to-Know Act, 85

Environmental Protection Agency, 128, 136(n.6), 156

Environmental Data Exchange Network, 9, 160, 165–171

public access to information, 174–183

Toxics Release Inventory, 10, 85, 91, 120, 130, 135, 173, 175, 177, 182

Europe

electronics industry, 22

intellectual property, 49–50, 52, 53

privacy rights, 52

supply-chain design standards, 132

Expert systems, 83, 84

Externalities, 36

Extranets, 72, 74, 84

F

Fact System (Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources), 174, 175, 178, 179, 181

Feedback systems

automobiles, 15, 19

Internet information sharing, 186, 191

supply chain, 8, 117, 119, 127, 129–130, 140

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 2001. Information Systems and the Environment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6322.
×

sustainability, 196

within firms, 8, 59, 117, 119, 127, 129–130

Feist Publications Inc. v. Rural Telephone Service Co., 47, 50

Financial sector, 3, 25, 26, 33, 34, 67, 96, 115, 139

Foreign relations and trade, see International perspectives

Fowler, Jerry, 9, 159–171, 213–214

Freedom of Information Act, 179

G

GDP, see Gross domestic product

General Dynamics Information Systems, 9

Geographic information systems, 177

Global Partnership on Cyberspace for Sustainability, 197, 208, 209

Global positioning system, 18

Global System for Sustainable Development, 10, 196–209

Globalization, 5, 9, 19, 21, 33, 34, 41, 67, 77, 96, 105

databases, 46, 47, 50, 51, 53–54

information sharing, 139–148, 195–209

Internet information sharing, 185–209 (passim)

Government role, 20, 25, 69, 71

see also Europe;

Legal issues;

Legislation;

Regulatory issues;

specific U.S. departments and agencies

collaborative efforts, 8, 9, 62, 69, 70, 71, 73, 143–144, 146, 152–154, 155, 156–157

Environmental Data Exchange Network, 9, 160, 165–171

public access to information, 9, 85, 173–184

Graedel, Thomas, 7, 95–103, 214

Greenhouse gases, 83

see also Climate change

carbon monoxide, 16

Green technology, 3–4, 19, 20

chemical sector, 83

consumer education, 67

Gross domestic product, 32

information density of an economy, 34, 37

Gross national product

Japan, 31

Groupware, 72

H

Health issues, see Human health issues

Heim, Joseph, 8, 139–148, 214

Heptinstall, James, 7, 74, 87–93, 214

Historical perspectives, 1, 4, 22, 23, 24, 27–33, 115–116, 134

automobile industry, 1, 2, 15–16, 151–154

chemicals sector, 81, 87

computer technologies, general, 27–29

information density of an economy, 36, 37, 40

information sharing, 142, 185–186

Internet publishing, 27

Internet use levels, 195

memory chip capacity, 27

product design, 115–116, 142

service sector, 22, 24, 25

Human health issues, 10, 127, 195–196

accidents, industrial, 85, 92, 93, 117–118

automobile safety, 16, 152, 153

chemicals sector, 85, 87–93 (passim)

industrial ecology, 19, 20

occupational health and safety

chemicals sector, 83, 87, 92–93, 119

Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 92–93, 119, 135

supply-chain factors, 119, 121

Toxics Release Inventory, 10, 85, 91, 120, 130, 135, 173, 175, 177, 182

I

Incentive-based approaches, 1, 74, 75

Industry Cooperative for Ozone Layer Protection, 69, 71

InfoSleuth™, 9, 159–171

Intellectual property, 6, 45–55, 144, 146–147, 155

see also Technology transfer

chemicals sector, pollution prevention, 85

European Union law, 49–50, 52, 53

knowledge management, 75, 76

licensing of, 6, 45–46, 54, 144, 146–147

public access to information, 9, 85, 173–184

small enterprises, 140

time factors, patent applications, 6, 47

trade secrets, 6, 47–48, 85

International News Service v. Associated Press, 48–49

International Organization for Standardization, 116, 134, 135, 174

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 2001. Information Systems and the Environment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6322.
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environmental management systems, 131–133

International perspectives, 32, 188–189

see also Europe;

Globalization;

Internet;

Japan

automobile industry, collaboration, 151–152

communications, 28, 30–31

databases,

intellectual property, 49–50, 52, 53

privacy rights, 52–53

electronics industry, 22

knowledge management, 69, 71, 73

Internet, 9–10, 26–27, 59, 72, 185–209 (passim)

see also E-mail

Art on the Internet, 193

automobiles linked to, 18–19

browsers, 9, 18, 72, 145, 163, 171, 198, 200

chemicals sector, 84

consumer information, 69

database access software, 9

economic factors, 8, 26, 27

EnviroLink Network, 59

feedback systems, 186, 191

globalization and information sharing, 185–209 (passim)

income from e-commerce, U.S., 195

information density of an economy, 34, 40

information pollution, 34, 189–190

InfoSleuth™, 9, 159–171

intellectual property issues, 45, 48

misinformation, 189–191

number of users, 195

Program on Technology and Sustainable Development, publications , 11(n.1)

public access issues, 9, 85, 173–194

software distribution, 8, 26, 27

software for access, 9, 159–171

browsers, 9, 18, 72, 145, 163, 171, 198, 200

sustainability, 10, 195–196

telecommuting, 5, 77

Intranets, 22, 59, 72, 74, 83, 84, 90, 157, 158

Inventory techniques, 4, 85

see also Supply-chain factors

Ishii, Kosuke, 7, 105–113, 214–215

J

Japan, 11, 31

automobile industry, 151

communication, 31

electronics industry, 22, 31

recycling, design for, 107

Just-in-time inventories, 4, 85

K

Kabjian, Michael, 5, 7, 59–79, 215

Killgoar, Paul Jr., 8–9, 151–158, 215–216

Kleindorfer, Paul, 8, 115–138, 216

Knauer, Joshua, 9, 185–194, 216

Knowledge-management systems, 1, 5

see also Intellectual property

corporate-level, 2, 6–7, 59, 60–78

chemical sector, DuPont, 7, 81–86, 91–92

sustainable development, 2, 195–209

Global System for Sustainable Development, 10, 196–209

trade secrets, 6, 47–48, 85

L

Language factors, human, 162, 197, 200, 204–205

Languages, computer, 143, 208

object-oriented programming, 144–145, 147

query, 159

Legal issues, 2, 76

see also Intellectual property;

Regulatory issues

liability,

environmental damage, 117–120, 122, 124, 125, 126, 129, 134, 135, 178

intellectual property, 6, 47, 48, 49, 50, 54–55

litigation, intellectual property rights, 45, 47–49, 50

Legislation

acid deposition (Wisconsin Acid Rain Law), 175

Clean Air Act, 120–121, 137(n.16), 152

Clean Water Act, 179

Collections of Information Antipiracy Act, 50–51

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 119

Cooperative Research and Development Act, 152, 153

Copyright Act, 47, 49

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 2001. Information Systems and the Environment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6322.
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Database Investment and Intellectual Property Antipiracy Act, 49–50

Energy Policy Act, 124

Energy Policy and Conservation Act, 15

Environmental Protection and Community Right-to-Know Act, 85

Freedom of Information Act, 179

intellectual property, 46, 47–48, 49–51, 53, 54

National Competitiveness Technology Transfer Act, 153, 154

National Cooperative Research and Production Act, 153

Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, 120

Technology Transfer Act, 152, 153

Liability

environmental damage, 117–120, 122, 124, 125, 126, 129, 134, 135, 178

intellectual property, 6, 47, 48, 49, 50, 54–55

Liebl, David, 9, 173–184, 217

Life cycle, see Product life cycle

Litigation, intellectual property rights, 45, 47–49, 50

M

Manufacturing sector, 3, 4, 11(n.1), 24, 65, 139

see also Automobile industry;

Chemicals sector;

Electronics industry;

Materials management and use;

Product design;

Product life cycle;

Recycling of waste materials;

Supply-chain factors

accidents, industrial, 85, 92, 93, 117–118, 129–130

automobile industry, 5, 15–19

knowledge-sharing, 95–103, 139–148

process control, 4, 8, 75, 83, 87–93, 95–96, 99, 107, 116–117

small and medium-sized enterprises, 11, 71, 132–133, 139–140, 141, 142

Martin, William, 5–6, 45–55, 217

Mass media, 81, 185–187, 189–190

see also Internet

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 208

Material Safety Data Sheets, 92–93, 119

Materials management and use, 1–2, 3, 4–5, 7, 11, 67, 95, 100, 106–107

see also Inventory;

Recycling of waste materials;

Waste management

intellectual property issues, 46

packaging, 65, 67, 82, 99, 121, 128

product design, 7, 99, 100

substitution of services for products, 5, 22, 26, 28, 32–33

Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation

InfoSleuth™, 9, 159–172

Microsoft, 33

Models and modeling, 4, 9

information density of an economy, 34–36

information sharing and collaboration, 185–194

simulations, 8, 139–148

N

National Basketball Ass’n v. Motorola, Inc., 49

National Competitiveness Technology Transfer Act, 153, 154

National Cooperative Research and Production Act, 153

National Institute of Standards and Technology

Environmental Data Exchange Network, 9, 160, 165–171

NCR Corporation, 9

Networks, computer, 9, 10, 18, 22, 41, 72, 93, 143, 146, 159–172

see also Internet

distributed data systems, 9, 10, 18, 28, 147, 160, 180, 185

Global System for Sustainable Development, 10, 196–209

InfoSleuth™, 9, 159–171

EnviroLink, 59

extranets, 72, 74, 84

intranets, 22, 59, 72, 74, 83, 84, 90, 157, 158

O

Object-oriented programming, 144–145, 147

Occupational health and safety

chemicals sector, 83, 87, 92–93, 119

supply-chain factors, 119, 121

Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 135

Material Safety Data Sheets, 92–93, 119

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 41

Outsourcing, 4, 63, 73, 75, 76, 89

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 2001. Information Systems and the Environment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6322.
×

P

Packaging, 65, 67, 82, 99, 121, 128

Patent and Trademark Office, 47

Patents, see Intellectual property

Peer review, 11, 62, 63, 73

Performance metrics, 11(n.1), 135

Pitts, Greg, 9, 159–171, 217

Plug-and-play software, 8, 143

Privacy and confidentiality, 52–53

see also Trade secrets

Process control, 4, 8, 75

chemical sector, 83, 87–93

knowledge-sharing, 95–96, 99

recycling, design for, 107

supply-chain design, 116–117

ProCD, Inc. v. Zeidenberg, 45

Product design, 4, 7–8, 11, 63, 64, 65, 115–116

see also Supply-chain factors

automobiles, 17, 18, 152

chemical sector, 83, 84, 86

computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, 4, 17, 18, 100, 153

cost and cost-effectiveness factors,

knowledge-sharing, 95, 96, 97, 98, 102

recycling, modular design for, 105, 107, 108

electronics, general, 21–22

historical perspectives, 115–116, 142

knowledge-sharing, 95, 96–101

materials management and use, 7, 99, 100

recycling factors, 95, 99, 102, 105–113

Product life cycle, 7, 21, 62, 67, 70

see also Recycling of waste materials

chemical sector, 83, 84, 86, 89

electronics, 21–22

knowledge-sharing, 96, 97, 100–101, 102

public access to information, 174, 177–178

supply-chain design, 116, 118, 122, 124, 127, 128, 129, 132, 136(n.3), 137(n.13)

Public access, 9, 11, 85, 173–194

consumer education, 67, 69, 70

mass media, 81, 185–187, 189–190

Public opinion

chemical industry, general, 81

distrust of technology, 75, 135

regulatory issues, 175, 176, 177, 179–181

supply-chain design, public relations, 120–121, 125, 126, 129–130, 135

Q

Quality control, 1, 11

see also Standards

peer review, 11, 62, 63, 73

performance metrics, 11(n.1), 135

Quality of life, 19, 21, 22, 32

information density of an economy, 34, 35

R

Raytheon Systems, 9

Recycling of waste materials, 7, 68, 73, 124, 129

automotive sector, 153

chemical sector, 83, 85, 123

cost-effectiveness, 105, 107, 108

knowledge-sharing, 95, 99, 102

product design, 95, 99, 102, 105–113

time factors, 105–106, 108

Regulatory issues, 10, 11(n.1)

see also Intellectual property;

Standards automobiles, fuel efficiency/air quality regulations, 152

chemical sector, 81, 88

corporate-level actions, 63

cost of compliance, 81, 117, 118, 134

Global System for Sustainable Development, 197, 200

Material Safety Data Sheets, 92–93, 119

public access to information, 175, 176, 177, 179–181

supply-chain factors, 117, 118, 119, 120, 122, 125, 127, 126, 128, 134, 135, 177–178

Toxics Release Inventory, 10, 85, 91, 120, 130, 135, 173, 175, 177, 182

Reichman, J.H,, 53

Reverse logistics, 116, 122, 123, 124, 127, 128, 129

Rhône-Poulenc Inc., 7, 87–93

Richards, Deanna, 5, 7, 59–79, 217–218

Rickard, Maurice, 9, 185–194, 218

Romer, Paul, 33

Royal Dutch Shell, 33

S

Samuelson, Pamela, 53

Schlumberger, 9

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 2001. Information Systems and the Environment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6322.
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Semiconductors, 4, 21, 27

information density of an economy, 40, 41

Sensor technology, 4, 21, 128

automobiles, 16, 17, 18, 19

intelligent vehicle highway system, 46–47, 48, 49, 51

Service sector, 1, 3, 22, 25, 26, 67–69, 76

see also Outsourcing;

Transportation services

consumer education, 67, 69

financial sector, 3, 25, 26, 33, 34, 67, 96, 115, 139

product support, 66, 70

substitution of services for products, 5, 22, 26, 28, 32–33

Small and medium-sized enterprises

information sharing and collaboration, 11, 139–140, 141, 142

supply-chain design standards, 132–133

technical assistance, 71

Snir, Eli, 8, 115–138, 218

Social factors. 3, 11, 195, 196

see also Human health;

Occupational health and safety

corporate relations, 2, 10

Global System for Sustainable Development, 10, 196–209

language factors, human, 162, 197, 200, 204–205

public access to information, 9, 11, 85, 173–184, 189

Software, 8, 9, 23, 26

collaborative knowledge sharing, 157

corporate-level knowledge sharing, 59

groupware, 72

information density of an economy, 38, 39–40, 41

Internet database access, 9, 159–171

browsers, 9, 18, 72, 145, 163, 171, 198, 200

Internet distribution of, 8, 26, 27

languages, 143, 144–145, 146, 147, 159, 208

object-oriented programming, 144–145, 147

plug-and-play, 8, 143

Soil pollution, 2, 128, 177

Solid waste, 2

see also Materials management and use;

Recycling of waste materials

Standards, 1, 2, 11

American National Standards Institute, 176

corporate-level, 11, 59–60, 176

best practice technology, 11, 62, 69, 70, 89, 106, 118, 120, 133, 134, 196

chemical industry, 82, 83, 89, 90, 91

supply-chain design, 116, 117, 120, 131–133, 135

environmental management systems, 131–133

industrial classifications (SIC), 22, 24–25

information density of an economy, 36–41

International Organization of Standardization, 116, 131–133, 134, 135, 174

plug-and-play software, 143

quality of life, 19, 21, 22, 32, 34, 35

recycling, modular design for, 106, 107

Stanford University, 106, 112

Sun Microsystems, 27

Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, 120

Supply-chain factors, 8, 18, 62, 66–67, 68, 102, 115–138, 158

see also Inventory techniques

cost-effectiveness, 117–118, 121, 122–124, 129, 134

feedback systems, 8, 117, 119, 127, 129–130, 140

inventory techniques, 4, 85

occupational health and safety, 119, 121

product life cycle, 116, 118, 122, 124, 127, 128, 129, 132, 136(n.3), 137(n.13)

public access to information, 174, 177–178

public relations, 120–121, 125, 126, 129–130, 135

regulatory issues, 117, 118, 119, 120, 122, 125, 127, 126, 128, 134, 135, 177–178

reverse logistics, 116, 122, 123, 124, 127, 128, 129

small enterprises, standards, 132–133

standards, 116, 117, 120, 131–133, 135

transportation factors, 121, 123–124, 128

waste management, 121–122, 124

Sustainability, 2, 5, 15–43

global, 10, 195–210

information density of an economy, 34

Internet applications, 10, 195–196

Sustainable Business Network, 192–193

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 2001. Information Systems and the Environment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6322.
×

T

Technical assistance, 71

Technology transfer, 7, 8–10, 11(n.1), 71, 84–85, 88, 139–148

see also Intellectual property

corporate-level, 5, 7, 59, 69, 71, 78, 84–85, 88, 95–103;

see also Knowledge management

collaborative efforts, 8, 9, 62, 69–72, 77, 139, 143–144, 151–209

global sustainability, 10, 195–209

InfoSleuth™, 9, 159–171

public access, 9, 85, 173–194

historical perspectives, 22

Internet, 9, 26–27, 159–171, 185–194

product life cycle, 96, 97, 100–101, 102

Technology Transfer Act, 152

Telecommuting, 5, 77

Texas Instruments, 9

Time factors

see also Produce life cycle

competition, 115, 139

database property protections, 6

information density of an economy, 40

intellectual property protection, 50, 52–53

just-in-time inventory, 4, 85

knowledge management, 77

patent applications, 6, 47

recycling, modular design for, 105–106, 108

Torts, see Liability

Toxic materials, 10

see also Chemicals sector

Toxics Release Inventory, 10, 85, 91, 120, 130, 135, 173, 175, 177, 182

Trade secrets, 6, 47–48, 85

Transportation services, 3, 5, 24, 70

see also Automobile industry

chemical industry, tankers, 82

intelligent vehicle highway system, 46–47, 48, 49, 51

just-in-time inventories, 4, 85

supply-chain design, 121, 123–124, 128

TRW, 9

U

United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, 197

United States Council for Automotive Research, 154, 155, 156

University research, 5, 51, 53, 72, 105, 106, 113, 116, 139, 143–144, 146, 155, 208

V

Volatile organic compounds, 16

W

Waste management, 2, 33, 67

see also Recycling of waste materials

chemical sector, 83, 84–85

intellectual property issues, 46

packaging, 65, 67, 82, 99, 121, 128

substitution of services for products, 5, 22, 26, 28, 32–33

supply-chain design, 121–122, 124

Water pollution, 2, 177

acid deposition, 175

chemical industry, 82

Clean Water Act, 179

supply-chain factors, 128

Wiese, Lynda, 9, 173–184, 218

Wildlife

chemical industry, 82, 86

habitat loss and, biodiversity, 2, 11

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 174, 175, 178, 179, 181, 182

World Intellectual Property Organization, 50

World Wide Web, see Internet

Z

Zeidenberg, Michael, 45

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 2001. Information Systems and the Environment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6322.
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Information Systems and the Environment Get This Book
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Information technology is a powerful tool for meeting environmental objectives and promoting sustainable development. This collection of papers by leaders in industry, government, and academia explores how information technology can improve environmental performance by individual firms, collaborations among firms, and collaborations among firms, government agencies, and academia.

Information systems can also be used by nonprofit organizations and the government to inform the public about broad environmental issues and environmental conditions in their neighborhoods.

Several papers address the challenges to information management posed by the explosive increase in information and knowledge about environmental issues and potential solutions, including determining what information is environmentally relevant and how it can be used in decision making. In addition, case studies are described and show how industry is using information systems to ensure sustainable development and meet environmental standards.

The book also includes examples from the public sector showing how governments use information knowledge systems to disseminate “best practices” beyond big firms to small businesses, and from the world of the Internet showing how knowledge is shared among environmental advocates and the general public.

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