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The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age (2000)

Chapter: Appendix A: Study Committee Biographies

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Study Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
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Appendixes

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Study Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Study Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
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Appendix A —
Study Committee Biographies

RANDALL DAVIS, Chair, has been a member of the faculty at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology since 1978, where he is currently professor of electrical engineering and computer science, and professor of management. Dr. Davis is a seminal contributor to the field of expert systems, where his research focuses on model-based systems (programs that work from descriptions of structure and function and that reason from first principles) supporting a wide range of robust problem solving. In 1990, Dr. Davis served as a panelist in a series of CSTB workshops that resulted in the publication Intellectual Property Issues in Software and has served as a member of the Advisory Panel to the U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment study Finding a Balance: Computer Software, Intellectual Property, and the Challenge of Technological Change. He has advised a variety of law firms on cases involving software copyright and patents. In 1990 he served as expert to the court (Eastern District of New York) in Computer Associates v. Altai, a software copyright infringement case that was upheld by the Appeals Court for the 2nd Circuit in June 1992, resulting in a significant change in the way software copyright is viewed by the courts. He is on the board of the Massachusetts Software Council and serves as head of its intellectual property subcommittee. In 1990 Dr. Davis was named a founding fellow of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence and in 1995 was elected president of the association. Dr. Davis has been a consultant to several major organizations and assisted in the startup of three software companies. After completing his undergraduate

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Study Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
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degree at Dartmouth College, Dr. Davis completed his Ph.D. in artificial intelligence at Stanford University in 1976.

SHELTON ALEXANDER is a professor of geophysics and former head of the Department of Geosciences at the Pennsylvania State University. His interests include seismology, natural hazards, earth structure and dynamics, geophysical signal analysis, remote sensing, planetary science, and geophysical methods applied to exploration for natural resources and environmental problems. Recent work includes the study of near-surface neotectonic deformation, crustal stress conditions, and paleoseismic indicators associated with geologically recent earthquake activity in eastern North America. Dr. Alexander participated on the NRC study committee that produced Bits of Power. He has also served on five committees, a commission, and a panel at the National Academies. Professor Alexander holds a B.S. (1956) from the University of North Carolina; Letters of Completion in Geophysics (1957) from the Sorbonne, University of Paris; an M.S. (1959) in geophysics from the California Institute of Technology; and a Ph.D. (1963) in geophysics with a minor in mathematics from the California Institute of Technology. He is a Licensed Professional Geologist in Pennsylvania.

JOEY ANUFF is currently the editor-in-chief of Suck.com. Prior to resuming his position with Suck.com, he supervised most of Wired Digital's advertising creative material and wrote Net Surf (which analyzed issues and conflicts related to the Web as a medium and a concept) three times weekly in HotWired. Mr. Anuff has published a number of articles on digital media in Spin, Might, and Wired and is a co-founder of Suck.com. He is the co-editor of Suck: Worst-Case Scenarios in Media, Culture, Advertising, and the Internet, published by Wired Books. Mr. Anuff received his B.A. (1993) from the University of California at Berkeley.

HOWARD BESSER has been an associate professor at the University of California at Los Angeles Department of Information Studies since the fall of 1999. Prior to that time, Dr. Besser was an adjunct associate professor at the University of California, Berkeley School of Information Management and Systems, and a researcher at the Berkeley Multimedia Research Center. Previously Dr. Besser was in charge of long-range information planning for the Canadian Centre for Architecture in Montreal and headed information technology for the University of California, Berkeley Art Museum. Dr. Besser's interests include the technical, social, and economic processes for the networked distribution of multimedia information, protection of digital information, social and cultural impact of the information highway, design of digital documents, digitization of

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Study Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
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still and moving images for conservation and preservation, and scholarly communication. Dr. Besser serves on the Steering Committee of the Museum Education Site License Project. He served on the Task Force on Preservation of Digital Information of the Commission on Preservation and Access and Research Libraries Group and is the principal investigator of the Economics of Networked Access to Visual Information, sponsored by the Mellon Foundation. He recently taught a graduate course on the protection of digital information. Dr. Besser received his B.A. (1976), M.L.S. (1977), and Ph.D. (1988) from the University of California at Berkeley.

SCOTT BRADNER is a senior technical consultant at Harvard University's Office of the Provost, where he provides technical advice and guidance on issues relating to the Harvard data networks and new technologies. He also manages the Harvard Network Device Test Lab, is a frequent speaker at technical conferences, writes a weekly column for Network World, teaches for Interop, and does some independent consulting on the side. Mr. Bradner has been involved in the design, operation, and use of data networks at Harvard University since the early days of the ARPANET. He was involved in the design of the Harvard High-Speed Data Network, the Longwood Medical Area network (LMAnet), and NEARNET. He was founding chair of the technical committees of LMAnet, NEARNET, and CoREN. Mr. Bradner is the co-director of the Transport Area in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a member of the IESG, and an elected trustee of the Internet Society where he serves as the vice president for standards. He was also co-director of the IETF Internet protocol next generation effort and is co-editor of IPng: Internet Protocol Next Generation from Addison-Wesley.

JOAN FEIGENBAUM received a B.A. in mathematics from Harvard University and a Ph.D. in computer science from Stanford University. She is currently the head of the Algorithms and Distributed Data Department of AT&T Labs-Research in Florham Park, New Jersey. Her research interests are in security and cryptology, computational complexity theory, and algorithmic techniques for massive data sets. Her current and recent professional service activities include editor-in-chief of the Journal of Cryptology, editorial board member for the SIAM Journal on Computing, co-director of the 1997 DIMACS Research and Educational Institute on Cryptology and Security, and program chair for the 1998 IEEE Conference on Computational Complexity.

HENRY GLADNEY has been an IBM research staff member since 1963, with widely varied technical and managerial assignments. He is currently working on digital library storage architecture and technical aspects

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Study Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
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of intellectual property rights management. He focuses on the traditional library sector, managing collaborations with approximately a dozen university research groups and research libraries. In 1989 Dr. Gladney designed the storage subsystem of IRM, a distributed digital library put to early use in massive paper-replacement applications. He helped make this work a cornerstone of the IBM ImagePlus VisualInfo product in 1992 and of the IBM Digital Library offering in 1996. Dr. Gladney received a B.A. in physics and chemistry from Trinity College at the University of Toronto and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in chemical physics from Princeton University. As well as 48 publications in chemistry, physics, and computer science, he has four patents and two patents pending. He has been a member of the Association for Computing Machinery since 1979 and a fellow of the American Physical Society since 1973.

KAREN HUNTER is senior vice president of Elsevier Science Inc. With Elsevier since 1976, she has concentrated for several years on strategic planning and the electronic delivery of journal information. She was responsible for TULIP (The University Licensing Program) and for the start-up of ScienceDirect. Before Elsevier, she worked for Baker & Taylor and for Cornell University Libraries. She has a B.A. in history from the College of Wooster and master's degrees in history, library science, and business administration from Cornell, Syracuse, and Columbia Universities, respectively. Recent professional activities include being a member of the Copyright Committee of the Association of American Publishers, the Board of the International DOI Foundation, the Advisory Board of the University of Michigan School of Information, and the RLG/CPA National Task Force on Digital Archiving.

CLIFFORD LYNCH has been the executive director of the Coalition for Networked Information (CNI) since July 1997. CNI, which is sponsored jointly by the Association for Research Libraries, CAUSE, and EDUCOM, includes about 200 member organizations concerned with the use of information technology and networked information to enhance scholarship and intellectual productivity. Prior to joining CNI, Lynch spent 18 years at the University of California Office of the President, the last 10 as director of Library Automation, where he managed the MELVYL information system and the intercampus Internet system for the university. Dr. Lynch, who holds a Ph.D. in computer science from the University of California at Berkeley, is an adjunct professor at Berkeley's School of Information Management and Systems. He is a past president of the American Society for Information Science and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Study Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
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CHRISTOPHER MURRAY is chairman of the Entertainment & Media Department of O'Melveny & Myers, a multinational law firm based in Los Angeles that has over 700 lawyers. He is a specialist in the legal and business aspects of the production, financing, and distribution of motion pictures, television programs, videogames, and music. His other areas of specialization are theme parks, publishing, entertainment company acquisition, and all forms of Internet-based activities. He practices in the fields of copyright, trademark, and merchandising, counting among his clients Time-Warner, Turner, HBO, Castle Rock Entertainment, Sony, and MGM. He also represents individual performers, producers, and executives. He has acted as legal counsel on a wide range of Internet-related matters (from e-commerce and domain name disputes to strategic Internet ventures between companies in disparate industries, to content licensing, to technical rights clearance issues) for companies including IBM, Microsoft, Warner Brothers Online, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, and two leading digital production studios and special effects creators, Rhythm and Hues and Digital Domain. He also represents Asian and European companies in connection with their media-related activities, including TeleImage and M6 Television (France), C. Itoh, Japan Broadcasting, Hakuhodo, Hyundai, Tokyo Dome, Marubeni, NHK, Tokyo Broadcasting, Japan Satellite Broadcasting, Nomura Securities, Samsung, and Tokuma Enterprises. Mr. Murray serves as an arbitrator for the American Film Marketing Association and is a member of Digital Coast Roundtable, as well as the planning committees for both the USC and UCLA annual entertainment law symposia. He taught entertainment law at Stanford Law School from 1986 to 1990.

ROGER NOLL is the Morris M. Doyle Centennial Professor of Public Policy in the Department of Economics at Stanford University and a nonresident senior fellow at the Brookings Institution. At Stanford, he is also the director of the Public Policy Program, the director of the Program in Regulatory Policy in the Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research, and a professor by courtesy in the Graduate School of Business and the Department of Political Science. He was previously the associate dean for Social Sciences in the School of Humanities and Sciences. Prior to coming to Stanford in 1984, Dr. Noll was the chairman of the Division of Humanities and Social Sciences and Institute Professor of Social Science at Caltech. He has also served on the staff of the President's Council of Economic Advisers. Among his honors and awards are the book award of the National Association of Educational Broadcasters, a Guggenheim Fellowship, and the Rhodes Prize for undergraduate teaching at Stanford. He currently serves as a member of the California Council on Science and Technology and of the board of directors of Economists Inc. In the past he

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Study Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
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served as a member of the President's Commission for a National Agenda for the Eighties, the National Science Foundation Advisory Board, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Advisory Board, the Solar Energy Research Institute Advisory Board, the Energy Research Advisory Board, and the Secretary of Energy's Advisory Board and as chair of the Los Angeles School Monitoring Committee. He is the author of 11 books and over 200 articles. Dr. Noll's research interests include government regulation of business, public policies regarding research and development, the business of professional sports, applications of the economic theory of politics to the study of legal rules and institutions, and the economic implications of political decision-making processes. His recent books include The Technology Pork Barrel, written in collaboration with Linda R. Cohen, an analysis of government subsidies of large-scale commercial R&D projects; Constitutional Reform in California, in collaboration with Bruce E. Cain, a study of the role and consequences of constitutional design for secondary governments in a federal system; Sports, Jobs, and Taxes, with Andrew Zimbalist, an assessment of the contribution of teams and stadiums to local economic development; Challenges to Research Universities, an investigation into the economics of the leading American universities; and A Communications Cornucopia, co-edited with Monroe Price, a compendium on communications policy. In addition, he is currently undertaking research on federal programs to promote research joint ventures, the policy consequences of the admission of the western states, the economics of legal rules and institutions, the role of federalism in regulatory policy, and international comparative studies of regulation and infrastructural industries. Professor Noll received his undergraduate degree in mathematics from the California Institute of Technology and his doctorate in economics from Harvard University.

DAVID REED is vice president of the Strategic Assessment Department for Cable Television Laboratories Inc. (CableLabs). In this position he is responsible for leading research and development projects addressing telecommunications technology assessment and business, economic, strategic, and public policy issues of immediate interest to member companies. Before joining CableLabs, he served at the Federal Communications Commission as a telecommunications policy analyst in the Office of Plans and Policy, where he worked on video dial tone, personal communications services, and spectrum auction policies. He has published widely in telecommunications journals, books, and magazines. Dr. Reed earned his Ph.D. and M.S. from Carnegie Mellon University and his B.S. from Colorado State University.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Study Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
×

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JAMES N. ROSSE retired as president and CEO of Freedom Communications Inc. on September 30, 1999, after serving in that position since April 1992. Freedom owns and operates a nationwide group of daily and weekly newspapers, broadcast television stations, trade and consumer magazines, and interactive media. Previously Dr. Rosse was a professor of economics at Stanford University, where he was the university's provost from 1984 to 1992. Dr. Rosse serves on the Advisory Boards of the Center for Economic Policy Research and the School of Humanities and Sciences at Stanford University.

PAMELA SAMUELSON is a professor at the University of California at Berkeley with a joint appointment in the School of Information Management and Systems and in the School of Law, where she is co-director of the Berkeley Center for Law & Technology. She has written and spoken extensively about the challenges that new information technologies pose for traditional legal regimes, especially for intellectual property law. In 1997 she was named a fellow of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. She is also a fellow of the Electronic Frontier Foundation. As a contributing editor of the computing professionals' journal Communications of the ACM, she writes a regular ''Legally Speaking" column. She serves on the LEXIS-NEXIS Electronic Publishing Advisory Board and on the editorial boards of the Electronic Information Law and Policy Report and the Journal of Internet Law. A 1976 graduate of Yale Law School, she practiced law as an associate with the New York law firm Willkie Farr & Gallagher before turning to more academic pursuits. From 1981 through June 1996 she was a member of the faculty at the University of Pittsburgh Law School.

STUART SHIEBER is Gordon McKay Professor of Computer Science in the Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences at Harvard University. Professor Shieber studies communication: with humans through natural languages, with computers through programming languages, and with both through graphical languages. He received an A.B. in applied mathematics summa cum laude from Harvard College in 1981 and a Ph.D. in computer science from Stanford University in 1989. Between 1981 and 1989, he was a computer scientist at the Artificial Intelligence Center at SRI International and a research fellow at the Center for the Study of Language and Information at Stanford University. He was awarded a Presidential Young Investigator award in 1991 and was named a Presidential Faculty Fellow in 1993. He has been a member of the executive committee of the Association for Computational Linguistics, has served on the editorial boards for the journals for Computational Linguistics, the Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, and the Journal of Heuristics. He is

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Study Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
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the founder and organizer of the Computation and Language E-Print Archive and is co-founder of Cartesian Products, a company specializing in advanced document image compression and viewing tools.

BERNARD SORKIN is senior counsel at Time Warner Inc., which participates in a range of entertainment industry sectors, from film to cable television, to publishing. Mr. Sorkin has extensive business and legal experience at Time-Warner, where he has been since 1964. Previously Mr. Sorkin was an attorney with Columbia Pictures. His professional activities include service on many committees of various bar associations and on the advisory committee on copyright registration and deposit of the Library of Congress. After graduating from the City College of New York, Mr. Sorkin completed degrees from Columbia University and the Brooklyn Law School.

GARY E. STRONG has served as the director of the Queens Borough Public Library since September 1994. His career spans more than 30 years as a librarian and library administrator, giving him a unique perspective on the knowledge explosion. He was state librarian of California from 1980 to 1994, deputy director of the Washington State Library, and director of the Everett (Washington) and Lake Oswego (Oregon) Public Libraries. He serves on the New York State Regents Advisory Council on Libraries. He has served as chair of the Subcommittee on Intellectual Property of the American Library Association and is a member of the Committee on Copyright and Other Legal Matters of the International Federation of Library Associations. His degrees are from the University of Idaho (1966) and the University of Michigan (1967), and he was named a distinguished alumnus of the University of Michigan in 1984. He is an author, editor, and lecturer on library and literacy topics. He serves on numerous library and community boards of directors and is involved in negotiating several international library cooperation agreements.

JONATHAN TASINI has been president of the National Writers Union/UAW Local 1981 since 1990. He was the lead plaintiff in Tasini et al. v. The New York Times et al., the landmark electronic rights case. Mr. Tasini is a prominent advocate among creator groups to preserve the historic balance between copyright protection for individual authors and fair use by researchers and the public at large. For the past 15 years, Mr. Tasini has written about labor and economics for a variety of newspapers and magazines, including the New York Times Magazine, the Washington Post, and the Atlantic Monthly. Prior to his election as president, Mr. Tasini served the union in other capacities, including vice president for organizing. Mr. Tasini has been a six-time resident in writing at Blue Mountain Center, New York, and is a graduate of UCLA.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Study Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
×
Page 251
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Study Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
×
Page 252
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Study Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
×
Page 253
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Study Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
×
Page 254
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Study Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
×
Page 255
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Study Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
×
Page 256
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Study Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
×
Page 257
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Study Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Study Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Study Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
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Page 260
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Imagine sending a magazine article to 10 friends-making photocopies, putting them in envelopes, adding postage, and mailing them. Now consider how much easier it is to send that article to those 10 friends as an attachment to e-mail. Or to post the article on your own site on the World Wide Web.

The ease of modifying or copying digitized material and the proliferation of computer networking have raised fundamental questions about copyright and patent--intellectual property protections rooted in the U.S. Constitution. Hailed for quick and convenient access to a world of material, the Internet also poses serious economic issues for those who create and market that material. If people can so easily send music on the Internet for free, for example, who will pay for music?

This book presents the multiple facets of digitized intellectual property, defining terms, identifying key issues, and exploring alternatives. It follows the complex threads of law, business, incentives to creators, the American tradition of access to information, the international context, and the nature of human behavior. Technology is explored for its ability to transfer content and its potential to protect intellectual property rights. The book proposes research and policy recommendations as well as principles for policymaking.

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