National Academies Press: OpenBook

Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice (2001)

Chapter: Front Matter

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
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JUVENILE CRIME

JUVENILE JUSTICE

Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control

Joan McCord, Cathy Spatz Widom, and Nancy A. Crowell, Editors

Committee on Law and Justice

and

Board on Children, Youth, and Families

Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

National Research Council and

Institute of Medicine

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, DC

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
×

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Grant No. 97-JN-FX-0020 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Departments of Justice and Education, and grants from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and the Harry F. Guggenheim Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Juvenile crime, juvenile justice / Joan McCord, Cathy Spatz Widom, and Nancy A. Crowell, editors.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 0-309-06842-8 (hardcover)

1. Juvenile delinquency—United States. 2. Juvenile justice, Administration of—United States. I. McCord, Joan. II. Widom, Cathy Spatz, 1945- . III. Crowell, Nancy A.

HV9104 .J832 2001

364.36′0973—dc21

2001001248

Suggested citation: National Research Council and Institute of Medicine (2001) Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control. Joan McCord, Cathy Spatz Widom, and Nancy A. Crowell, eds. Committee on Law and Justice and Board on Children, Youth, and Families. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Additional copies of this report are available from:

National Academy Press
, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area). This report is also available on line at http://www.nap.edu.

Printed in the United States of America

Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

National Academy of Sciences

National Academy of Engineering

Institute of Medicine

National Research Council

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
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PANEL ON JUVENILE CRIME: PREVENTION, TREATMENT, AND CONTROL

JOAN MCCORD (Cochair),

Department Criminal Justice, Temple University

CATHY SPATZ WIDOM (Cochair),

School of Criminal Justice, University at Albany

PATRICIA COHEN,

New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University

ELIZABETH JANE COSTELLO,

Duke University Medical Center

EUGENE EMORY,

Department of Psychology, Emory University

TONY FABELO,

Texas Criminal Justice Policy Council, Austin

LAWRENCE GARY,

School of Social Work, Howard University

SANDRA GRAHAM,

Department of Education, University of California, Los Angeles

JOHN HAGAN,

Department of Sociology, Northwestern University

DARNELL HAWKINS,

African American Studies, University of Illinois at Chicago

KENNETH LAND,

Department of Sociology, Duke University

STEVEN SCHLOSSMAN,

Department of History, Carnegie Mellon University

MERCER SULLIVAN,

School of Criminal Justice, Rutgers University

HON. VIOLA TALIAFERRO,

Monroe Circuit Court VII, Bloomington, IN

RICHARD TREMBLAY,

Research Unit on Children's Psycho-Social Maladjustment, University of Montréal

FRANKLIN ZIMRING,

School of Law, University of California, Berkeley

HON. CINDY LEDERMAN (liaison from the Board on Children, Youth, and Families),

Juvenile Division, Eleventh Judicial Circuit Court, Dade County, FL

DANIEL NAGIN (liaison from the Committee on Law and Justice),

Carnegie Mellon University

Nancy A. Crowell, Study Director

Melissa Bamba, Research Associate

Brenda McLaughlin, Research Assistant (after 8/12/2000)

Glenda Tyson, Project Assistant (until 4/6/1999)

Karen Autrey, Senior Project Assistant (after 4/6/1999)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
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COMMITTEE ON LAW AND JUSTICE 1999-2000

CHARLES WELLFORD (Chair),

Center for Applied Policy Studies and Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Maryland

JOAN PETERSILIA (Vice Chair),

School of Social Ecology, University of California, Irvine

ALFRED BLUMSTEIN,

H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management, Carnegie Mellon University

RUTH M. DAVIS,

The Pymatuning Group, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia

JEFFREY FAGAN,

Schools of Law and Public Health, Columbia University

DARNELL HAWKINS,

Department of African American Studies, University of Illinois at Chicago

PHILIP HEYMANN,

Center for Criminal Justice, Harvard Law School

CANDACE KRUTTSCHNITT,

Department of Sociology, University of Minnesota

MARK LIPSEY,

Department of Psychology and Human Development, Vanderbilt University

COLIN LOFTIN,

School of Criminal Justice, The University at Albany

JOHN MONAHAN,

School of Law, University of Virginia

DANIEL S. NAGIN,

H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management, Carnegie Mellon University

PETER REUTER,

Department of Criminology and Research, University of Maryland

WESLEY SKOGAN,

Department of Political Science and Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University

KATE STITH,

School of Law, Yale University

MICHAEL TONRY,

Institute of Criminology, Cambridge University

CATHY SPATZ WIDOM,

Departments of Criminal Justice and Psychology, University at Albany

CAROL PETRIE, Director

NANCY A. CROWELL, Staff Officer

MELISSA BAMBA, Research Associate

RALPH PATTERSON, Senior Project Assistant

BRENDA M C LAUGHLIN, Research Assistant

LECIA HENDERSON, Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
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BOARD ON CHILDREN, YOUTH, AND FAMILIES 2000

EVAN CHARNEY (Chair),

Department of Pediatrics, University of Massachusetts

JAMES BANKS,

Center for Multicultural Education, University of Washington

SHEILA BURKE,

John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University

DAVID CARD,

Department of Economics, University of California, Berkeley

DONALD COHEN,

Yale-New Haven Children's Hospital, Yale University

MINDY FULLILOVE,

Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University

KEVIN GRUMBACH,

Department of Family and Community Medicine, Primary Care Research Center, University of California, San Francisco

MAXINE HAYES,

Department of Community and Family Health, Washington State Department of Health

MARGARET HEAGARTY,

Department of Pediatrics, Harlem Hospital Center, Columbia University

RENEE JENKINS,

Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Howard University

SHEILA KAMERMAN,

School of Social Work, Columbia University

HARRIET KITZMAN,

School of Nursing, University of Rochester

SANDERS KORENMAN,

School of Public Affairs, Baruch College

HON. CINDY LEDERMAN,

Circuit Court, Juvenile Justice Center, Dade County, Florida

SARA McLANAHAN,

Office of Population Research, Princeton University

VONNIE MCLOYD,

Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Michigan

GARY SANDEFUR,

Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin, Madison

RUTH STEIN,

Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine

PAUL WISE,

Department of Pediatrics, Boston Medical Center

RUTH T. GROSS (liaison from IOM Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention),

Department of Pediatrics (emeritus), Stanford University

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
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ELEANOR E. MACCOBY (liaison from Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education),

Department of Psychology (emeritus), Stanford University

WILLIAM ROPER (liaison from IOM Council),

Institute of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

Michele D. Kipke, Director

Mary Graham, Associate Director of Dissemination and Communications

Mary Strigari, Administrative Associate

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
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Preface

When this project was in its planning stages, the violent juvenile crime rate was rising and some criminologists were predicting a coming wave of violent juvenile “superpredators.” Policy makers at the state and federal levels responded by imposing tougher sanctions on juveniles and facilitating the move of younger juveniles into the adult system for a broad range of offenses. Over the course of this panel study, rates of juvenile violence have dropped considerably, but policies continue to increase the number of young people who become involved in the juvenile justice and adult criminal justice systems, at the same time that prevention programs are being cut back.

The Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment and Control was established by the National Research Council under the aegis of the Committee on Law and Justice, in the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. The task this panel undertook was a large one— analyzing data on trends in juvenile crime and juvenile justice system processing; reviewing both the literature on individual, familial, social, and community factors that contribute to juvenile crime and that on prevention and treatment programs; and examining information that could shed light on the effects of mandates of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. When we began the study, we were aware that other reports on juvenile crime had recently appeared and that others would appear during the course of our work. By assembling a panel with diverse backgrounds and perspectives, our goal was to take a fresh look

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
×

at the research on juvenile crime in order to point the way toward more effective policies based on empirical evidence and to highlight areas in need of more research. Our ultimate goal is to assist youth in leading constructive lives and to protect the public from juvenile crime.

The panel met six times over the course of the study, with active deliberations both during and between meetings. The panel also heard from many experts, visited juvenile detention and correctional facilities, analyzed available data, reviewed numerous articles and books, and commissioned several papers as part of its work. The researchers and agency personnel who provided input into the process are listed by name and affiliation in the Acknowledgments.

Joan McCord, Cochair

Cathy Spatz Widom, Cochair

Panel on Juvenile Crime:

Prevention, Treatment and Control

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
×

Acknowledgments

The panel gratefully acknowledges the sponsorship of this study by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention of the U.S. Department of Justice, the Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program of the U.S. Department of Education, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, and the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation. Much assistance in shaping this project was provided by staff at these organizations, in particular: Charlotte Kerr, Betty Chemers, and Shay Bilchik, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice; Ann Weinheimer, Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program, U.S. Department of Education; Laurie Garduque, John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation; and Karen Colvard, Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation.

The panel drew on the expertise of many people during the course of its information gathering. The panel extends its thanks to Elmar G.M. Weitekamp, Hans-Juergen Kerner, and Gernot Trueg of the Institute of Criminology, University of Tuebingen, Germany, for a background paper on international comparisons of juvenile justice systems; Robert Worden and Stephanie Myers of the Department of Criminal Justice, University at Albany, for providing the panel with a background paper on police encounters with juveniles; and Patricia L. McCall of North Carolina State University, for assisting panel member Kenneth Land with the paper on crime forecasting that appears in Appendix B of this report; Gary Gates of Carnegie Mellon University, who assisted panel member Steven Schlossman in analyzing historical data on juvenile delinquency and

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
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involvement in the adult criminal and juvenile justice systems; and Amie Schuck and Jorge Chavez of The University at Albany for assisting panel cochair Cathy Spatz Widom with an analysis of data on racial disproportionality in the juvenile justice system. Special thanks are also extended to Howard Snyder, of the National Center for Juvenile Justice, for sharing some of his analyses of juvenile arrest data; Rolf Loeber, of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, for providing the committee with materials presented to the OJJDP Study Group on Very Young Offenders and for sharing the literature review from his grant application to NIMH on the development of conduct disorders in girls; and to Linda Teplin, Northwestern University, for sharing the literature review from her grant application to the National Institute on Mental Health on mental health problems among incarcerated female juveniles.

The panel would also like to acknowledge the following people for giving presentations at panel workshops and meetings:

David Altschuler, Institute for Policy Studies, The Johns Hopkins University

Mark Berends, RAND Corporation, Washington, DC

Donna Bishop, Department of Criminal Justice and Legal Studies, University of Central Florida

Hon. Jay Blitzman, Juvenile Court Department, Watertown, Massachusetts

George Bridges, Offfice of Undergraduate Education, University of Washington

Ted Chiricos, School of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Florida State University

Philip Cook, Terry Sanford School of Public Policy, Duke University

John Devine, School of Education, New York University

Mary Didier, United States Sentencing Commission, Washington, DC

Thomas Dishion, Department of Psychology, University of Oregon

Carol Dweck, Department of Psychology, Columbia University

Delbert Elliott, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado Boulder

Doris Entwisle, Department of Sociology, The Johns Hopkins University

Jeffrey Fagan, Schools of Law and Public Health, Columbia University

Barry Feld, School of Law, University of Minnesota

Lawrence Greenfeld, Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC

David Harris, College of Law, University of Toledo

Philip Harris, Department of Criminal Justice, Temple University

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Kimberly Kempf-Leonard, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Missouri, St. Louis

David Kennedy, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University

Mark Lepper, Department of Psychology, Stanford University

Mark Lipsey, Institute for Public Policy Studies, Vanderbilt University

Rolf Loeber, Western Psychiatric Clinic, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center

Holly MacKay, United States Sentencing Commission, Washington, DC

Ellen Markman, Department of Psychology, Stanford University

Ken Maton, Department of Psychology, University of Maryland Baltimore County

Steven Messner, Department of Sociology, The University at Albany

Gale Morrison, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Riverside

Stephanie Myers, School of Criminal Justice, The University at Albany

William Oliver, Department of Criminal Justice, Indiana University

Daphna Oyserman, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan

Howard Pinderhughes, Social and Behavioral Sciences, University of California, San Francisco

Gregory Pettit, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Auburn University

Ira Schwartz, School of Social Work, University of Pennsylvania

Laurie Schwede, Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC

Margaret Beale Spencer, Graduate School of Education, University of Pennsylvania

Howard Snyder, National Center for Juvenile Justice, Pittsburgh, PA

Laurence Steinberg, Department of Psychology, Temple University

Cynthia Stifter, Human Development and Family Studies, Pennsylvania State University

Kenneth Trump, National School Safety and Security Services, Cleveland, Ohio

Lee Underwood, The Pines Residential Treatment Center, Portsmouth, Virginia

Robert Worden, School of Criminal Justice, The University at Albany

The panel is grateful to the following individuals who hosted site visits and shared their firsthand experience with juvenile justice system programs with panel members and staff:

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
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Nancy Arrigona, Criminal Justice Policy Council, Austin, Texas

Judy Briscoe, Texas Youth Commission

Thomas Chapmond, Community Initiatives for Program Development, Texas Department of Protective and Regulatory Services

Stan DeGerolami, Giddings State School, Giddings, Texas

Hon. John K. Dietz, Travis County Juvenile Board, Austin, Texas

Mike Griffiths, Dallas County Juvenile Probation Department, Dallas, Texas

Dawn Heikkila, Criminal Justice Policy Council, Austin, Texas

Laura King, Southeast Austin Community Youth Development program

Vance McMahan, Governor's Policy Office, Austin, Texas

Estela Medina, Travis County Juvenile Probation Department, Austin, Texas

David Montague, Tarrant County Chief Juvenile District Attorney, Fort Worth, Texas

Ron Quiros, Travis County Juvenile Justice Alternative Education Program, Austin, Texas

David Riley, Bexar County Juvenile Probation Department, San Antonio, Texas

Linda Smith, Giddings State School, Giddings, Texas

Vicky Spriggs, Texas Juvenile Probation Commission

Johnny Sutton, Governor's Policy Office, Austin, Texas

Don Willett, Governor's Policy Office, Austin, Texas

Thanks and acknowledgment are due to the members of the study panel, all of whom gave generously of their time. Tony Fabelo graciously arranged a site visit to various juvenile detention and correctional facilities in Texas, as well as setting up meetings with a number of juvenile justice system officials. Patricia Cohen arranged a site visit to a correctional facility in New York state. Several members took primary responsibility for drafting sections of the report. We wish to thank Jane Costello for her contributions to the compound risk analysis in Chapter 6; Sandra Graham for her contributions to the section on school-related factors in Chapter 3 and school-based prevention programs in Chapter 4; Darnell Hawkins for his assistance with Chapter 6; Steven Schlossman for his analyses of historical data that appear throughout the report; Mercer Sullivan for his contributions to the section on community factors in Chapter 3; Richard Tremblay for his contributions to individual developmental factors in Chapter 3 and prevention programs in Chapter 4. Finally, we would like to thank the National Research Council staff for valuable assistance with this project: project assistant Glenda Tyson and senior project assistant Karen Autrey, for facilitating the panel's meetings; project assis-

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
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tant Lecia Henderson, for preparing the manuscript for publication; research assistant Brenda McLaughlin, for assisting in gathering materials for response to review; research associate Melissa Bamba, for helping to organize workshops and pulling together research materials for the panel; study director Nancy Crowell for analyzing crime data and turning the panel's writing contributions into a coherent whole; and CBASSE editor Christine McShane, whose editing of this report made it much more readable.

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the National Research Council (NRC). The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Donald Cohen, Yale-New Haven Children's Hospital, Yale University; David Farrington, Institute of Criminology, Cambridge, England; Barry C. Feld, Law School, University of Minnesota; Peter W. Greenwood, RAND, Santa Monica, California; Richard Jessor, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado; Mark Lipsey, Institute of Public Policy Studies, Vanderbilt University; Rebecca Maynard, Graduate School of Education, University of Pennsylvania; N. Dickon Reppucci, Department of Psychology, University of Virginia; and Richard Rosenfeld, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Missouri-St. Louis.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Mark H. Moore, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, and Henry W. Riecken, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine (emeritus). Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring panel and the institution.

While the individuals listed above have provided constructive comments and suggestions, it must be emphasized that responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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JUVENILE CRIME

JUVENILE JUSTICE

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Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice Get This Book
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Even though youth crime rates have fallen since the mid-1990s, public fear and political rhetoric over the issue have heightened. The Columbine shootings and other sensational incidents add to the furor. Often overlooked are the underlying problems of child poverty, social disadvantage, and the pitfalls inherent to adolescent decisionmaking that contribute to youth crime. From a policy standpoint, adolescent offenders are caught in the crossfire between nurturance of youth and punishment of criminals, between rehabilitation and "get tough" pronouncements. In the midst of this emotional debate, the National Research Council's Panel on Juvenile Crime steps forward with an authoritative review of the best available data and analysis. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice presents recommendations for addressing the many aspects of America's youth crime problem.

This timely release discusses patterns and trends in crimes by children and adolescents--trends revealed by arrest data, victim reports, and other sources; youth crime within general crime; and race and sex disparities. The book explores desistance--the probability that delinquency or criminal activities decrease with age--and evaluates different approaches to predicting future crime rates.

Why do young people turn to delinquency? Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice presents what we know and what we urgently need to find out about contributing factors, ranging from prenatal care, differences in temperament, and family influences to the role of peer relationships, the impact of the school policies toward delinquency, and the broader influences of the neighborhood and community. Equally important, this book examines a range of solutions:

  • Prevention and intervention efforts directed to individuals, peer groups, and families, as well as day care-, school- and community-based initiatives.
  • Intervention within the juvenile justice system.
  • Role of the police.
  • Processing and detention of youth offenders.
  • Transferring youths to the adult judicial system.
  • Residential placement of juveniles.

The book includes background on the American juvenile court system, useful comparisons with the juvenile justice systems of other nations, and other important information for assessing this problem.

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