National Academies Press: OpenBook

Biographical Memoirs: V.57 (1987)

Chapter: J. George Harrar

« Previous: Arthur Francis Buddington
Suggested Citation:"J. George Harrar." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
×
Page 26
Suggested Citation:"J. George Harrar." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
×
Page 27
Suggested Citation:"J. George Harrar." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
×
Page 28
Suggested Citation:"J. George Harrar." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
×
Page 29
Suggested Citation:"J. George Harrar." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
×
Page 30
Suggested Citation:"J. George Harrar." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
×
Page 31
Suggested Citation:"J. George Harrar." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
×
Page 32
Suggested Citation:"J. George Harrar." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
×
Page 33
Suggested Citation:"J. George Harrar." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
×
Page 34
Suggested Citation:"J. George Harrar." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
×
Page 35
Suggested Citation:"J. George Harrar." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
×
Page 36
Suggested Citation:"J. George Harrar." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
×
Page 37
Suggested Citation:"J. George Harrar." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
×
Page 38
Suggested Citation:"J. George Harrar." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
×
Page 39
Suggested Citation:"J. George Harrar." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
×
Page 40
Suggested Citation:"J. George Harrar." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
×
Page 41
Suggested Citation:"J. George Harrar." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
×
Page 42
Suggested Citation:"J. George Harrar." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
×
Page 43
Suggested Citation:"J. George Harrar." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
×
Page 44
Suggested Citation:"J. George Harrar." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
×
Page 45
Suggested Citation:"J. George Harrar." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
×
Page 46
Suggested Citation:"J. George Harrar." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
×
Page 47
Suggested Citation:"J. George Harrar." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
×
Page 48
Suggested Citation:"J. George Harrar." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
×
Page 49
Suggested Citation:"J. George Harrar." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
×
Page 50
Suggested Citation:"J. George Harrar." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
×
Page 51
Suggested Citation:"J. George Harrar." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
×
Page 52
Suggested Citation:"J. George Harrar." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
×
Page 53
Suggested Citation:"J. George Harrar." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
×
Page 54
Suggested Citation:"J. George Harrar." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
×
Page 55
Suggested Citation:"J. George Harrar." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
×
Page 56
Suggested Citation:"J. George Harrar." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
×
Page 57

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

a-

J. GEORGE HARRAR December2, 1906—April 18, 1982 BY JOHN ]. McKELVEY, JR. T GEORGE HARRAR lect from strength—from many J strengths. He loved a battle; he expected to win, and few indeed were the battles that he lost. Intuitively and with un- canny accuracy, he assessed his odcis for success in whatever endeavor he contemplatecT. Quick in minct, he reached de- cisions easily—a quality most evident in the formative years of his career. He never lost this quality, but sometimes it was masked later in his life by the subtleties of many situations he had to face. Born on December 2, 1906, in Painesville, Ohio, George shared with his brother Ellwooc! Scott, Jr., two years older, and his sister Marjorie, three years younger than he, the pa- rental guidance typical of an Ohio family at that time. Reg- ular attendance at church school was a must. There, as in his high school, the younger chilctren in the group would cluster around him. E. S. Harrar, Sr., George's father, had earner! his degree in electrical engineering from Lehigh University. When the family lived in Painesville, he worker! to establish ore docks in nearby Ashtabula. When George was three years oIcl, the family movect to Ashtabula; six years later, Youngs- town became their permanent home. In Youngstown Mr. Harrar was instrumental in the electrification of steel mills for the Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company. George's 27

28 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS mother, Lucetta Sterner, taught school briefly but gave up teaching after her marriage to devote herself exclusively to her family. George's father was a Boy Scout leader and stimulated his sons' interest in nature. Both relished the merit badge chal- lenges of the program and went beyond Eagle Scout rank. As a Boy Scout, George became the troop bugler. His interest in the bugle led him to cornet lessons, and soon he was play- ing in the school band. He loved good music; he could iden- tify almost any composition and its composer after hearing only a few measures. The Scout sports program also ap- pealed to George. Through its activities he became a fine swimmer and diver. A nearby tennis court sparked his inter- est, and he spent many hours practicing there. He also man- aged the basketball team in high school. From riflery and target practice he developed a penchant for hunting. During the summer months, George turned his interest in sports to good advantage, earning his spending money as a golfer's caddie and trying golf himself with his own homemade golf club. George also read from the best of the literature in the . family library, but at an early age his reading interests turned to biology and the sciences. The two brothers chose Oberlin for college, George en- rolling at age sixteen in 1923, a year after his brother. Scott, as a sophomore, suffered a serious automobile accident that took him out of Oberlin; but he went on to study forestry at Syracuse University and ultimately to serve as dean of the College of Forestry at Duke University. George stayed at Oberlin; he could have graduated in 1927 after the custom- ary four-year period but remained for a fifth year to take additional courses and to captain the track team. Throughout his life, George was "George" to almost everyone, but he was "Dutch" to the few who knew of his prowess on the Oberlin track team. At college he earned the

]. GEORGE HARRAR 29 sobriquet "The Flying Dutchman" (shortened to Dutch) for the records he set in 1928 in the 440-yard dash and as an- chorman on the record-setting mile relay team. One of his classmates wrote recently, "l remember 'Dutch' Harrar very well and always enjoyed attending track meets when he ran. He seemed to give every ounce of energy to it and ~ always feared whether his endurance could hold out" an assess- ment of performance that was characteristic of George's en- tlre career. Oberlin taught George academic rigor; it blessed him also with the love and friendship of two persons who were to influence his entire life Georgetta (Georgie) Steese, then a student in the Conservatory of Music, and Frederick Grover, emeritus head of the botany department. Georgie became his wife, whose love and support he thoroughly appreciated. Grover, a classical botanist and an impressive teacher, rec- ognizec} George's intellectual talents and cultivated his inter- est in botany. An intense mutual admiration developed be- tween the two. The twinkle in Grover's eye when he later spoke of George told of the human as well as of the intellec- tual traits he knew George possessed and that he, Grover, understood. (Perhaps from his Oberlin classmates or from his colleagues at the Youngstown steel mills where he earned money sharpening tools during the summer months—he further acquired a colorful vocabulary and the art of telling stories risque ones—that might deceive those who were unaware of his high moral standards.) Following graduation from Oberlin, George had hoped to enroll in medical school, but the Depression precluded such a long and expensive period of education. Instead he won a teaching fellowship in plant pathology at {owe State University where he studied under the direction of I. E. Mel- hus, the head of the department, and John Aikman, a plant ecologist. Within nine months he completed the require-

30 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS meets for the master's degree and was on his way to the Uni- versity of Puerto Rico as professor of biology in the College of Agriculture; shortly thereafter, Georgie, his bride, joined him. His subsequent four years in Puerto Rico gave him a love of the I,atin temperament and facility with the Spanish language. George left Puerto Rico in 1934 to accept a Firestone fel- lowship and to become an instructor in plant pathology at the University of Minnesota. He went there because he wanted to work toward his Ph.D. degree with E. C. Stakman (Stak), the eminent wheat pathologist and a man with inter- national interests who would later receive world recognition as the elder statesman in his discipline. As in the case of Fred- erick Grover, George and Stak became fast friends; once again a relationship of mutual admiration and loyalty devel- oped—each would pick on the other's weaknesses but pas- sionately defend the other from outside attack. Like George, Stak had a powerful and intensely compet- itive intellect. One day when Stak and ~ were sitting in the lobby of a hose] in New Delhi, India, amidst the haze of blue smoke from his pipe, he blurted out, "John, have you ever had an argument with George?" T answered, "No, not a real argument. After all, first as one of his graduate students and now in his employ, ~ have never been in a position to have an argument with George." After a long silence, Stak offered, "Well, an argument with George is not an argument—it's a battle." And Stak halfway around the globe from George who was then in New York—must have been nursing some wounds from an "argument" he had lost and mulling over what he should- have said and did not. v George went from the University of Minnesota to Virginia Polytechnic Institute (VPl) in Blacksburg in 1935 to teach plant pathology. ~ first met George in 1939 at the Interna- tional Microbiology Congress in New York. A melange of

J. GEORGE HARRAR 31 impressions struck me then: his youthfulness; his slight build and small features; his thinning hair, fine, slightly recictish, and wavy; his conservative ciark-blue suit; and eyes, as blue and sharp as ~ tract ever encountered, that ctivinec! instantly what one might be thinking. Seater! in the back of George's classroom at VPI, one had difficulty in following his lectures because he spoke in such a steady, low voice. Yet discipline never got out of hanct in his classes an amazing fact given the nonacademic interests of most of the VPI cadet corps "Highly Tighties," as they called themselves in the 1930s. George said to me one clay, "If trouble is brewing in my class, ~ just Took for the biggest and roughest in the bunch and take him on; then the others behave." No smart aleck lasted long in George's graduate studies program, either. He demanded loyalty and work to the best of one's ability. Whether or not an inclividual was an A student clid not matter as long as one strove to clo one's best. Anct George cared deeply about his graduate students. He insisted that they participate at national scientific meet- ings, where he made certain to introduce them to his col- leagues. He sought job opportunities for them diligently, even if an available job would! carry a student into a different but related discipline. George, Georgie, anc! their two children Cynthia Ann and Georgetta Louise, born in Roanoke loved Blacksburg. Although for George the academic pace set by the easygoing heact of the Department of Biology I. D. Wilson was too slow, the surroundings nevertheless offerect a spectacular succes- sion of black locust, reel buct, clogwood, azalea, and rhoclo- clendron in blossom. In the fall, the hunting for quail and grouse was goocl. As a volunteer, George coached the VPI track team. The Harrars built a home in Blacksburg, but by 1941 the challenges clearly lay elsewhere. So after six years at VPI,

32 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS George accepted! the positions of professor and head of the Department of Plant Pathology anct head of the Division of Plant Pathology of the Agricultural Experiment Station at Washington State College. (This prestigious set of posts had previously been helct by F. D. Healct, whose text on plant pathology had become the Bible of plant pathologists.) Dur- ing these years, George and his brother Scott at Durham, North Carolina, worked intensively on their book, Guide to Southern Trees. The Harrars stayer! less than two years at Washington State College because George accepted] an offer to become the local director of the Mexican Agricultural Program, which the Rockefeller Foundation had clecicled to initiate in 1943. This program had originated in discussions among the U.S. Vice-Presiclent Elect Henry Wallace, certain Mexican of- ficials, ant! the Foundation's president (then Raymond B. Fosdick). The talks explorecl how the Rockefeller Foundation might be able to help bring Mexico out of its slump in agri- cultural production to the point where it couict produce the basic foods it needed corn, beans, and wheat. The Foun- ciation callect on three eminent agriculturists E. C. Stak- man, who was the project's Pearler; P. C. Mangelsdorf, pro- fessor of botany at Harvard University; and Richard Bradfielcl, head of the Department of Agronomy at Cornell University to advise on the feasibility of the Foundation's entering into an agreement with the Mexican government to builct a program of research dealing with the basic fooct crops. Strange that the Foundation should have chosen George to heacI a practical program in agriculture. He was city bred; he had no farm experience; he had graduatecl from a liberal arts college; and in his research in graduate school and his subsequent assignments at the University of Puerto Rico and VPI, he had focuses! and publishect—mainly on mycologi-

]. GEORGE HARRAR 33 cal problems associated with plant disease agents rather than on pragmatic problems of producing basic food crops. The choice was not so strange, however, when one considers three things: George's total clectication to a task at hand; his grow- ing awareness through his lanct-grant college assignments of the vital importance of a healthy agriculture to the welfare of a country; and his reputation as a proven scientist. Free to builct a program in Mexico, George sharpened his talents in administration and diplomacy. He exercised his in- spirational leadership abilities, his deftness in the choice of colleagues, and his ability to maintain a coo! exterior while burning inside. Innate patience never figured among George's strengths, but he click have a miraculous contro!- in public of a fiery temperament. He hated to be kept "on hold" outside the offices of Mexican officials, but he would wait and burn. While he burned, he wouIcl exercise his charm, wit, and diplomacy on the junior functionaries who ofttimes held the keys to the inner sancta, whether of the secretary, subsecretary, or other agricultural official. George often got past those Coors when others couIct not. In selecting the scientists anc! other staff for the Mexican Agricultural Program, George exhibited one of his strongest suits: the ability to choose the right person for the right job. Most of those he selected spent their entire careers in one or another of the Founciation's programs. One of his earliest choices, Norman E. BorIaug, later received the Nobel Peace Prize for his contributions not only in Mexico but worIcl- wicle—to the alleviation of hunger through the production of varieties of high-yielcling wheat resistant to disease. No one, however, can achieve a perfect score in the choice of inclivicluals for specific assignments. Once in a while a staff member had to go. In such cases George wouIct fee} a re- sponsibility toward that individuaT's career, and he would in- variably work out an easy transition for the person leaving

34 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS the Foundation. The Mexican civil service system, from which it was almost impossible to fire an indiviclual, may have reinforced this compassionate feeling. In that system an in- ctividual who was unsatisfactory in his post likewise would eventually fins] himself transferred! to another. George set the life-style, the ethic, of the Mexican Agri- cultural Program; to wit, "work harcI, play hard, but above all, work hard." Even socializing at frequent house parties (discotheques in a sense) and at bowling parties took on value greater than merely releasing tensions engendered cluring the work of a highly competitive group of colleagues. It was a mechanism for achieving interdisciplinary cooperation and for bringing wives into a full knowleclge of and participation . . . . In program activities. Although George hac! found his metier in Mexico, toward the close of his nearly ten years there he had obviously out- grown the program. By 1952 the Mexican Agricultural Pro- gram tract proliferatect. A similar effort was under way in Colombia, anct arrangements hacl been macle to create an additional program in Chile. Brazil, Ecuador, ancT Peru, among other countries, were clamoring for assistance for their agricultural, educational, and research institutions; anc} a program in India was uncler consideration. Warren Weaver, director of the Foundation's Natural Sciences Division, de- cidec! he neecled George at headquarters in New York. Reluctantly, George went to New York; but his heart never left Mexico. The move to New York meant that those occa- sional sorties at dawn, slogging through the marshes of To- luca Valley to hunt clucks, would have to go. So would the lilt of the mariachi music from the itinerant bands of Mexico City. Something else wouIcl have to replace the satisfaction of outfoxing the foxes who might-try to torpedo parts of his program, the occasional lesser officials who cticl not always appreciate George's motives and those of his colleagues. The

]. GEORGE HARRAR 35 lightheartedness, the companerismo, among staff families wouIc! have to give way to a New York sedateness and for- mality. Nevertheless, in New York his drive to inform staff wives ant! to involve them in Foundation affairs lingered. It cropped up in the occasional get-togethers at George's house in Scarsdale ant] in the banquets at the Tower Suite of the Time anct Life Builcling in New York. In New York as deputy director for agriculture, George sometimes chafed under Warren Weaver's clirection. Weaver's program on molecular biology was well establishecT, ancT the two programs were in a sense competitive for the same functs. Moreover, Weaver, of diminutive physique, was another in- tellectual giant, a mathematician with sparkling clarity in his thinking and writing. He was charming, but he, too, could inclulge in intellectual skirmishes with punitive results to his adversary. It tickler! George that E. C. Stakman coup exas- perate Weaver, who would lay a neat trap in an argument only to finct that Stak was "batting on another wicket" by the time Weaver thought he tract him in his clutches. "Ouchy" about pain himself, George admired Weaver for his inure- ment to it. For example, Weaver in shorts wouIcl tramp through the brambles of his seven acres on Second Hill in New Milforct, Connecticut, unmindful of the blooct trickling down his legs from his brush with the thorns of those bushes. Weaver hac! become the most powerful of the clirectors of his time within the Founclation. He accepted the groundswell of trustee and public concern about agricultural research and development, even though it promised to engulf his cher- ished program in molecular biology. Shrewdly he developecT companion interests that he labelect "nonconventional agri- culture," which was somewhat competitive with George's practical program. Unpiler this rubric, Weaver couIcl support research on solar energy for agricultural uses; on Chlorella, an alga, for producing proteinaceous food under laboratory

36 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS conditions; on discarded pea pods and vines ground and compressed into pellets that when liberally doused with curry were supposed to be palatable; and on Torula yeasts for con- verting sawdust and similar cellulose waste products into highly proteinaceous foods for human consumption. During his years as Weaver's deputy director for agricul- ture (1952-55), and subsequently as director of agriculture (1955-59) in his own right, George brought to realization his concept of international institutions devoted to practical re- search for the improvement of basic food crops. The first of these, the International Rice Research Institute (TRRI) in the Philippines, had its origin partly in the successes of the Mex- ican Program on wheat improvement. It also came partly from the idea that an international effort might offer free- dom from the constraints of operating at national levels through the bureaucracies of foreign countries; but mainly TRRI arose out of the need to improve rice production in Asia. Harrar, whose vision always sought the financial hori- zon beyond existing monetary barriers, knew that the Rocke- feller Foundation could not by itself finance the first of the international agricultural research centers- let alone those to follow. Since Vice-President F. F. Hill of the Ford Foun- dation shared George's belief that something should be done about rice jointly, with USAID and other donor agencies par- ticipating later, they could and ctid establish IRRI. Once a professional, always a professional. While involved with the administration and execution of the Foundation's agricultural program, George collaborated with Stak to pro- duce their text, Principles of Plant Pathology. George and Warren Weaver never developed a "Frederick Grover" relationship, although Warren became one of George's most ardent mentors. When in 1955 Weaver became vice-president for medical, natural, and agricultural sciences under President Dean Rusk's administration of the Founda-

]. GEORGE HARRAR 37 tion, George became director for the agricultural sciences. When Warren Weaver retired in 1959, George followed in his shoes as vice-president. In that capacity one of his major accomplishments was to open up for the Foundation (and for the U.S. government through USAID as well) the poten- tial for developing programs in Africa. In consultation with many experts, he developec! the initial pattern for the im- provement of science, technology, anct education throughout Africa in a stucly that he lect and USAID financed through the Foreign Office of the National Academy of Sciences. What George really set in motion within the National Acad- emy, however, was a long-term effort of assistance to devel- oping countries. This proliferated to embrace the South Pa- cific and Latin American, as well as the African Science Board, and culminated in the creation of the Board of Sci- ence anct Technology for International Development. In 1961 George succeeclect Dean Rusk as president of the Foundation when Rusk left to become President Kennecly's Secretary of State. Two years later, in 1963, the Foundation celebrated its 50th anniversary. George took advantage of that moment to reflect on the Founciation's past accomplish- ments and to leac] in recasting its program. George carrier] into the presidency his "clo it yourself" philosophy sharpened by his lan(l-grant college experiences anct by the successes of the Mexican Agricultural Program. He also brought his penchant for integrating programs that hac! become cliffuse and disconnected and his insistence that programs express purposeful objectives. Thus, early in his administration he called upon the social, agricultural, natu- ral, and medical sciences to inter(ligitate in a university de- velopment program for the developing worlcl. The agricul- tural, meclical, and social sciences were to forge linkages embodying crop production, nutrition, economics, and ag- ricultural policy in a program entitled "Toward the Conquest

38 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS of Hunger." The medical and natural sciences division was to embrace population stabilization. These growing in-house programs required a vast expansion of field staff on whose importance Harrar laid special stress; he was mindful of the great achievements of such stab in the days when the Foun- dation was combating hookworm in the southern United States and malaria and yellow fever abroad, as well as of his own experiences in Mexico. By 1968 George and the trustees had woven into the social sciences division an action program entitled "Toward Equal Opportunity for All," which was di- rected toward disadvantaged racial groups in the United States. Finally, in the last several years of his presidency, he sneaked through a Foundation program called "Allied Tnter- ests," his concern, as expressed in one of the first annual reports of his presidency, for the quality of the environment. By 1971 this concern had become a full-fledged program entitled "Natural and Environmental Sciences," dealing not only with the noxious chemicals applied to agricultural crops but with those spewing from industry as well. The 1960s—the decade of George's presidency were halcyon days for the philanthropic foundations. The econ- omy was robust, inflation was insignificant, and the Rocke- feller Foundation's assets rose to nearly a billion dollars, a level not to be reached again until the early 1980s. The Foun- dation trustees were relaxed; they dipped into capital an- nually at times to the extent of $ ~ 0 million to $ ~ 5 million- to finance especially worthwhile projects. Congressional uneasiness about tax-exempt institutions soon impaired that aura of well-being. The Committee on Finance of the U.S. Senate and the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives requested that the Treasury examine the activities of private foundations for tax abuses and report its findings and recommendations. While these investigations revealed that the preponderance of pri- vate foundations performed their functions without tax

]. GEORGE HARRAR 39 abuse, eviclence accrued to indicate that a very few such or- ganizations clid abuse the tax exemption privilege: through self-clearing, retaining contributions as capital anc} thus cle- laying the benefits to charity, involvement in business enter- prises, family use of foundations to control corporate and other property, the performance of financial transactions un- relatec] to charitable functions, and in other ways. The report lect to recommendations for legislation that would have se- riously crampec! all of the foundations in their efforts to pro- vicle wise and responsible philanthropy. Against this back- ground, George, among other foundation presidents, felt it imperative to plead the case for the foundations albeit some foundation executives seemed complacent about the report ancT about the proposer! legislation. Indeed, in his oral history George reported: The Chairman of the Board tof the Rockefeller Foundation] said, "Well, George, if you're worrying as much as you are, we won't worry any more," or something like that. Well, that was nice to let me worry alone. I did worry a great deal, and it was at that point that I decided on my own that, yes, I was going to write a good deal more and I was going to have other people writing and I was going to appear on television and radio and in every way that I could, with dignity and within reason, that we'd try to get our case before the public in a more effective fashion. By the end of the year 1969, we were right into it and we were doing everything we could to try to offset some of the threats which we knew existed. One was that should not all foundations be given what I called a death sentence? Should they have a fixed life? And that ranged from 25 years to 45 years, as I remember it. The various suggestions came in and we really protested to the maximum of our ability and did succeed in getting those provisions knocked out of the bill. I had a few colleagues who said, in the foundation world, "Well, within 45 years, who knows? Or in 25 years a thing can turn around," et cetera, et cetera. I said, "We're under the gun right now. Let's not put up with this. We know it's wrong...." The responsibilities of the presidency weighed heavily on George. He seemed not to enjoy that post as he had his early

40 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS ones. He retained his thoroughness in researching matters upon which he tract to reach decisions. But his inclination increased, in fact, to let officers proceed far clown a trail in expecting one decision only to find ultimately that George hac] reached an alternative one. George's collateral responsibilities burgeoned during his tenure as president of the Rockefeller Foundation. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in April 1966 ant! shortly thereafter server! on its Committee on Science and Public Policy. His alma mater, Oberlin College, elected him a trustee. President Johnson appointed him to his Gen- era] Advisory Committee on Foreign Assistance Programs from 1965 to 1969. These and others, together with his aca- clemic and social affiliations and with the honors that he re- ceivecT, required that much of his time be spent in writing and in speaking engagements. When George retired, the trustees of the Foundation took the unprececlentect action of recognizing his achievements by designating him a life fellow, the first in the fifty-eight years of Foundation history. George himself had stabilized many of the Foundation programs with staff he tract so artfully ac- quirecl over the years. in the program "Towarc! the Conquest of Hunger," for example, soil scientist R. F. Chancller, Jr., was serving as director of the Rice Research Institute; Norman E. BorIaug had won his Nobel Peace Prize anc! was continuing his research in Mexico on wheat as an associate director in New York; Dorothy Parker, trained as a botanist, was spe- cializing in library clevelopment; Sterling Wortman, a plant breeder, had become the Foundation's vice-presiclent for the natural, environmental, and agricultural sciences; plant breeder E. I. WelIhausen was director of the corn and wheat improvement center, CIMMYT, in Mexico; and John A. Pino was director for agricultural sciences, the post that Harrar once helcI. All haci at one time or another been staff members

]. GEORGE HARRAR 41 in the Mexican Agricultural Program. These staff and their colleagues gathered at Williamsburg in 1979 to honor George and Georgetta. They presented him with a silver sword embedded in crystal, a facsimile of King Arthur's Ex- calibur—inciclentally to recognize George's abiding interest in collecting knives, symbolically to pay tribute to his mastery over his profession, agriculture. The many responsibilities that came George's way in re- tirement may have cleprived him of time with his family and the opportunity to take the frequent dips he enjoyocl in his swimming pool at his Scarsciale home. He wrote; he partici- pated in an early scholarly exchange mission to China spon- sored by the National Academy of Sciences, the Social Science Research Council, and the Council of Learned Societies; he served as director of several corporations; he lectured as an Andrew D. White Professor-at-Large at Cornell University; and above all, he still engaged in institution building. Sterling Wortman, vice-president of the Rockefeller Founclation, called on George to become a trustee and chairman of the board of the newly created International Agricultural Devel- opment Service to help that institution meet its mandate to promote the application of modern agricultural research to problems of development among the nations of Latin Amer- ica, Asia, and Africa. SIowoc] in his seventies, however, by decacles of burning his candle at both end s in the best sense of that figure of speech in his seventy-fifth year, George succumbed! to a heart attack in his home on April 18, 1982. I. George Harrar's strength his many strengths- sprang from his intrinsic capabilities. Certain extrinsic forces, however, helped him to make the most of those capabilities. The perfect marriage, synchrony in philosophy, of a man anti an institution figured among the strongest of those forces. The Rockefeller Founclation oared George flexibility and scope for formulating and executing his programs -which

42 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS then became Foundation programs from the conquest of hunger through equality of opportunity, quality of the en- vironment, population stabilization, and improvement of health to promotion of the arts and of the humanities anct development of social sciences and educational opportunities in the universities of the developing woricTs. And George of- ferec] the Rockefeller Foundation leadership with loyalty ant] distinction, enabling it to satisfy its mandate which was George's mandate as well "toward the well-being of man- kinc! throughout the world," cluring the thirty years of that marriage that culminated in the (lecacle of his presidency: inspiring times, troubled ones, too, in a great Foundation. IN THE PREPARATION OF MY MEMOIR of }. George Harrar, I have drawn on communications from his sister, Mrs. Marjorie Fil- mer, and I have virtually quoted material that she sent to me in her letter of May 16, 1983, about his life prior to college days. I have also quoted Miss Gertrude Jacobs, a volunteer research assistant at Oberlin College, from a postscript of a letter that she wrote to me verifying George's track records at Oberlin. His wife, Georgetta, contributed much information about his entire life and work. Dorothy Parker, a lifelong associate of Dr. Harrar, verified infor- mation with respect to his career. Mr. William J. Hess, archivist of the Rockefeller Foundation, supplied me with information on George's testimony before the House Ways and Means Committee; and from the material he gave me I have excerpted quotations from George's oral history. Anne E. Newbery, editor; Henry Rom- ney, director of information services, the Rockefeller Foundation; and my wife, Josephine Faulkner McKelvey, helped with specific editorial suggestions. Others have read the manuscript and offered suggestions. Anna Starr, my secretary, has been involved in the preparation of the manuscript and in assembling the bibliography. Marie Dooling, librarian, checked the references. I acknowledge with deep gratitude the help of these people.

J. GEORGE HARRAR HONORS AND DISTINCTIONS EDUCATION A.B., Oberlin College, 1928 M.S., Iowa State University, 1929 Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1935 HONORARY DEGREES 1962 Doctor of Laws, Oberlin College 1963 Doctor of Laws, University of California 1971 Doctor of Laws, Columbia University 1971 Doctor of Laws, Utah State University 1964 1966 43 Doctorate, Agrarian University, Lima, Peru Doctor Honoris Causa, University of the Andes, Bogota, Colombia 1966 Doctor Honoris Causa, Central University, Quito, Ecuador 1964 Doctor of Science, University of Florida 1964 Doctor of Science, West Virginia University 1964 Doctor of Science, Ohio State University 1967 Doctor of Science, Clemson University 1968 Doctor of Science, University of Illinois 1968 Doctor of Science, University of Arizona 1968 Doctor of Science, Rockefeller University 1969 Doctor of Science, Washington University 1975 Doctor of Science, Ripon College PROFESSIONAL APPOINTMENTS 1928-1929 1929-1933 Teaching Fellow, Iowa State University Professor and Head of the Department of Biology, University of Puerto Rico, College of Agriculture 1934-1935 Instructor in Plant Pathology and Firestone Fellow (1935), University of Minnesota Assistant Professor, Biology, Virginia Polytechnic In- stitute 1937 - 1941 Associate Professor, Biology, Virginia Polytechnic In- stitute 1941 Professor, Virginia Polytechnic Institute 1941-1942 Professor and Head, Department of Plant Pathology, and Head, Division of Plant Pathology, Agricultural 1935-1937 43

44 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Experiment Station, Washington State College, Pullman, Washington 1943-1951 Local Director, Mexican Agricultural Program, The Rockefeller Foundation 1951 - 1955 Deputy Director for Agriculture, Division of Natural Sciences and Agriculture, The Rockefeller Foun- dation 1955-1959 Director for Agriculture, The Rockefeller Founda- tion 1959-1961 Vice-President, The Rockefeller Foundation 1961-1972 Trustee and President, The Rockefeller Foundation 1973-1979 Member, Governing Council, The Rockefeller Ar- chive Center 1960-1972 Trustee, General Education Board 1961-1971 President, General Education Board 1971-1972 Chairman of the Board, General Education Board DIRECTORSHIPS 1971-1982 Dreyfus Third Century Fund 1968 - 1982 International Flavors and Fragrances, Inc. 1962-1978 Campbell Soup Company 1971-1979 Merck and Company 1971-1978 Viacom International, Inc. 1970-1976 Kimberly-Clark Corporation 1964-1978 Nutrition Foundation (Chairman of the Board, 1972-78) TRUSTEESHIPS 1973-1962 Chairman, Draper World Population Fund 1960-1962 The International Rice Research Institute 1962-1973 Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio 1972-1978 The Near East Foundation, New York 1975-1982 Chairman of the Board, International Agricultural Development Service MEMBERSHIPS 1966-1982 National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. 1972-1975 Citizen's Commission for Science, Law, and the Food Supply, New York

]. GEORGE HARRAR 45 1972 Overseas Development Council, Washington, D.C. 1973-1979 Rockefeller University Council, New York 1973 Scientific Delegation to visit the People's Republic of China 1973-1975 Panel II on Food, Health, World Population, and Quality of Life, Commission on Critical Choices for 1974-1976 1974-1977 Americans Commission on U.S.-Latin American Relations Corporation Visiting Committee, Department of Nu- trition and Food Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1967-1973 Visiting Committee to Harvard Medical School and School of Dental Medicine 1960 President Eisenhower's Science Advisory Committee 1975-1979 President's General Advisory Committee on Foreign Assistance Program 1966-1972 Mayor's Science and Technology Advisory Council, New York City 1973 - 1978 Advisory Board, New Perspective Fund, Inc. 1952 - 1982 American Academy of Arts and Sciences 1962-1982 American Philosophical Society 1968-1982 Chairman, National Advisory Council of the Monell Chemical Senses Center, University of Pennsylva- nia HONORARY MEMBERSHIPS 1957 Brazilian Society of Geneticists 1966 Asociacion Ecuatoriana de Ingenieros Agronomos, Ecua- dor FELLOWSHIPS 1939-1982 American Association for the Advancement of Sci- 1965 1972 LEARNED SOCIETIES ence American Phytopathological Society Royal Society of Arts, London Andrew W. Cordier Fellow, Columbia University Academy of Arts and Sciences of Puerto Rico American Academy of Arts and Sciences

46 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS American Philosophical Society Italian National Academy of Agriculture, Bologna World Academy of Art and Science Japan Academy of Sciences OTHER HONORS AND AWARDS 1950 Certificate for Meritorious Service to Agriculture, Univer- sity of Florida 1952 Medal of Agricultural Merit, Government of Mexico 1952 Medal of Agricultural Merit, Government of the State of Coahuila, Saltillo (Mexico) 1953 Outstanding Achievement Award, University of Minnesota 1953 Distinguished Alumnus Citation from Oberlin College 1954 Cruze de Boyaca, "Caballero," Republic of Colombia 1958 Chilean Order of Merit, "Bernardo O'Higgins" "Oficial"; "Gran Oficial," 1962 1960 Citation and Medallion of Merit, University of Arizona 1961 Citation and diploma for contributions to agricultural im- provement in the Americas, from the Diplomatic Corps in Honduras representing Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, E1 Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, and Venezuela 1962 Presidential Award, American Public Health Association 1963 Public Welfare Medal, National Academy of Sciences 1963 Decoration from the Government of Ecuador, "Caballero," for Agricultural Merit 1964 Order of the Golden Heart, Government of the Philippines 1965 Governor's Award, State of Ohio, for the Advancement of the Prestige of Ohio 1968 Inter-American Agricultural Medal, Inter-American Insti- tute of Agricultural Sciences of the Organization of American States, Costa Rica 1969 Elvin Charles Stakman Award, University of Minnesota 1970 Distinguished Achievement Citation, Iowa State University 1971 The first Edward W. Browning Award, presented annually by the American Society of Agronomy 1971 Knight Commander of the Most Nobel Order of the Crown of Thailand authorized by King Bhumidol Adulyadej and conferred by the Prime Minister, Bangkok, Thailand

J. GEORGE HARRAR 47 1973 "Rafael Uribe Uribe" Order of Merit in Agriculture, Re- public of Colombia 1974 Wilbur O. Atwater Medal 1974 Americas Award 1975 Underwood-Prescott Memorial Award, Massachusetts Insti- tute of Technology 1980 Harrar Hall (training and dormitory complex of the Inter- national Rice Research Institute) named in honor of Dr. I. George Harrar 1980 Order of the Aztec Eagle, Government of Mexico, Mexican Embassy, Washington, D.C.

48 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS BIBLIOGRAPHY 1930 With M. M. Evans. Germination of the oospores of Sclerospora gra- minicola (Sacc.) Schroet. Phytopathology, 20. 1935 Boxwood diseases in Virginia. In: The Virginia Fruit, colt 23. 1936 Powdery mildews in Virginia. Plant Dis. Rep., 20. Cercospora leaf spot of Calendula in Virginia. Plant Dis. Rep., 20. Hyphal structures of Fomes lignosus Klotzsch. (Abstract.) Proc. Va. Acad. Sci.:40. With I. M. Grayson. Boxwood blight in Virginia. (Abstract.) Proc. Va. Acad. Sci.:36-37. With R. S. Mullin. Cercospora leaf spot of Calendula spp. (Abstract.) Proc. Va. Acad. Sci.:40-41. With S. A. Wingard. Boxwood diseases in Virginia. Plant Dis. Rep., 20. 1937 Some unusual diseases of ornamentals in Virginia. Plant Dis. Rep., 21. Cladosporium leaf and stem disease of snapdragons. (Abstract.) Proc. Va. Acad. Sci.:52. Infection of Buxus sempervirens by Verticillium sp. (Abstract.) Proc. Va. Acad. Sci.:42-43. Cercospora leaf spot of Calendula. (Abstract.) Phytopathology, 27. Factors affecting the pathogenicity of Fomes lignosus Klotzsch. Minn. Tech. Bull., 123. With S. A. Wingard. Diseases of Virginia ornamental trees. Plant Dis. Rep., 21. 1938 Blue rot of boxwood. (Abstract.) Phytopathology, 28. With I. B. Clark. Inhibition of the growth of Mycobacterium tuber- culosis hominis on protein media by sulfur and its compounds. (Abstract.) Proc. Va. Acad. Sci.:83.

]. GEORGE HARRAR 49 With L. I. Miller. Studies in the morphology and physiology of a species of EntomopAthora on Typhlocyba pomaria. (Abstract.) Proc. Va. Acad. Sci.:41. With L. I. Miller. Phoma (phyllosticta) artirrhini in Virginia. (Ab- stract.) Phytopathology, 28. With L. I. Miller. A Phoma leaf spot and stem canker of Artirrhinum spp. (Abstract.) Phytopathology, 28. 1939 With S. A. Wingard and L. I. Miller. Cultural studies on a species of Entomophthora from the apple leaf hopper (Typhlocyba po- maria). (Abstract.) Phytopathology, 29. 1945 With E. C. Stakman. Plant pathology in Mexico. In: Plants and Plant Science in Latin America. Waltham, Mass.: Chronica Botanical 1946 With E. S. Harrar. Guide to Southern Trees. New York: McGraw-Hill. 709 pp. (Reissued, New York: Dover Publications, 1962.) 1947 With N. E. Borlaug. Stem rust of wheat in Mexico. Paper presented at the 39th annual meeting of the American Phytopathology Society, Chicago, Illinois, December 30. Phytopathology, 27~1~: 12. 1949 With N. E. Borlaug and I. A. Rupert. Nuevos Trigos para Mexico. Folleto de Divulgacion no. 5. Mexico: Oficina de Estudios Es- peciales, Secretaria de Agricultura y Ganaderia. 1950 With E. C. Stakman, W. Z. Loegering, and N. E. Borlaug. Razas Fisiologicas de Puccinia Graminis Tritici en Mexico. Folleto Tecnico no. 3. Mexico: Oficina de Estudios Especiales, Secretaria de Agricultura y Ganaderia.

50 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Mexican Agricultural Program. New York: The Rockefeller Founda- tion. 35 pp. 1953 Science and Human Needs. Nellie Heldt lecture presented at Oberlin. Ohio, April 30. Oberlin College. 19 pp. Meeting human needs through agriculture. In: Transactions of the Eighteenth North American Wildlife Conference, March 9-11, pp. 46-50. Washington, D.C.: Wildlife Management Institute. 1954 A pattern for international collaboration in agriculture. Adv. Agron., 6:95 -119. Book review of Indian Corn in Old America by Paul Weatherwax. New York Times Book Review, August 1, p. 12. International collaboration in food production. In: Proceedings of the Third Annual Meeting of the Agricultural Research Institute, pp. 21-27. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council. Book review of New Life in Old Lands by Kathleen McLaughlin. New York Times Book Review, November 21, p. 4. Food for the future. A speech at the symposium, "Natural Re- sources: Power, Metals, Food," which comprised the first part of the AAAS symposium, "Science and Society," Berkeley, Cali- fornia, December 27. 1955 Food for the future. Science, 122~31641:313-16. Fertilizer, pesticide use in Mexico. Agric. Chem., 10~2~:26-28; 137-38. Technical aid and agricultural chemistry. I. Agric. Food Chem. 3:395-98. 1956 Practical suggestions to carry out a well-considered program. In: University Projects Abroad, pp. 23-31. Washington, D.C.: Amer- ican Council on Education. Alimentos pare el future. Turrialba, 6~1-2)( June):6-12. Food and agriculture and man's health. (Speech at Massachusetts Institute of Technology Alumni Day, June 11.) Technol. Rev., 58:479-80; 508-14.

]. GEORGE HARRAR 1957 51 With E. C. Stakman. Principles of Plant Pathology. New York: The Ronald Press. 581 pp. (Also in Russian, Spanish, and Polish translations.) 1958 Food, science, and people. (A speech at a meeting of the New York Academy of Sciences, December 9, 1957.) Trans. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 20:263-77. New scientific developments in the area of food. (A speech at Sarah Lawrence College, August.) In: The American Economy: An Ap- praisal of its Social Goals and the Impact of Science and Technology, pp. 132-38. New York: Joint Council on Economic Education. (Also in: Paper no. 107 of the Agricultural Journal Series Pa- pers of The Rockefeller Foundation.) 1959 Agricultural horizons. (A speech at the 51st annual meeting of the American Society of Agronomy, Purdue University, August 5, 1 958.) Agronomy, 51 :1 87-90. An international approach to the study and control of plant dis- ease. (An address at the American Phytopathological Society, Golden Jubilee Meeting, Bloomington, Indiana, August 24-28, 1958.N In: Plant Pathology, Problems and Progress. 1908-1958. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. 1960 ~ , Cooperation in the training of scientists and engineers. In: Science in the Americas: Cooperation of the Scientists and Engineers of the Americas in Furthering Scientific Training and Research, pp. 13 - 16. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council. Will there be enough? The Club Dial (magazine of the Woman's Club of White Plains, New York). Portions of articles on plant disease control and bananas. In: McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. New York: McGraw-Hill. Food in national and international welfare. (Reprinted from N.Y. State Agric. Exp. Stn. Geneva Bull., no. 790:44-49, as part of the dedication program for the station's new food research building, May 5.

52 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1961 Unhappy paradox. (Editorial.) Science, 1 33 (March 10) :67 1. The influence of current social and economic trends on interna- tional health. In: Industry and Tropical Health, vol. 4, pp. 79-83. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard School of Public Health. Socio-economic factors that limit needed food production and con- sumption. (An address to the 5th International Congress on Nutrition, Symposium on World Needs and Food Resources, Washington, D.C., September 6, 1960.) Fed. Proc., 20 (Suppl. 7, no. 1, part III):381-83. Technologic revolution in agriculture; Contributions of science. (An address to a symposium of the Food Protection Committee, Washington, D.C., December 8, 1960.) In: Science and Food; To- day and Tomorrow, pp. 5 - 8. Washington, D.C.: NAS-NRC Publ. 877. Principles and problems of increasing food crops and animals in low production areas. (An address to the Conference on Nutri- tion, arranged by New York Academy of Medicine, Arden House, Harriman, New York, December 15, 1958.) In: Human Nutrition, Historic and Scientific, pp. 171 - 77. New York: Inter- national Universities Press. 1962 Making the most of human resources. (An address to the 90th annual meeting of the American Public Health Association, Mi- ami Beach, October 15.) Am. I. Public Health, 53(March):375- 81. Bread and Peace. (An address to the spring meeting of the Nutrition Foundation, March 6.) New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. 16 pp. (Also in: C & E News, April 29, pp. 126-31.) New Ventures for Private Philanthropy. New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. 9 pp. (Reprinted from New York Times Magazine, June 9, p. 29.) Nutrition and numbers. In: Sixth International Congress of Nutrition, Edinburgh, August 9, pp. 1-6. New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. 1963 Aid abroad: Some principles and their Latin American practice. Foundation News, September, pp. 1 - 3.

]. GEORGE HARRAR 53 Selected papers of J. G. Harrar. In: Strategy for the Conquest of Hun- ger. New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. (Revised edition, 1967.) 1964 Moving frontiers of applied microbiology. (An address to the con- ference, Global Aspects of Applied Microbiology, Stockholm, Sweden, August 1963.) In: Global Impacts of Applied Microbiology, ed. Mortimer P. Starr, pp. 19-27. New York: John Wiley & Sons. A Commencement Perspective. (Commencement address at the Uni- versity of Florida, Gainesville, April 19.) New York: The Rocke- feller Foundation. 11 pp. Foundations and the Public Interest. (Adapted from an address given at the Cosmos Club, Washington, D.C., November 16.) New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. 11 pp. New nations and new universities. (Paper presented at the general session of the 78th annual convention of the Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, November 8-11.) In: Proceedings of the Association of State Universities and Land- Grant Colleges, pp. 9-13. 1965 The Race Between Procreation and Food Production. (Paper presented at the spring meeting of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia.) New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. 29 pp. 1966 Statement of I. George Harrar. Hearings: War on Hunger, House Committee on Agriculture, February 16, 1966. New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. 13 pp. Foundations for the Future. (An address to the 17th annual confer- ence of the Council on Foundations, Inc., Denver, Colorado, May 1 1.) New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. 18 pp. The Quality of the Future. (Commencement address at Emory Uni- versity, Atlanta, Georgia, tune 13.) New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. 8 pp. Agricultural Development in Latin America. (Statement of J. George Harrar before the Subcommittee on International Finance of the House Committee on Banking and Currency, August 29.) New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. 15 pp.

54 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Principles for Progress in World Agriculture. (An address to the 33rd annual meeting of the National Agricultural Chemicals Asso- ciation, White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia, September 8.) New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. 16 pp. 1967 Survival or Fulfillment. (An address to the California Institute of Technology Conference on The Next Ninety Years, March 7.) New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. 15 pp. Education and responsibility. (Commencement address at Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina, May 61. Clemson, S.C.: Clemson University. 1968 ~ - cr~ses in human ecology. (Banquet address to the annual meeting of the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., April 23.) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 61:357-62. (Also: New York: The Rockefeller Foundation; World Agric., 18~0ctober]: 3-5.) Increasing Food Supplies Through Adaptive Research. (Principal ad- dress, 25th Anniversary Celebration of Texas Research Foun- dation at Renner, Texas, May 22.) Texas Research Foundation, Special Series, no. 5. United States public policy with regard to world food problems. In: The Potential Impact of Science and Technology on Future U.S. Foreign Policy (papers presented at a Joint Meeting of the Policy Planning Council, Department of State, and a Special Panel of the Committee on Science and Public Policy, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., June 16-17~. 1969 With Sterling Wortman. Expanding food production in hungry nations: The promise, the problems. (Paper presented at a meeting of the American Assembly, Columbia University, Oc- tober 31, 1968.) In: Overcoming World Hunger, ed. Clifford M. Hardin. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. (Also in French as Vaincre la Faim, Paris: Editions France-Empire, 1970, pp. 89-135.) Plant Pathology and World Food Problems. (Discourse given before the First International Congress of Plant Pathology, London, July 16, 1968.) New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. 21 pp.

]. GEORGE HARRAR 55 Statement on foundations and tax exemption before the House Committee on Ways and Means, Washington, D.C., February 19. New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. Supplementary statement on foundations and tax exemption be- fore the House Committee on Ways and Means, Washington, D.C., July 9. New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. Statement of I. George Harrar on effects of population growth on natural resources and the environment at hearings before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, 91st Congress, 1st session, Septem- ber 16. (Published in complete hearings by the U.S. Govern- ment Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1969, #35-506, pp. 52-56.) The challenge of hunger. (Banquet address to the annual meeting of the American Chamber of Commerce of Mexico, Mexico City, August 21.) Mex. Am. Rev., October:31-35. 1970 The Green Revolution as an historical phenomenon. In: Symposium on Science and Foreign Policy: the Green Revolution, pp. 16-23. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. The global food supply. (A talk given at the Symposium on Aids and Threats to Society from Technology, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., April 29.) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 67~0ctober):900 - 907. Ecological crisis demands new ethic of responsibility. Catal. Envi- ron.Qual.,1:22 - 24. Education and human ecology. Western Bulletin (Western College for Women, Oxford, Ohio), Summer: 1-4. 1971 Human behavior and the environment. (Commencement address at Utah State University, June 5.) 17 pp. 1972 Raymond Blaine Fosdick. Yearb. Am. Philos. Soc.: 157-65. 1973 Toward the conquest of hunger and malnutrition: The Rockefeller Foundation's worldwide efforts to increase food supplies and

56 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS improve nutrition. U.S. Information Service—Voice of America series on nutrition, May 8. Impressions of China (based on a visit to the People's Republic of China on a scientific and scholarly exchange mission under the auspices of the National Academy of Sciences, the Social Sci- ence Research Council, and the Council of Learned Societies, May 11-June 17~. 1975 Nutrition and Numbers in the Third World: The 1974 ~ O. Atwater Memorial Lecture. Washington, D.C.: Agricultural Research Ser- vice. 18 pp. Agricultural Initiative in the Third World: A Report on the Conference "Science and Agribusiness in the Seventies." Lexington, Mass.: Lex- ington Books for The Agribusiness Council. 1979 E. C. Stakman Memoir. Yearb. Am. Philos. Soc.: 107-12. Warren Weaver Memoir. Yearb. Am. Philos. Soc.: 1 13-17.

Next: Paul Herget »
Biographical Memoirs: V.57 Get This Book
×
Buy Hardback | $107.00
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

National Academy of Sciences

This distinguished series contains the biographies of deceased members of the National Academy of Sciences and bibliographies of their published works. Each biographical essay was written by a member of the Academy familiar with the professional career of the deceased. A cumulative index for all 57 volumes is now included. For historical and bibliographical purposes, these volumes are worth returning to time and again.

Volume 57 includes biographies of-- Arthur Francis Buddington, J. George Harrar, Paul Herget, John Dove Isaacs III, Bessel Kok, Otto Krayer, Rebecca Craighill Lancefield, Harold Dwight Lasswell, Jay Laurence Lush, John Howard Mueller, Robert Franklin Pitts, John Robert Raper, Karl Sax, Gerhard Schmidt, Leslie Spier, Hans-Lukas Teuber, and Warren Weaver

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!