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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
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Index

A

ABS Immunization Calendar program, 336-337

Academia, xvi-xvii, 15-18, 29, 32-33, 358-395

see also Professional education;

Schools of public health

academic health centers, 239, 250-251, 252

accreditation, 360-361, 368

assessment efforts, 364, 374, 378

Association of Schools of Public Health, 122, 360-361, 394

attitudes, research on200, 392-393

CDC support, 16-17, 99, 368, 371-372, 373, 381, 382-386, 390-392

community-level efforts, 359, 363, 372, 373-374, 375, 377-381, 386-395

community public health degrees, 361

competency-based learning, 33, 363, 419, 422, 437

Council on Linkages between Academia and Public Health Practice, 5, 9, 118, 120, 161

credentialing, 122, 359, 364

curricula, 15, 117, 121, 125-126, 418, 419, 422(n.9), 423

defined, 359

doctorate of public health, 360, 361

epidemiology, 374-375

financing, 16, 111, 367-374, 395

health care delivery system, cooperative efforts, 5, 6, 155-158, 250-251, 360, 365, 375, 381

interdisciplinary approaches, 16, 235, 360, 362, 363-367, 371, 372, 376

international cooperation, 166, 358

leadership training, 5-6, 16, 389, 393

mass media, use of, 324, 388

master of public health degree, 360, 361, 365, 366, 367, 372

obesity prevention, 81-82, 375-376

partnerships, 5, 6, 119, 120, 250-251, 358, 360, 364, 365, 372, 377, 378, 379, 380, 388-392, 394

policy development, 374, 388, 419

population studies and interventions, 360, 375, 376-377

practice scholarship, 393-395

preventive medicine and health promotion, 16, 17, 361, 364, 365, 375

public health agency/delivery system collaboration, 5, 6, 155-158, 250-251, 360, 365, 375, 381

public health worker training partnerships, 119, 120

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
×

racial/ethnic issues, 358, 362, 372, 419

rural areas, 250, 376

safety-net providers, 219

service, 373-374, 387-395

service learning, 373-374, 391-392

wages of faculty and staff, 361, 365-366

Access to services, 22, 24, 25, 32, 212, 213-220

see also Health insurance;

Managed care organizations;

Outreach;

Safetynet services

community health centers, 153-154, 215, 219

community-level collaborations, 192, 451

federal guarantees, 168

hospitals, 63

minorities, 63, 222-223, 233

obesity, 81

population-level studies and interventions, 71

public health agency/delivery system collaboration, 244, 257

public transportation, 36

race/ethnicity, 62-63

social connectedness, 65

socioeconomic status, 233, 239

transportation, 36, 238

Accidents and injuries, 20-21

community-level collaborations, 192, 198, 253

seat belts, xv, 73-74, 240

teen driving behavior, 386

uninsured, emergency care, 217-218

workplace, 276, 277, 284-288

Accountability, xiv, 4, 7, 33, 34, 101, 444

Department of Health and Human Resources funding, 115, 150

emergency preparedness, 147

federal agency organization, 163

local government, 415

public health agencies, 413

public health leadership and, 121-122

Accreditation of institutions

hospitals, 157

public health agencies, 9, 155, 156, 157-158

schools of public health, 360-361, 368

Administration for Children and Families, 114

Administration on Aging, 114

Adolescents, 187, 451, 458

see also School-based interventions

Advocates for Youth, 328

alcohol abuse, 278

diabetes management, 386

employment, 203

immunizations, 223

parental expectations and teen behaviors, 386

smoking, 321

teenage pregnancy, 203, 340

Advertising, 307-308, 323-324, 337

alcoholic beverages, 76

community-based collaborations, 196, 197

media advocacy, 338

population-level studies and interventions, 76

professional education, 240

public service announcements, 15, 319-324

social marketing, 14, 117, 125, 201, 282, 299, 319, 326, 333-338

tobacco, 76, 196

Advocacy

AIDS, 310

committee study at hand, methodology, xiv

community-level collaborations, 190, 192, 202, 255, 458

diet, 340

media, 338-341

obesity, 81

public health infrastructure, 100

public health worker training, 117

Advocates for Youth, 328

African Americans, 61, 62

community-level collaboration, 190, 191, 197-198, 444-449

digital divide, 331-332

health care professionals of African American origin, 235

health insurance coverage and preventive care, 222-223

infant morality, 20, 21

oral disease, 230

poverty, 63

religious influences, 190, 191, 194

Age factors, xii

see also Adolescents;

Children;

Elderly persons;

Longevity

AIDS, media coverage, 309

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
×

employer health promotion/prevention measures, 274

nursing shortages, 236-237

population dynamics, 12, 28, 35

population-level studies and interventions, 75

preventive care, insurance coverage, 222, 230-231, 274

professional training, 367

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 112

Agency for International Development, 165

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), 112, 117, 118, 132, 163

Agenda setting theory, 344-345

AIDS, see HIV/AIDS

AIDS Federal Policy Act, 310

Air pollution, 54

Alcohol abuse, 228, 278

advertising, 76

cost factors, 228, 229, 276, 278

counseling, 223

employees, 274, 275, 276-277

entertainment television, 324-325, 328-329

media advocacy, 339-341

preventive interventions, 275, 276-277

Ambulatory care, see Outpatient care

American Academy of Pediatrics, 328

American Hospital Association, 237, 238, 253

American Indians

state program participation, 103

tribal governments, 102-103, 421-422

American Medical Association, 363

American Psychological Association, 328

American Public Health Association (APHA), 122, 156, 363

America’s Children: Health Insurance and Access to Care, 218

America’s Health Care Safety Net: Intact but Endangered, 220-221

Animal studies

see also Veterinarians

bioterrorism, 139

social isolation, 65

toxic substances, 164

Anthrax, 96, 106, 124, 142, 247, 317-318

Antibiotics

drug-resistant pathogens, 1, 21

information systems, 249

Asians

community-level interventions, 457-460

health care professionals, 235

Assessment, 32, 411, 412, 413

see also Credentialing;

Outcome assessment;

Performance standards;

Quality of care;

Research methodology

academic research, 364, 374, 378

accreditation, institutions

bioterrorism response, 141-143

community-level efforts, 11, 184, 186, 187-189, 191, 194, 196-197, 198-201, 202-203, 297, 406-409 (passim), 446, 447-449, 452, 456-457

employees, health promotion programs, 279-280, 281-283

of health care professionals, 5, 6, 366

health officials, 7, 113, 150, 163

industrial pollution control, 290

local level, 7, 8, 11, 141-142

mass media interventions, 321, 324-327, 345-347

peer review, 16, 27, 382, 383, 385, 388, 393

professional education, 366-367

public health agencies, general, 141-143, 156-157

public health laboratories, 8, 140

public health worker training, 119, 430

system-wide, 7, 99

Assessment Protocol for Excellence in Public Health, 156, 406

Association of Health Care Journalists, 316-317

Association of Public Health Laboratories, 130, 137, 138

Association of Schools of Public Affairs and

Administration, 361

Association of Schools of Public Health (ASPH), xi(n.1), 122, 360-361, 394

Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), 9, 122, 148, 155, 156, 158, 168, 332

Association of Teachers of Preventive Medicine, 361

Association of University Programs in Health Administration, 361

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
×

Assurance, 8, 22, 83, 98, 114, 411, 412, 413-414

academic research, 374

accreditation of public health agencies, 157

environmental safety, 116

privacy, 136

safety-net services, 257

uninsured persons, 154, 247

Asthma, 54, 56, 62, 63, 128, 218, 234, 239, 286, 386, 446

Attitudes and beliefs

academic research, 200, 392-393

AIDS discrimination, 310

alcohol and substance abuse, 228

community-level collaborations, 184, 193, 194, 200

companies, public opinion, 298

crime, public opinion, 311

employees, 282

health belief model, 342

health care system decisionmakers, 24

industrial pollution, 291

institutional and organizational, 17

mass media, 307-308, 310, 313-315, 317, 318, 322, 333

minority physicians, 236

oral diseases, 229

parental expectations and teen behaviors, 386

political, 417

professional education, 373-374, 420

public health agency/delivery system collaboration, 244

research methodology, 347

smoking, 76

uninsured persons, 216

B

Behavioral risk factors, 21, 24, 39, 50, 57, 275

see also Accidents and injuries;

Alcohol abuse;

Obesity;

Preventive interventions and health promotion;

Smoking;

Substance abuse

academic research, 374, 375, 377

chronic conditions, general, 234

community-level collaborations, 186, 189, 191, 196-198

counseling, 81, 102, 105, 196, 222, 223, 224, 234, 274, 282, 458

employees, 275-281 (passim)

health insurance and, 218

mass media, 307-308

race/ethnicity and, 61

social connectedness, 65

socioeconomic status, 60

Biostatistics, 105, 116, 316, 360, 372, 419

Bioterrorism, 1, 3, 7, 21, 27, 40, 234

anthrax, 96, 106, 124, 142, 247, 317-318

assessment, 141-143

CDC response, 124, 134, 143-144, 145

DHHS, 124, 143

diagnosis, 96, 218

Enhanced Surveillance Project, 131

funding for preparedness, 7, 26-27, 137-138, 139, 140, 144-147

health insurance coverage, 218

information/communication systems, 3, 99-100, 124, 132-133, 134, 142

local public health agencies, 96, 137-138, 139, 140, 141-147, 160

mass media, 142, 317-318

physician reports, 247, 248

public health agency response, 96, 100, 137-138, 139, 140, 141-147

state law reform, 106, 107

Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Initiative, 143

Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Program, 143

Birth defects, 21, 55

Black persons, see African Americans

Block grants, 150-152, 228-229, 245, 444

Body mass index, 48-50

Bureau of Health Professions, 371

C

California Public Employees Retirement System, 272

Cancer

breast, 197-198

diagnosis and screening, 197-198, 224, 240, 274

international efforts, 20-21

National Cancer Institute, 276

oral, 230

racial/ethnic disparities in treatment, 231

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
×

Cardiovascular disease, 275, 277

see also Hypertension

community-level collaborations, 188, 191

occupational status, 66

preventive interventions, 224, 275

race/ethnicity, 62

social connectedness, 64, 65

socioeconomic status, 58

Categorical grants, general, 8, 115, 127, 150, 151-152, 160

Center for Genomics and Public Health, 390, 394

Center for Infectious Disease Research Policy, 139

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 5, 99-101

academia, support of, 16-17, 99, 368, 371-372, 373, 381, 382-386, 390-392

accreditation, institutions, 9, 155, 157-158

bioterrorism response, 124, 134, 143-144, 145

budget, 386

Centers, Institutes, and Offices, 381, 382

communication technology, 128, 131-133, 134, 136

community-level interventions, 188, 386, 390-391

investigator-initiated research, 16, 382-383, 385

mass media, entertainment television, 326

National Center for Environmental Health, 10, 163

National Center for Health Statistics, 114

National Electronic Disease Surveillance System, 128, 132

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 283

National Public Health Performance Standards Program, 150, 155, 157

obesity, 76-77

performance standards, 155

preventive interventions, 16, 55, 74, 76-77, 99-100, 117-121 (passim), 381, 382-386, 390-391

professional education, 12, 16-17, 368, 371, 373, 374, 423

public health laboratories, 137, 138, 140

public health worker training

research agenda, 9, 161

smoking, 74

state law reform, 106-107

surveillance, 128, 129, 131-133, 140, 248, 249-250

toxic substances, 55

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, 114

public health agency/delivery system collaboration, 245

Centers for Prevention Research, 99

Centers for Public Health Preparedness, 100, 394

Centers, Institutes, and Offices (CIO-CDC), 381, 382

Certified Health Education Specialist, 122

C. Everett Koop National Health Award, 299

Chemical terrorism, 138, 139, 141

Children, 12, 36

see also Adolescents;

Infants;

Schoolb ased interventions

Administration for Children and Families, 114

community-level interventions, 187, 386, 444, 458

competencies of health care workers, 433-434

dental care, 229-230

Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment program, 224-225, 226

employee leave to care for, 288

entertainment television, 328-329

immunizations, 111, 223, 274, 336-337, 362, 386

news media coverage, 311-313

obesity, 78

preventive interventions, 224, 226, 386

public health worker training, 117

toxic substances, 55

uninsured, 216, 217, 218, 220

Cholesterol, 275

Chronic conditions, 12, 20, 21, 27, 212

see also Cardiovascular disease;

Diabetes

asthma, 54, 56, 62, 63, 128, 218, 234, 239, 286, 386, 446

birth defects, 21, 55

community-level collaborations, 193-194, 444, 449

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
×

defined, 232

demographic factors, general, 35

disabled persons, 215, 232

educational attainment and, 21, 59

elderly persons, 35, 232-236

health care delivery system, 212, 229, 231, 232-234, 236-237

health insurance, 214, 216, 234-235, 240

historical perspectives, xii, 79

managed care, 240

National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 100

nursing shortages, 236-237

oral diseases and, 229

quality of care, general, 232-234

surveillance, 128, 130

Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments, 137

Coalitions, see Community partnerships, coalitions, and collaboration;

Partnerships, coalitions, and collaboration

Cognitive theory, 343-344

Collaboration, see Partnerships, coalitions, and collaboration

Colleges and universities, see Academia

Communication, xiii, xiv, 4, 6, 10, 15, 34, 37, 131-134

see also Information systems;

Internet;

Mass media

bioterrorism response, 3, 99-100, 124, 132-133, 134, 142, 144

CDC, technological innovation, 128, 131-133, 134, 136

community-level, 11, 14, 184, 189, 299-300

corporate/community, 299-300

Health Alert Network, 99-100, 124, 132-133, 134, 143, 144, 146

health care delivery system, 213

health officials’ role, 6, 124, 125, 132, 135, 168

infrastructure costs, 136, 139, 243, 256

local public health agencies, 134, 143, 159-160

National Information Infrastructure, 134-135

partnerships, 6, 34, 392

professional training, 123-126, 367

schools of public health, 132, 333

standards, 39, 130, 132, 139, 144, 242-243

technical assistance, 139, 242-244, 307

technological innovations, 35, 37-38, 39, 131-133, 134, 136

Community and Migrant Health Centers, 111

Community-based factors and interventions, xv-xvi, 2, 11, 22, 178-204

see also Community partnerships, coalitions, and collaboration;

Local factors

academia, 359, 363, 372, 373-374, 375, 377-381, 386-395

academic health centers, 239, 250-251, 252

access to services, 192, 451

accidents and injuries, 192, 198, 253

African Americans, 190, 191, 197-198, 444-449

Asians, 457-460

assessment, 11, 184, 186, 187-189, 191, 194, 196-197, 198-201, 202-203, 297, 406-409 (passim), 446, 447-449, 452, 456-457

children, 187, 386, 444, 458

committee study at hand, methodology, 441

communication, 11, 14, 184, 189, 299-300

community health centers, 153-154, 215, 219, 251

definitional issues, 160-161, 178-180, 387, 394

demonstration projects, 13, 204, 253

determinants of health, 179, 188, 447-448, 456, 457

ecological models, 51-53, 68-71

employer/business role, 13, 187, 188, 193, 201, 203, 253-254, 255, 268, 290, 292-300

entertainment media, 327

environmental factors, 54, 186, 187, 188, 192-196, 386

epidemiology, 200-201

essential services, 32, 33, 160, 161, 179, 185, 460

ethical issues, 200-201

funding, 11, 183, 201, 203, 204, 253, 254, 444, 449, 454, 456, 457

globalization and, 180

governance, 184-186

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
×

health care delivery system, 213, 251-252

Healthy People 2010, 19

Hispanics, 457-460

historical perspectives, 178, 179

hospitals, 182, 187, 202, 251, 252-253

information systems, 184, 189

intersectoral models, 52

leadership, 11, 184, 196, 201, 204, 254, 292, 293, 297-298, 389, 393

media interventions, 81, 338, 339-340

obesity, 80, 81, 82, 187, 197, 198

outcome assessment, 11, 198-199

outreach, 111, 192, 202-203, 394, 445, 447, 450, 458

participatory research, 201, 346, 359, 377-378, 380-381, 393, 427

performance standards, 156, 160, 186, 193-196, 409-420

prevention and health promotion, 17, 80, 81, 183, 187, 190, 191, 192-194, 196-197, 198, 204, 253, 292, 327, 373, 378, 386-387, 389, 392-393, 407-408, 445-460 (passim)

professional training, 202, 203, 235, 362, 371, 373-374, 449

private sector, 182-183

public goods, 22-23

public health agency involvement, 181, 182, 246

public health function of state, 98

public health worker training, 117, 119

religious influences, 190-191

safety-net services, 153-154, 215, 219, 446

small and remote communities, 98, 108, 134, 160, 161, 188, 250, 415

state law, 106

taxation, 182, 253

technical assistance, 388, 393, 394

Turning Point initiative, xiii, xiv(n.3), 4(n.1), 106, 107, 121, 182-183, 184, 185, 203, 337, 442, 443, 451, 452, 454

Community health centers, 153-154, 215, 219, 251

Community Health Improvement Process (CHIP), 409-410

Community Health Status Indicators Project, 332-333

Community partnerships, coalitions, and collaboration, xi, 33, 34, 99, 142, 180, 181-182, 183, 185, 187, 204, 254, 255, 299, 377, 378, 379, 387, 388-391, 394, 441, 444-460

see also School-based interventions

advertising, 196, 197

advocacy, 190, 192, 202, 255, 458

African Americans, 190, 191, 197-198, 444-449

Asians, 457-460

attitudes affecting, 184, 193, 194, 200

behavioral risk factors, 186, 189, 191, 196-198

cardiovascular disease, 188, 191

CDC role, 188, 386, 390-391

chronic conditions, 193-194, 444, 449

crime, 70, 71, 180, 339-340, 445, 447, 458

cultural factors, 194-195, 197, 198, 200, 204, 458-459

diagnosis and screening, 197-198

elderly persons, 187, 458

employers and businesses, 187, 188, 193, 201, 203, 253-254, 255, 268, 290, 292-300

environmental health factors, 54, 186, 187, 188, 192-196, 386

epidemiology, 200-201

exercise, physical, 187, 188, 191, 194, 197

federal role, general, 11, 188, 203

food and nutrition, 187, 188, 191, 194, 197, 458

gender factors, 183-184, 191, 197-198, 446-447, 458

health insurance, 254, 458

health officials’ role, 179, 181, 272-273, 298

health workers, 191-192, 194, 427

Hispanics, 457-460

HIV/AIDS, 183-184, 444, 449, 458

information systems, 184, 189

Internet, 189

language factors, 178, 180

leadership, 11, 196, 201, 204, 254, 292, 293, 297-298, 389, 393

local public health agencies, 181, 185-186, 187, 191-192, 202, 203, 204, 408, 454, 458, 459-460

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
×

mass media, 188, 196, 197, 202, 253, 254-255, 311-313, 388

mental health, 193, 451, 458

models, 186-199, 203, 393-394, 406-410

monitoring, 33, 408

nonprofit organizations, 181-182, 194, 252-253, 449, 451, 457, 459

obesity, 187, 197, 198

organizational factors, 22, 179, 180-199, 202, 203

outreach, 111, 192, 202-203, 394, 445, 447, 450, 458

performance standards, 409, 410

personal health, 449

political influences, 192, 195-196

population studies and interventions, 198-199, 378, 387

public education, 191, 192, 194, 197, 449, 458

racial/ethnic factors, 184, 190, 191, 197-198, 201, 444-449

religious influences, 190, 191, 454

risk factors, 186, 191, 193-198

sexually transmitted diseases, 183-184, 444, 449, 458

smoking, 188, 196

social factors, 184, 188, 204, 451

substance abuses, 203, 445

technical assistance, 11, 184, 202, 203, 388, 393, 394

toxic substances, 312-313, 390

Turning Point initiative, xiii, xiv(n.3), 4(n.1), 106, 107, 121, 182-183, 184, 185, 203, 337, 442, 443, 451, 452, 454

urban areas, 187, 374, 444-460

Community Voices, 184, 442-459 (passim)

Competencies of health workers, 15, 100-101, 154, 418, 422, 423-440

see also Credentialing

academia’s responsibilities, 33, 363, 419, 422, 437

accounting, 425

bioterrorism/emergency response, 426-427, 428

child care, 433-434

communication skills, 126, 417

community-level health, 191-192, 194, 427

computer applications, 433

core, 7, 120, 125, 363, 372, 424, 425-426, 432, 435, 437

cultural, 36, 125-126, 192, 194, 212, 236

emergency response, 143

epidemiology, 329-430

essential services, 5, 116, 422

multidisciplinary, 122-123, 235

training, competency-based, 5, 16, 33, 116-120, 122, 125-127, 143, 363, 366, 393-394, 422

Computer applications, 117

see also Information systems;

Internet competencies of health care workers, 433

diagnoses, 249

diffusion theory, 367

educational materials, computer

generated, 336

employee training programs, 293

health care settings lacking, 242

medical records, standards, 242-243

National Health Information Infrastructure, xii, 7, 134-136, 244

personal computer use, 7, 307, 333

physician orders, 242, 253

professional education, 367, 424

Confidentiality, see Privacy and confidentiality

Congress

see also Legislation

bioterrorism, 143, 144, 317

CDC investigator-initiated funding, 385

community health centers, 154

DHHS budget, 113

fragmentation of services, 112

Homeland Security Department, 143(n.13)

immunization programs, 149

information infrastructure, 7, 134, 136

international health activities, 165, 166

National Health Information Infrastructure, 7, 136

National Public Health Council, 10, 169

prevention research, 16

public health education funding, 16

safety belts, 73

workforce preparedness funding, 5, 120

Congress of National Black Churches, 190

Continuing education, 15, 120, 251, 358, 361, 367, 371, 372, 373, 419, 422, 454

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
×

Contraceptives, 223, 325-326

Core public health functions, 5, 98, 120, 123, 157, 185, 363, 411, 452

see also Assessment;

Assurance;

Policy development

communications, 6, 125

professional education, 7, 120, 125, 363, 372, 424, 425-426, 432, 435, 437

Corporate Investment in Health Award, 14, 300

Costs and cost-benefit factors, 12, 46, 255-257

alcohol abuse, 228, 229, 276, 278

childhood and adolescent immunizations, 223

chronic diseases, 128, 233-234

communications/information infrastructure, 136, 139, 243, 256

depression, treatment of, 227

elderly persons, treatment of, 36

employee illness and injury, 272, 275-285 (passim), 298

essential public health services, 152-153

health care delivery system, capacity, 234

health care delivery system, state regulation, 213, 214

health insurance, 269-271, 273, 275, 277

health-related expenditures, 20, 213, 215, 232, 255-257

industrial pollution, 291

laboratory diagnostic tests, 248

local public health agency infrastructure, 144, 148

managed care, 241

mental illness, 225, 277, 278

National Health Information Infrastructure, 136

obesity, 77-78

pharmaceuticals, prescription drugs, 256, 269

population-level studies and interventions, 72, 75

preventive measures, 73, 74

primary care practice costs, 239

public health infrastructure, general, 147-148

public health laboratories, 137(n.10)

state public health agency infrastructure, 144

substance abuse, 228, 229, 276, 278

underinsured persons, 218

Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, 130, 139

Council on Linkages between Academia and Public Health Practice, 5, 9, 118, 120, 161

Counseling, 81, 102, 105, 196, 222, 223, 224, 234, 274, 282, 458

Coverage of the Quality of Care—A Resource Guide for Journalists, 317

Credentialing, 372, 454

see also Accreditation of institutions

academic programs, 122, 359, 364

Certified Health Education Specialist, 122

Graduate Certificate Program, 371

public health workers, 6, 122-123, 158

Crime and violence, 54, 180, 253

community-based interventions, 70, 71, 180, 339-340, 445, 447, 458

mass media, 311, 328-329, 345

public opinion, 311

Crossing the Quality Chasm, 212, 213, 231, 233-234, 235, 240, 242

Cultivation theory of mass media, 344

Cultural factors, 23, 39, 40, 62

see also Immigrants;

Language factors;

Race/ethnicity;

Social factors

academic research, 374, 390

community defined, 178-179, 180

community-level collaborations, 194-195, 197, 198, 200, 204, 458-459

faith community, 179, 181, 190, 191, 194, 355, 454

health worker competency, 36, 125-126, 192, 194, 212, 236

institutional, 24, 195, 202

mass media, 318, 334-335

obesity, 76, 81, 82

professional education, 118, 125, 180, 194, 233, 236, 362, 367, 372, 374, 458

religious influences, 190, 191, 454

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
×

D

Definitional issues

academia, 359

chronic conditions, 232

community, 160-161, 178-180, 387, 394

disparities in health care, 231

essential public health services, xi-xii, 31, 32

population studies and interventions, 377, 378

prevention, 221, 376

public health, 28, 30, 98, 411, 453, 456

public service announcements, 320

safety-net services, 219

Demographics, xii, xv, 1, 35, 70-71

see also Age factors;

Educational attainment;

Gender factors;

Population studies and interventions;

Race/ethnicity;

Socioeconomic status

professional training, 362

Demonstrating Excellence, 394

Demonstration projects, 13

community-level, 13, 204, 253

health care financing and delivery, 257

hospital/community collaboration, 253

Dentistry, see Oral health care

Department of Agriculture, 101, 114

food labeling, 82

Department of Commerce, 300

Department of Defense, 215

Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), 6, 7, 111-115

see also Centers for Disease Control and Prevention;

National Institutes of Health

accreditation, institutions, 9, 158

Administration for Children and Families, 114

Administration on Aging, 114

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 112

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 112, 117, 118, 132, 163

bioterrorism response, 124, 143

budget, 113

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, 114, 245

communication training, 125

community health centers, 153-154

Corporate Investment in Health Award, 14

demographic disparities in care, 233

dietary guidelines, 79, 80

Food and Drug Administration, 56, 112, 114, 163

Health Resources and Services Administration, 5, 16, 112

international efforts, 115, 165, 166

Internet interactive communications, 329, 332

local governments, cooperation with, 112, 167-168

mass media relations, 317-318

National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics, 7, 135, 136, 143, 244

National Health Information Infrastructure, xii, 7, 134-136, 244

National Institutes of Health, reporting to, 387

National Public Health Council, 10-11, 169

oral health, insurance coverage, 229

organizational factors, 9-10, 112-115, 161-166, 168, 318

performance standards, 160

professional education, 118, 119, 120, 366-367, 368, 374

public health agency/delivery system collaboration, 245

public health financing, 147

public health function, general, 98, 112, 150-151

public health laboratories, 7, 8, 140

Public Health Service, 112, 113, 114

regionalization, 162, 168

regulatory authorities of agencies, 9-10, 113-114, 164-165, 169

state government relations with, 10-11, 112, 167-169

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 112

surveillance, 113, 128

Department of Homeland Security, 143(n.13)

Department of Justice, 167

Department of State, 38

Agency for International Development, 165

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
×

Depression, 67, 125, 225, 227, 234, 277, 278

suicide, 70, 275

Determinants of health, xiv, 2, 11, 21, 28, 31, 41, 135, 196, 245

see also Access to services;

Behavioral risk factors;

Genetic factors;

Risk factors

community-level, 179, 188, 447-448, 456, 457

ecological, xv, 6, 37, 51, 53, 68-71, 196

employment and workplace, 268

health care delivery system, 214, 240, 245, 417

physical environment, 53-56, 188

population-level, 4, 11, 25, 33, 46-84

social, xv, 36, 56-71, 188, 338, 346, 456

socioeconomic, 39, 57-61

Developing countries, research on diseases affecting, 40, 165

Diabetes, 77, 78-79, 275, 388

family-to-child management transfer, 386

Internet, 243

outpatient care, 239

preventive interventions, Medicare coverage, 224

Diagnosis and screening, 32, 99, 222

see also Public health laboratories

alcohol abuse, 278

bioterrorism response, 96, 218

cancer, 197-198, 224, 240, 274

cardiovascular disease, 227

children, Medicaid coverage, 224-225, 226

community-level collaborations, 197-198

counseling, 221-222, 223, 224

Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment program, 224-225, 226

genomics, 37, 140

health insurance coverage, 214, 216, 218, 239, 248, 274

hospital emergency response, 238

mental disorders, 227

neglected, 221

obesity, clinical guidelines, 81

oral diseases, 230

public health laboratories, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140

racial/ethnic factors, 197-198, 232

sexually transmitted diseases, 274

state law, 104(n.3), 105, 106

surveillance and, 248-250

toxicity, 100

Diet, see Food and nutrition

Diffusion of innovation theory, 39, 342-343

Disabled persons, 215, 232

employees, 275, 285

Distance learning, 117, 243, 359, 367, 368, 454

Doctor of public health (DrPH), 360, 361

Drugs, see Alcohol abuse;

Pharmaceuticals;

Substance abuse

E

Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) program, 224-225, 226

Ecological models, xv, 6, 37, 51, 53, 68-71, 196

Economic factors, 21, 24-25

see also Costs and cost-benefit factors;

Employers and businesses;

Funding

competency requirements, 428, 431, 432

globalization, 38-41, 180, 362, 430

health determinant models, 57, 403-405

health-related expenditures, 20, 213, 215, 232, 255-256, 422

incentives and disincentives, 23, 32, 75, 104, 155, 213, 222, 233, 241

National Health Information Infrastructure, 136

pharmaceuticals, intellectual property, 165

professional training, 362

public service announcements, 320, 321, 323-324

university students, 15, 16

Education, see Academia;

Professional education;

Public education

Educational attainment, 57, 58, 69

chronic diseases, 21, 59

quality of care, 231

Elderly persons, 35-36, 234

see also Medicare

Administration on Aging, 114

chronic conditions, 35, 232-236

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
×

community-level collaborations, 187, 458

nursing shortages, 236-237

public health care delivery programs, 215

social connectedness, 64

vaccines, 274

visual perception, 274

Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act, 238

Emergency response, 3, 5, 7, 100, 107, 115, 116, 124, 125, 134, 135, 138, 140, 141, 143-144, 212, 234, 449

see also Bioterrorism;

Chemical terrorism

health insurance coverage, 217-218

health officials, 96, 134, 143

hospitals, 145, 237-239, 253

occupational safety and health, ER workers, 286-288

overcrowded emergency rooms, 238

Emotional response theory, 344

Employee Benefit Research Institute, 269

Employers and businesses, xvi, 2-3, 13-14, 22-23, 29, 31, 33, 268-300

see also Health workers;

Occupational safety and health;

Occupational status

alcohol abuse by employees, 274, 275, 276-277

attitudes of employees, 282

child care, parental leave, 288

community-level collaborations, 13, 187, 188, 193, 201, 203, 253-254, 255, 268, 290, 292-300

Corporate Investment in Health Award, 14

costs of employee illness and injury, 272, 275-285 (passim), 298

disabled employees, 275, 285

essential public health services, 81

federal employees, 215

health care services provided directly by, 13, 212, 251

health insurance through, xiv, 13, 153, 182, 214, 256, 268, 269-274

health officials, cooperation with, 272-273, 297

hypertension, 274, 275

leadership, 14, 287-298, 299

obesity, 13, 23, 66-67, 81, 268

prevention/promotion interventions, 13-14, 25, 193, 222, 223, 268, 271-274, 275-289, 292, 293, 294-300

small businesses, 269, 273, 274, 286, 288

social connectedness, 65, 268

unemployed persons, 66-67, 445

wages and salaries, general, 25, 273, 274

youth employment, 203

Enhanced Surveillance Project, 131

Enterprise Foundation, 444, 446

Environmental factors, physical, 21, 24, 32, 51, 53-56, 60

see also Accidents and injuries;

Occupational safety and health;

Rural areas;

Social factors;

Toxicity;

Urban areas

academic degrees, 361

birth defects, 21

community defined, 178-179 (passim)

community-level collaborations, 186, 187, 188, 192-196, 386

competencies of health workers, 329

ecological models, 51-53, 68-71

health determinant models, 57, 403-405

housing, 36, 54, 60, 252, 255, 445

immigration and, 39

industrial pollution, 289-290, 291

infectious diseases, 51

National Center for Environmental Health, 10, 163

National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences, 163, 386

occupational health and safety poor persons, 54, 60

preventive measures, 25-26, 377

public health worker training, 117, 118, 159

quality of care, 231

sanitation, 20, 22, 48, 51, 54, 60, 362

telecommunications infrastructure, 135

water quality, 60, 114, 180, 190, 193

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 101, 112, 114(n.7), 163, 299

industrial pollution, 290

preventive measures, 386

toxic substance exposure levels, 55, 56

Epidemiology, xii, xiii

see also Surveillance

academic research, 374-375

community-level efforts, 200-201

competencies of health workers, 329-430

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
×

Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, 130, 139

local public health agencies, 144

National Center for Health Statistics, 114, 368

National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics, 7, 135, 136, 143, 244

National Longitudinal Mortality Study, 58, 67

professional training, 118, 129, 365, 372, 374-375

public health laboratories, 136, 140

social connectedness, 64

socioeconomic status, 57, 58

state public health agencies, 144, 146

toxic substances, 55-56

unemployment, 67

Epi-X, 143, 144

Essential public health services, xi-xii, xv, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 27, 31, 32, 98, 150, 161, 413, 421, 422, 460

see also Community partnerships, coalitions, and collaboration;

Diagnosis and screening;

Monitoring;

Partnerships, coalitions, and collaboration;

Professional education;

Public education

academia, 363

accreditation of public health agencies, 157

business and employers, 81

communications, 123, 125

community-level efforts, 32, 33, 160, 161, 179, 185, 460

expenditures related to, 148

federal government, direct delivery, 111

federal vs state responsibilities, 168, 413

financial implications, 152-153

health care delivery system, 214, 246

incentives, 169

information systems, 136

infrastructure necessary, 148, 149, 154, 155

model public health law, 106

public workforce, 115, 117, 120, 122

state governance structures, 110

Ethical issues, 22

see also Privacy and confidentiality

community-level efforts, 200-201

competencies of health workers, 430

genomics, 37

indigent care, 416

professional education, 116

Ethnicity, see Race/ethnicity

European Institute for Health and Medical Sciences, 39

Evaluation, see Assessment

Evidence-based policy, xii, xvii, 8, 9, 34, 46, 80, 83, 113, 169, 231

chronic conditions, 234

communications, 15, 34

community-level, 14

employer-provided health insurance, 274

funding decisions, 27

health insurers, 12, 81

multiple health determinants, 33

occupational safety and health, 14, 285

standard treatment and prevention procedures, 272

workplace, 14, 285

Exercise, 78, 79, 80-82, 222

community-level collaborations, 187, 188, 191, 194, 197

competencies of health care workers, 438-439

employees, 275, 279

school physical education programs, 79, 188, 194

Eyesight, see Visual perception

F

Faith community, 179, 181, 190, 191, 194, 355, 454

Family Medical Leave Act, 288

Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act, 284

Federal Communication Commission (FCC), 15, 320, 322-323

Federal Emergency Response Act, 124

Federal Employees Health Benefits Program, 215

Federal government

see also Congress;

Funding;

Legislation;

specific departments and agencies

community-level efforts, 11, 188, 203

essential health care services, 111, 168, 413

health insurance, 12, 215, 219

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
×

inter-departmental cooperation, 10, 163-166

local government relations, 143, 148, 165, 167-168, 169-170

public health function, general, 98, 103-104, 413, 415

public health infrastructure, 111-116

safety-net services, 219, 221, 245

state government relations, 10-11, 26, 103-104, 115, 145-146, 148, 150, 151-152, 165, 166-170, 418

tribal governments and, 102-103, 421-422

vaccines, 111

Federal Mine Safety and Health Act, 284

Federal Workers’ Compensation Act, 284

Federalism, 166-169

Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 56, 112, 114, 163

Food and nutrition

see also Obesity

community-level collaborations, 187, 188, 191, 194, 197, 458

counseling and behavioral interventions, 222, 223

employees, 275

international efforts, 165

oral diseases and229

media advocacy, 340

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 76-77

pathogen-related diseases, 141

population-level studies and interventions, 72

professional training, 81, 362

toxic substances, 55-56

Women, Infants and Children program, 82

Formula-driven grants, 150, 151, 161

Framing theory, 345

Funding, xii,xiii, 7, 8, 9, 10, 23, 24, 25, 413, 418

see also Accountability

academic financing, 16, 111, 367-374, 395

AIDS, 310

alcohol/drug abuse treatment, 228

bioterrorism preparedness, 7, 26-27, 137-138, 139, 140, 144-147

block grants, 150-152, 228-229, 245, 444

categorical grants, general, 8, 115, 127, 150, 151-152, 160

committee study at hand, xii

community-based efforts, 11, 183, 201, 203, 204, 253, 254, 444, 449, 454, 456, 457

community health centers, 153-154, 215

cultural diversity considerations, 362

developing countries, diseases affecting, 40

direct management of federal services, 115

entertainment television, 328

formula-driven grants, 150, 151, 161

graduate degrees, grants, 368, 371

grantsmanship, 367

health care delivery system, 213, 245

hospitals, 147, 228

infectious disease prevention, 40

international health efforts, 165, 166

local government programs, state and federal funding , 8, 115, 144-145, 146, 149, 151, 154, 168, 418-419

Medicaid, 215

National Health Information Infrastructure, 7, 136

obesity prevention, 82

occupational safety and health, 285

preparedness assessments, 5, 7-8

prevention research, 16, 285, 376, 387

private sector, 11 ,12, 14, 17, 136, 170, 182-183, 204

public health agencies, 96, 98-99, 100, 112, 145-154 (passim), 160

public health agency/delivery system collaboration, 245

public health laboratories, 8, 136-138, 139, 140, 146, 154

public health worker assessment, 118

public service announcements, 320, 321, 322

regulatory conditions for federal, 103

reporting requirements, 114

research, general, 16-17, 111, 164-165

surveillance systems, 127-128, 146

sustainability, 7-8, 10, 98-99, 136, 148, 149, 150, 154, 157, 160, 161, 169, 170, 189, 457

tribal health care, 103

The Future of Public Health, xi,xiii, 28, 83, 97-98, 100, 127, 155, 158, 160, 358, 411-420, 424

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
×

G

Gays and lesbians, 231

community-level collaboration, 183-184

HIV mass media coverage, 308-310

Gender factors, xv, 21, 231

see also Sexual behavior;

Sexually transmitted diseases

breast cancer, 197-198

cervical cancer, 274

community-level collaboration, 183-184, 191, 197-198, 446-447, 458

contraceptives, 223, 325-326

digital divide, 331-332

gays and lesbians, 231

health insurance, 271, 447

longevity, 20, 21

nursing shortages, 236

obesity, 79

pregnancy, 55, 286, 424, 452

socioeconomic status and, 58

toxic substances, 55

General Accounting Office (GAO), 137, 138

Genetic factors, xv, 53, 403

birth defects, 21, 55

public health laboratories, diagnostic tests, 140

Genomics, 37, 140

competencies of health workers, 431

confidentiality and privacy, 37

public health worker training, 117, 118

Globalization, 38-41, 180, 362, 430

community-level factors and, 180

infectious diseases, 38-39

Graduate degrees, 361

doctor of public health, 360, 361

Graduate Certificate Program, 371-372

grants, 368, 371

master of public health degree, 360, 361, 365, 366, 367, 372

Green Power Leadership Award, 299

The Guide to Community Preventive Services, 189

H

Handicapped persons, see Disabled persons

Health Alert Network (HAN), 99-100, 124, 132-133, 134, 143, 144, 146

Health belief model, 342

Health care delivery system, 2, 11-13, 27-28, 46, 164, 212-257, 403

see also Access to services;

Diagnosis and screening;

Emergency response;

Health insurance;

Hospitals;

Mental health care;

Nurses and nursing;

Physicians;

Public health agencies

academic cooperation, 5, 6, 155-158, 250-251, 360, 365, 375, 381

chronic conditions, 212, 229, 231, 232-234, 236-237

community health centers, 153-154, 215, 219, 251

community-level, general, 178, 213, 251-252

cost factors, 213, 214, 234

demonstration projects, 13, 53, 204, 253, 257

determinants of health, 214, 240, 245, 417

elderly persons, 35

employer-provided services, 13, 212, 251

essential public health services, 214, 246

expenditures on health-related services, 20, 213, 215, 232, 255-256, 422

federal government agencies, direct

service delivery, 115

historical perspectives, 213, 219-220

information systems, 212, 242-244

mass media relations, 251, 433

nonprofit organizations, 212-213, 253

oral health care, 212, 229-231

personal health care, 214, 216, 242, 246, 257

private sector, 212-213, 214-215, 218, 225, 228, 229, 245, 247

public health agency, 12, 244-251

safety-net services, 111, 153-154, 215, 219-221, 228, 245, 446

Health Care Financing Administration, 226

see also Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services

Health departments, see Public health agencies

Health for All initiative, 178

Health insurance, 213, 214, 256

see also Managed care organizations;

Medicaid;

Medicare

behavioral risk factors and, 218

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
×

chronic conditions, 214, 216, 234-235, 240

community-level collaboration, 254, 458

contraceptives, 223

costs, copayments, 12, 218, 223, 225, 229, 238, 240, 271

coverage limitations, 218, 223

diagnostic procedures, 214, 216, 218, 239, 248, 274

ecological models, 70

employer-provided, xiv, 13, 153, 182, 214, 256, 268, 269-274

health insurance reimbursement, 237

historical perspectives, 219-220, 270

hospital emergency response, 237

infants, 218, 221, 223

Internet interactive health communication, 329-330

mental health care, 12, 27, 73, 218, 225, 227-228, 230-231, 271

mortality, 216, 218

oral health, 12, 73, 218, 239-233

outcome assessment, 214, 221

premiums, 269-271

preventive interventions, 12, 73, 216, 218, 221, 222-223, 235, 240

services not covered by, 12, 271, 275, 277

state and local employees, 153

substance abuse treatment, 12, 27, 73, 218, 225, 228-231

uninsured persons, 1, 11-12, 22, 25, 62-63, 153, 154, 215, 216-219, 221, 416

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), 127, 248

Health maintenance organizations, 233, 240-241

see also Managed care organizations

Health officials, 101, 160

accreditation of public health agencies, 157

assessment of infrastructure, 7, 113, 150, 163

Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, 9, 122, 148, 155, 156, 158, 168, 332

bioterrorism response, 96, 134

communication/information technologies, 6, 124, 125, 132, 135, 168

community-level efforts, 179, 181, 272-273, 298

emergency response, 96, 134, 143

employers, cooperation with, 272-273, 297

grant administration, 151

Information Network for Public Health Officials, 132

leadership role, 116, 120

mass media relations, xvi, 14-15, 81, 124, 125, 315-318, 332, 341, 352

National Association of County and City Health Officials, 9, 108, 110, 122, 141-143, 148, 155-158 (passim), 168, 332, 406, 408

obesity prevention, 80

public health laboratories, 137

safety-net services, 216, 220

state law reform, 105, 106

state policy development, general, 121

surveillance, 248

Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set, 271

Health Professions Educational Assistance Act, 368

Health Resources and Services Administration (HSRA), 5, 16, 112

community-level collaborations, 188

public health worker training, 118, 119, 120, 366-367, 368, 374

Health workers, xii, xiii, 3, 27, 101, 116

see also Health officials;

Nurses and nursing;

Physicians;

Professional education

African American, 235

Asians, 235

community-level collaboration, 191-192, 194, 427

competencies required, 15, 100-101, 154, 418, 422, 423-440

emergency response worker safety, 286- 288

funding for assessment of, 118

local public health agencies, staffing, 143, 159

minority, 36, 233, 235-236

occupational safety and health, 286-288

public health laboratories, 138-139

shortages, 235-237, 368

volunteer workers, 116, 361

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
×

Healthy People 2000,150, 199, 410

Healthy People 2010, xii, xiv, 2, 10, 17, 19, 31, 83, 98, 113, 168, 178, 199, 421-422

Healthy Start, 182

Hispanics, 201

access to care, 63

community-level interventions, 457-460

digital divide, 331-332

health care professionals of Hispanic origin, 235

obesity, 62

oral disease, 229-230

poverty, 63

preventive interventions, insurance

coverage, 222

television, 320-321

Historical perspectives, 20, 23, 40

campaigns, large-scale, 319

chronic conditions, xii, 79

community-based care, 178, 179

employee working conditions, 283, 284

employer-provided health insurance, 270

environmental factors, 53, 54

health care costs, 255-256

health care delivery system, 213, 219-220

health care expenditures, 255-256

health insurance, 219-220, 270

hospital emergency response, 238

local government role, 108

mass media, 308-310

occupational safety and health, 283, 284

preventive interventions, 222

professional education, funding, 116, 117, 368-371, 420

public health agencies, 26, 97-98

public health agency/delivery system collaboration, 244-245

public health worker education, 116, 117, 362, 368-371, 420

quality of life, 20

sanitation, 60

social risk factors, 56-57

state public health law, 104-105, 108

uninsured persons, 216

HIV/AIDS, 40, 294

community-level collaborations, 183-184, 444, 449, 458

competencies of health care workers, 440

international perspectives, 294

mass media campaigns, 308-310, 311, 322, 334

race/ethnicity, access to care, 63

social marketing, 334

Homeland Security Department, see Department of Homeland Security

Homosexuality, see Gays and lesbians

Hospital Research and Education Trust, 253

Hospitals, 212

see also Outpatient care

access to care, 63

American Hospital Association, 237, 238, 253

clinical laboratories, 131, 139

community collaboration, 182, 187, 202, 251, 252-253

emergency response, 145, 237-239, 253

federal funding, 147, 228

health insurance reimbursements, 237

Hospital Research and Education Trust, 253

Medicaid managed care, 247

mental health services, 220, 228

National Association of Public Hospitals , 220

nursing shortage, 236-237

outpatient clinics, 220

primary care, reduced hospitalization rates, 239

private, 137

safety-net services, 219, 220

sentinel hospitals, 131

state health departments regulatory powers, 220

surge capacity, 143, 145

voluntary accreditation, 157

Housing, 36, 54, 60, 252, 255, 445

Hypertension, 47, 72, 77, 234, 240

employees, 274, 275

I

Immigrants, 38, 62, 111, 457-460

Immunizations, see Vaccines

Income, 50, 57, 58, 59, 60, 68, 69

see also Poverty;

Socioeconomic status adolescents, 223

behavioral risk factors, 60

primary care, 240

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
×

quality of care, 231

race/ethnicity and, 61

Indian Health Service (IHS), 103, 111, 115, 215, 245

Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act, 103

Infants

health insurance for, 218, 221, 223

mortality, 20, 21, 69, 182

primary care, birth weight, 240

Infectious diseases, 20, 79

see Bioterrorism;

Sexually transmitted diseases;

Vaccines;

Viruses

anthrax, 96, 106, 124, 142, 247, 317-318

antibiotics, 1, 21, 249

ecology of agents, 51

epidemics, measures taken, privacy and confidentiality, 24

food-borne, 141

globalization effects, 38-39

information dissemination, 124

local health agencies, 110-111

media campaigns, 319

oral diseases, 230

professional training, 362

reporting, 248-249

sanitation, 20, 22, 48, 51, 54, 60, 362

state law, 104(n.3), 105, 106

Information for Health: A Strategy for Building the National Health Information Infrastructure, 135

Information Network for Public Health Officials, 132

Information Superhighway, see National Health Information Infrastructure

Information systems, 3, 126, 131-136, 154, 242-244

see also Computer applications;

Internet academic health centers, 251

bioterrorism response, 3, 99-100, 124, 132-133, 134, 142, 144

chronic conditions, 234-235

community-level collaborations, 184, 189

competencies of health care workers, 433-434, 435

Health Alert Network, 99-100, 124, 132-133, 134, 143, 144, 146

health care delivery system, 212, 242-244

health officials’ role, 6, 124, 125, 132, 135, 168

infrastructure costs, 136, 139, 243, 256

international, 39, 41

local public health agencies, 134, 143, 159-160

National Health Information

Infrastructure, xii, 7, 134-136, 244

National Information Infrastructure, 134-135

personal health care, 243, 244, 331, 332

preventive interventions, 244

privacy and confidentiality, 243, 244

private sector, 132, 136, 139

professional education, 367

schools of public health, 132, 333

standards, 39, 130, 132, 139, 144, 242-243

state law, 106

surveillance, 131, 243, 248, 249

technical assistance, 139, 242-244, 307

technological innovations, general, 35, 37-38, 39, 131-133, 134, 136

Injuries, see Accidents and injuries

Input-output persuasion model, 343

Insurance, see Health insurance

Integrating Public Health Information and Surveillance Systems, 131

Interactive health communication, 329-331, 332

Interdisciplinary approaches

academia/professional education, 16, 235, 360, 362, 363-367, 371, 372, 376

credentialing of public health workers, 123

minority access to quality care, 233

prevention research, 376, 386

International perspectives

academia, 166, 358, 362, 419

cancer, 20-21

developing countries, research on diseases affecting, 40, 165

DHHS, 115, 165, 166

environmental factors, 53

European Institute for Health and Medical Sciences, 39

federal agency coordination and foreign relations, 38, 165

food movements, 165

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
×

funding, 165, 166

globalization, 38-41, 180, 362, 430

HIV awareness, 294

infant mortality, 20

information systems, 39, 41

internships and fellowships, 362

longevity, 20

pharmaceuticals, international

movement of, 39, 165

primary care, 240

public health care workers, competencies, 423-424, 430

schools of public health, international programs, 362, 419

socioeconomic status, 68-70

surveillance, 40

technological innovations, 38

unemployed persons, 66-67

World Health Organization, 22, 39, 165, 178

Internet, 27, 37, 39, 132, 134, 307-308, 329-333, 421

academic health centers, 251

community-level collaborations, 189

digital divide, 331-332

distance learning, 117, 359, 367, 368, 454

employee training, 294

interactive health communication, 329-331, 332

managed care organizations, 243

public health agency performance standards, 155

public health education, 243

schools of public health, 333

J

Japan, 48, 55

Journalism and journalists, 14-15, 125, 315, 316-317, 318-319, 339, 346, 360

Association of Health Care Journalists, 316-317

attitudes of and about, 313-316

education on health topics, 15, 315-317, 319

health officials’ relations with, xvi, 14-15, 81, 124, 125, 315-318, 332, 341, 352

K

Kaiser Family Foundation, 222, 294, 308, 316, 320, 322, 325, 326, 328

entertainment television, 326, 328

public service announcements, 319, 322

Kellogg Foundation, 106, 444, 449

see also Turning Point initiative

L

Laboratories

see also Public health laboratories

private/hospitals, 137, 139

Laboratory Response Network, 139

Language factors, 31, 38, 62, 458, 459

community-level efforts, 178, 180

digital divide, 332

health care delivery system, 225, 234

health promotion efforts, 192

Internet, 332

mass media, 31, 316, 320-321

safety-net providers, 216

television programming for Hispanics, 320-321

Law, see Legislation

Lead poisoning, 55

Leadership

community-level efforts, 11, 184, 196, 201, 204, 254, 292, 293, 297-298, 389, 393

competencies of health care workers, 433

doctor of public health, 360

federal vs state authority, 166-167

health officials, 116, 120

industry role, 14, 287-298, 299

mass media and, 309-310

National Health Information Infrastructure, 7

state government, 166-167, 415

training, 5-6, 7, 118, 119, 120-122, 367, 371, 374, 418, 433

Leapfrog Group, 271

Legislation, 101-111, 113

AIDS Federal Policy Act, 310

Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments, 137

competencies of health care workers, 439

diet and nutrition, 292

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
×

Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act, 238

employer-provided health insurance, 127, 248, 273

enforcement, 32, 102

environmental protection, 289-290

Family Medical Leave Act, 288

Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act, 284

Federal Emergency Response Act, 124

Federal Mine Safety and Health Act, 284

Federal Workers’ Compensation Act, 284

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, 127, 248

Health Professions Educational Assistance Act, 368

Indian Self-Determination and Education

Assistance Act, 103

infectious diseases, state law, 104(n.3), 105, 106

information systems, state law, 106

media advocacy, 339-340

model public health law, 4, 5, 106-107

Model State Emergency Health Powers Act, 4-5, 106, 107

Occupational Safety and Health Act, 283, 284

Occupational Safety and Health

Administration, 283-284, 286-288

Pollution Prevention Act, 284

Prevention Research Centers, 383-385

professional education funding, selected laws, 369-370

Public Health Improvement Act, 144, 149

Public Health Preparedness and Response Act, 144

Public Health Service Act, 149

Public Health Threats and Emergency Act, 144-145

public health worker training, 117

reform of national, 26

reform of state, 4-5, 26, 98, 104-107, 108, 414, 422

Ryan White CARE Act, 151, 310

seat belts, 73-74

Telecommunications Act, 134

Toxic Substances Control Act, 284

Turning Point Model State Public Health Act, 4-5

Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act, 284

Lesbians, see Gays and lesbians

Lewis Group, 147(n.14)

Life expectancy, see Longevity

Linking Research and Public Health Practice, 383

Local factors, other, see Community-based factors and interventions;

Community partnerships, coalitions, and collaboration;

Rural areas;Urban areas

Local government, 5, 26

see also Local public health agencies

epidemiology, 144

federal government relations with, 143, 148, 165, 167-168, 169-170

funding by state and federal governments, 8, 115, 144-145, 146, 149, 151, 154, 168, 418-419

Medicaid patients transferred from, 153

national health data set, 127, 417

organizational factors, 101

public health function, general, 97, 98, 102, 413-414, 415

public health laboratories, 139

safety-net services, 153, 219-220

state agencies, relations with, 108-109, 142, 143, 410, 412, 415

surveillance, 128, 129, 130-131, 132

tribal, 102-103, 421-422

types of public health agencies, 109

Local public health agencies, 107-109, 414

academic qualifications of workers, 360

academic research, 375

accreditation of, 9, 155, 157-158

business, cooperation with, 299

capacity concerns, 158-161

communication/information technology, 134, 143, 159-160

community collaborations, 181, 185-186, 187, 191-192, 202, 203, 204, 408, 454, 458, 459-460

cost of infrastructure, 144, 148

environmental factors, 416

epidemiology, 144

Graduate Certificate Program, 371-372

performance standards, 150, 155-158, 160, 202

population-level studies and interventions, 111, 153, 154, 417

professional training, 368, 374, 419

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
×

responsibilities and activities, general, 110-111

rural areas, 108, 159, 161

schools of public health, linkages, 419

staff, 143, 159

state government, cooperation with, 108-109, 142, 410, 412, 415

terrorist attack response, 96, 137-138, 139, 140, 141-147, 160

types of, 109

Longevity, 20, 232

behavioral risk factors, 222

socioeconomic status, 61

uninsured persons, 216

M

Managed care organizations, 240-242

academic health centers, 251

employer-provided health insurance, 241, 269

hospital emergency response capacity, 237

local services provided by, 153

physicians, 240, 241

population-level studies and interventions, 240, 241, 246-247

preventive interventions, 222

quality of care, general, 233

state services provided by, 111, 153

technological innovations, 242

Management Academy for Public Health, 121

Mass media, xvi, 3, 14-15, 29, 125, 307-348

see also Advertising;

Internet;

Journalism and journalists;

News media;

Television

academia, 324, 388

advocacy, 338-341

assessment, 21, 38, 324-327, 345-347

attitudes, 307-308, 310, 313-315, 317, 318, 322, 333

behavioral impact models, 341-345

behavioral risk factors, 307-308

bioterrorism response, 142, 317-318

CDC, 312, 326

community-level collaborations, 188, 196, 197, 202, 253, 254-255, 311-313, 324, 325, 328, 335, 388

competencies of health care workers, 433

crime and violence portrayed, 311, 328-329, 345

cultural factors, 318, 334-335

DHHS relations with, 317-318

genomics, 38

health care workers and, 251, 433

health officials’ relations with, xvi, 14-15, 81, 124, 125, 315-318, 332, 341, 352

historical perspectives, 308-310

HIV/AIDS, 308-310, 311, 322, 334

language factors, 31, 316, 320-321

leadership, 309-310

obesity, 81, 82

partnerships and collaborations, 324, 325, 328, 335

personal health care, 338

population-level interventions, 333-341

preventive interventions, xvi, 15, 319-348

professional education, relations with, 15, 315-317, 319

public health agencies’ relations with, 14, 15, 317, 318-319, 327

public service announcements, 15, 319-324

radio, 15, 322, 323

research methodology, 334-335, 346-348

social marketing, 14, 117, 125, 201, 282, 299, 319, 326, 333-338

stage government role, 111, 153

theories of impact, 341-345

Master of public health degree (MPH), 360, 361, 365, 366, 367, 372

Medicaid, 110, 111, 114, 115, 153, 167, 215, 221, 416

alcohol/drug abuse treatment, 229

budget, 113

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, 114, 245

children, 217, 219, 224-225, 226

dental care, 230

diagnostic services, 224-225, 226

expenditures, 256

funding, 215

local government transferees, 153

managed care, 220, 221, 225, 241, 246-247

mental health care, 227-228

minority physicians, 235

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
×

population interventions, 246-247

preventive services, 224-225, 226, 230

public health agency/delivery system collaboration, 245

state government, 110, 111, 114, 115, 153, 154

Medicare, 111, 114, 115, 215

alcohol/drug abuse treatment, 229

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, 114, 245

dental care, 230

Internet patient education, 243

mental health care, 227-228

preventive services, 223-224, 230

state government111, 114, 115

Medicine/Public Health Initiative, 363-364

Mental health care, 8

see also Alcohol abuse;

Stress;

Substance abuse

community-level collaborations, 193, 451, 458

competencies of health care workers, 437

costs of, 225, 277, 278

depression, 67, 125, 225, 227, 234, 277, 278

employee prevention interventions, 277, 278

health care delivery system, 212, 227

health insurance coverage, 12, 27, 73, 218, 225, 227-228, 230-231, 271

hospitals, 220, 228

Medicaid/Medicare, 227-228

National Institute of Mental Heath, 328

neglected, 3, 225, 227-228

obesity and, 82

pharmaceuticals, 227, 228

safety-net services, 228

special linkages, 416

suicide, 70, 275

Methylmercury, 55-56

Minorities, see Race/ethnicity

Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships (MAPP), 156, 406-407

Model public health law, 4, 5, 106-107

Model State Emergency Health Powers Act, 106, 107

Models and modeling

see also Demonstration projects

community collaborations, 186-199, 203, 393-394, 406-410

health determinants, 57, 403-405

legislative, state law reform, 4-5, 106, 107

mass media impacts, 341-345

practice scholarship, 393-394

prevention, population models, 47, 75-76

public health worker training, 119

risk reduction, 48-51

Monitoring, 32, 99

see also Surveillance

chemical exposures, 100

community-level, 33, 408

information technology, 243

obesity, 82

occupational safety and health, 285, 287

public health workforce, 117

workplace, 285, 287

World Trade Center attack, response, 287

Mortality

academic research, 375

chronic diseases, 128

health insurance and, 216, 218

income, 68

infant, 20, 21, 69, 182

longevity, 20, 61, 216, 222, 232

obesity, 77-78

primary care, 240

social connectedness, 70

socioeconomic status, 58-61

work-related injuries and diseases, 283, 284-285, 286, 287-288

Multidisciplinary approaches, see Interdisciplinary approaches

Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial, 58

N

National and Regional Public Health Leadership Institutes, 16

National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO), 9, 108, 110, 122, 141-143, 148, 155-158 (passim), 168, 332, 406, 408

National Association of Local Boards of Health (NALBOH), 148, 155, 156

National Association of Public Hospitals (APHA), 220

National Association of Science Writers, 318

National Business Coalition on Health, 272

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
×

National Cancer Institute, 276

National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 100

National Center for Environmental Health, 10, 163

National Center for Health Statistics, 114, 368

National Committee for Quality Assurance, 157, 271

National Committee on Vital and Health

Statistics, 7, 135, 136, 143, 244

National Community Care Network

Demonstration Program, 253

National Conference of State Legislatures, 292

National Electronic Disease Surveillance Network, 99

National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS), 128, 143, 144

National Governor’s Association, 10, 168, 292

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 76-77

National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII), xii, 7, 134-136, 244

National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration, 73

National Information Infrastructure, 134-135

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 283, 284, 285

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 163, 386

National Institute of Mental Heath, 328

National Institute on Drug Abuse, 328

National Institutes of Health

budget, 113, 386

entertainment television, 328

obesity, 82

prevention research, 17, 82, 386-387

National Laboratory System, 139

National Longitudinal Mortality Study, 58, 67

National Notifiable Disease Reporting System, 248

National Occupational Research Agenda, 285, 286

National Pharmaceutical Stockpile Program, 143

National Public Health Council, 10-11, 169

National Public Health Performance Standards Program (NPHPSP), 150, 155, 157, 158, 185

National Public Health Program Reporting System (NPHPRS), 149, 150

National Security Council, 165-166

News media, 307, 308-319

advocacy, 339

crime and violence, 311

entertainment television linked to, 326

HIV/AIDS, 308-310, 311

journalism and journalists, 14-15, 125, 315, 316-317, 318-319, 339, 346, 360

Nonprofit organizations and foundations, 4, 23, 451

community collaborations, 11, 181-182, 194, 252-253, 449, 451, 457, 459

employer prevention efforts, 272

health care delivery system, 212-213, 253

hospital/community collaboration, 253

Internet interactive health communication, 329-330, 332

mass media education, 15, 316, 317

national health promotion efforts, 19

professional education, 368, 369

public service announcements, 15, 319- 324

regulation of, 23

Nurses and nursing, 118, 159, 360

chronic conditions, shortages of nurses, 236-237

competencies of health care workers, 437

minority representation, 235

professional training, 236, 362, 364, 365, 366

Nursing Center for Health Policy, 143-144

Nutrition, see Food and nutrition

O

Obesity, 1, 21, 49, 70, 76-83

academic research, 375-376

community-level collaborations, 187, 197, 198

diabetes, 77, 78-79

employees, 275, 279

partnering, 79-84

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
×

primary care, 240

race/ethnicity, 62

Occupational safety and health, 13, 23, 31, 60, 66-67, 201, 268, 283-289

accidents and injuries, 276, 277, 284-288

emergency response workers, 286-288

employee education, 276, 277, 279, 285

evidence-based policy, 14, 285

historical perspectives, 283, 284

monitoring, 285, 287

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 283, 284, 285

National Occupational Research Agenda, 285, 286

stress, 275, 278, 279, 282, 283

Occupational Safety and Health Act, 283, 284

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 283-284, 286-288

Occupational status, 57

cardiovascular disease, 58

stress, 275, 278, 279, 282, 283

unemployment, 66-67, 445

Oral health care, 457-458

cancer, 230

competency requirements, 428

diet, 229

health care delivery system, 212, 229-231

insurance coverage, 12, 73, 218, 230-233

socioeconomic status, 229-230

Organization for Economic Development, 20

Organizational factors, xii, xiv, 4, 23, 30

see also Community partnerships,

coalitions, and collaboration;

Leadership;

Managed care

organizations;

Partnerships,

coalitions, and collaboration

academia, interdisciplinary approaches, 365

bioterrorism response, 96

change as risk factor, 67

chronic conditions, 234

community-level, 22, 179, 180-199, 202, 203

DHHS, 9-10, 112-115, 161-166, 168, 318

ecological models, 51-52

federal funding, effects on, 150-152, 154

federal inter-departmental cooperation, 10, 163-166

federalism, 166-169

federal/local government cooperation, 9-10, 150-152, 161-162

federal public health infrastructure, 112

federal/state government cooperation, 9-10, 150-152, 161-162

health care delivery system, 12, 213

information technology, 244

international health policy, 165-166

local health agencies, 108-110, 150-152, 159, 415

public health system, 28, 30, 31, 108-170 (passim), 416

safety-net services, 219, 221

state health agencies, 108-110, 150-152, 159, 414-415

Outcome assessment, 12

chronic conditions, 234

community-level, 11, 198-199

expenditures vs outcomes, xv, 21, 46, 213, 272

federal agency programs, non-DHHS, 10

health insurance holders, 214, 221

hospital emergency response, 238

income as risk factor, 50

mass media campaigns, 308, 341-345

practice scholarship, 393

risk factors and, 50-51

social connectedness, 65-66

socioeconomic status, 57

Outpatient care

alcohol/substance abuse, 228

mental health, 228

primary care, access to, 239

safety-net services, 220

Outreach

community-level, 111, 192, 202-203, 394, 445, 447, 450, 458

health care delivery system, 216

Internet, 329

safety-net providers, 216

P

Partnership for Prevention, 272-273

Partnerships, coalitions, and collaboration, xiv, xv, 1, 12, 13-14, 32, 34, 79-82, 101, 300, 377, 378, 379, 386, 387, 388-392

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
×

see also Community partnerships, coalitions, and collaboration academia, 5, 6, 119, 120, 250-251, 358, 360, 364, 365, 372, 377, 378, 379, 380, 388-392, 394

communication, general, 6, 34, 392

employer-provided health insurance, 271-273

environmental protection, 290

intersectoral, 4, 19, 389

managed care organizations, 153

mass media, 324, 325, 328, 335

notification of partners, 102

occupational safety and health, 285

program-generated research, 381-382

public health agency/delivery system collaboration, 12, 244-251

public health worker training, 118, 250-251

public/private partnerships, general, xi, 132, 182, 194, 245, 247, 417, 449

surveillance, 131, 132

Peer influences, 74-75, 241, 342

Internet interactive health communications, 329-330

Peer review, 16, 27, 382, 383, 385, 388, 393

Performance standards, 150, 155-158, 160, 185-186, 422

CDC, 155

community-level interventions, 156, 160, 186, 193-196, 409-420

DHHS, 160

employer-provided health insurance, 271

local public health agencies, 150, 155-158, 160, 202

National Public Health Performance Standards Program, 150, 155, 157, 158, 185

public health agencies, 150, 155-158

Personal health, xiii, 22, 24, 26, 412, 413-414, 416

community-level interventions, 449

employees, 33

health care delivery system, 214, 216, 242, 246, 257

health promotion and, 22

information systems, 243, 244, 331, 332

infrastructure, 152-153

mass media, 338

population health and, 46, 47, 53

professional education, 419

public health agencies, 25, 246

records, 243

technological innovations, 37

Pew Environmental Health Commission, 100, 128, 130

Pew Health Professions Commission, 387

Pew Internet Project, 331

Pharmaceuticals

see also Vaccines

antibiotics, 1, 21, 249

bioterrorism response, 143

competencies of health care workers, 438

cost of prescription drugs, 256, 269

intellectual property, 165

international movement of, 39, 165

mental health care, 227, 228

regulation of, 164

Physicians, 417

bioterrorism, reports by, 247, 248

computer-based systems, 242, 253

managed care, 240, 241

minority representation, 233, 235-236

preventive medicine, 222, 223-224, 364

professional education, 366

reporting requirements, 248

uninsured, visits to, 217

Planned Approach to Community Health (PATCH), 407-408

Policy development, 98, 123, 338, 411, 412, 413, 452

see also Advocacy;

Evidence-based

policy;

Legislation

academic research, 374, 388, 419

accountability, 157

competencies of health care workers, 439

information/communication capacity, 114, 139

professional education, 368, 372, 374

social marketing, 335

Political influences, xv, 3, 22-23, 24, 41

see also Leadership

community-level collaborations, 192, 195-196

demographic, 36

environmental factors, 54

health and political participation, 22

Internet, 37

population-level studies and interventions, 71, 73

professional training of public health workers, 362

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
×

public health agencies, 96, 121, 417-418

public health leadership, 121, 417

social marketing, 335

Pollution Prevention Act, 284

Population growth, 35-36, 53

minorities, 36

Population studies and interventions, xii, xiii, 46-84, 417

see also Demographics;

Epidemiology;

Surveillance

academia, 360, 375, 376-377

community-level collaborations, 198-199, 378, 387

cost factors, 72, 75

definitional issues, 377, 378

Department of Health and Human Services, 115

determinants of health, 4, 11, 25, 33, 46-84

diet, 72

employer efforts, 269

health care financing and delivery, demonstrations, 257

local health agencies, 111, 153, 154, 417

managed care, 240, 241, 246-247

mass media, 333-341

Medicaid, 246-247

personal health care and, 46, 47, 53

preventive interventions, 17, 47-48, 71-84, 376-377, 387

professional training, 362

public health agency/delivery system collaboration, 251, 422

public health worker training, 117

Poverty

see also Medicaid;

Safety-net services

advertising of tobacco and alcohol, 76

employer insurance not provided, 273

environmental factors, 54, 60

ethical issues in indigent care, 416

federal responsibility, general, 416

health status, general, 50, 54, 60, 69

housing, 252

news media coverage of, 311, 313

oral disease, 229-230

primary care access, 239

race/ethnicity and, 61

State Children’s Health Insurance Program, 215

Women, Infants and Children program, 82

Preparedness

bioterrorism, 3, 21, 27, 40, 141-143, 234, 247, 317-318

centers for public health preparedness, 100

emergency, xvi, 3, 5, 7, 100, 107, 115, 116, 124, 125, 134, 135, 138, 140, 141, 143-144, 212, 234, 449

funding for, 7, 26-27, 137-138, 139, 140, 144-147

public health, 100, 107

Prevention Priorities: Employers’ Guide to the Highest Value Preventive Health Services, 273

Prevention Research Centers, 383-385

Prevention Research Initiative (CDC), 382

Preventive interventions and health promotion, 25-26, 32, 414, 418

see also Behavioral risk factors;

Diagnosis and screening;

Exercise;

Outreach;

School-based interventions;

Smoking;

Vaccines

academia, 16, 17, 361, 364, 365, 375

alcohol abuse, 275, 276-277

biomedical interventions vs, 24

cardiovascular disease, 224, 275

CDC, 16, 55, 74, 76-77, 99-100, 117-121 (passim), 381, 382-386, 390-391

Centers for Prevention Research, 99

children, immunizations, 111, 223, 274, 336-337, 362, 386

community-based, 17, 80, 81, 183, 187, 190, 191, 192-194, 196-197, 198, 204, 253, 292, 327, 373, 378, 386-387, 389, 392-393, 407-408, 445-460 (passim)

cost factors, 73, 74

counseling, 81, 102, 105, 196, 222, 223, 224, 234, 274, 282, 458

definitional issues, 221, 376

diabetes, Medicare coverage, 224

elderly persons, 35

employers, 3, 13-14, 25, 193, 222, 223, 268, 271-274, 275-289, 292, 293, 294-300

Environmental Protection Agency, 386

environmental risk factors, 25-26, 377

evidence-based policy, 272

health care delivery system, 212

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
×

health insurance coverage for, 12, 73, 216, 218, 221, 222-223, 235, 240

historical perspectives, 222

information technology, 244

interdisciplinary research, 376, 386

managed care, 222

mass media, xvi, 15, 319-348

Medicaid, 224-225, 226, 230

Medicare, 223-224, 226, 230

minority access to quality care, 63, 222-223, 233

National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion , 100

National Institutes of Health, 17, 82, 386-387

nation-wide programs, 154

neglected, 221-225

obesity, 80-82, 279, 290, 292

physicians, 222, 223-224, 364

population-level studies and interventions, 17, 47-48, 71-84, 376-377, 387

public health agency/delivery system collaboration, 244, 253

research recommendations, 16-17, 387, 422

risk reduction models, 48-51

seat belts, xv, 73-74

socioeconomic status, 25-26

standards, 272

technological innovations, 35

Primary care

see also Diagnosis and screening;

Physicians

access to, 239-242, 255

health insurance, 218

managed care, 153, 239

public health agency provision, 246

shortage of personnel, 239

World Health Organization guidelines, 239

PRISM Awards, 328

Privacy and confidentiality

epidemics, measures taken, 24

genomics, 37

health insurance, 214

information technology, general, 243, 244

Internet interactive communication, 332

National Health Information Infrastructure, 136

public health laboratories information/communication systems, 139

surveillance, 13, 248

Private sector, 2, 3, 4, 22-23, 28

see also Employers and businesses;

Health insurance;

Nonprofit

organizations and foundations

community-level interventions, 182-183

funding, 11, 12, 14, 17, 136, 170, 182-183, 204

health care delivery system, 212-213, 214-215, 218, 225, 228, 229, 245, 247

hospitals, 137

information systems, 132, 136, 139

infrastructure, 97, 102, 111, 127-128, 132, 136, 137, 139, 153, 170

laboratories, 137, 139

public goods, 22-23

public-private partnerships, general, xi, 132, 182, 194, 245, 247, 417, 449

regulation of, 23

safety-net services, 153

surveillance, 127-128

Professional education, 3, 5, 27, 33, 34, 99, 116-122, 154, 252, 359, 360- 374, 419-420

see also Academia;

School-based interventions advocacy, 240

age factors, 367

assessment, 367-374

attitudes and beliefs about, 373-374, 420

CDC, 16-17, 368, 371, 373, 374, 423

communication skills, 123-126, 367

community-level efforts, 202, 203, 235, 362, 371, 373-374, 449

competency-based, 5, 16, 33, 116-120, 122, 125-127, 143, 363, 366, 393-394, 422

computer applications, 367, 424

continuing education, 15, 120, 251, 358, 361, 367, 371, 372, 373, 419, 422, 454

core public health functions, 7, 120, 125, 363, 372, 424, 425-426, 432, 435, 437

cost factors, 123-126, 367

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
×

cultural factors, 118, 125, 180, 194, 233, 236, 362, 367, 372, 374, 458

curricula, 15, 117, 121, 125-126, 418, 419, 422(n.9), 423

dentistry, 81, 229

DHHS, 118, 119, 120, 366-367, 368, 374

diet and nutrition, 81, 362

distance learning, 117, 359, 367, 368, 454

employee training, general, 294

employment opportunities, student awareness of, 420

environmental factors, 117, 118, 159

epidemiology, 118, 129, 365, 372, 374-375

ethical issues, 116

funding, 5, 16, 111, 367-374, 395

Health Resources and Services Administration, 118, 119, 120, 366-367, 368, 374

historical perspectives, 116, 117, 362, 368-371, 420

information systems, 367

integrated/interdisciplinary, 16, 235, 360, 362, 363-367, 372, 376

lacking among public health workers, 361, 366-367

leadership, 5-6, 7, 118, 119, 120-122, 367, 371, 374, 418, 433

local public health agencies, 144, 146, 159, 368, 374, 419

mass media relations, 15, 315-317, 319

minority representation, 235-236, 358, 418

nonprofit organizations, general, 368, 369

nursing, 236, 362, 364, 365, 366

obesity, 81

outreach workers, 192

partnerships and collaborations, 118, 250-251

personal health care, 419

physicians, 366

policy development, 368, 372, 374

public health agencies, general, 5, 6, 365

public health laboratories, 139

public health workers/client relationship, 418

regionalization, 367

shortage of professionals, 235

standards, 372

state public health agencies, 144, 146, 371-372, 373, 374, 419

surveillance, 372

Public education, 32, 99, 124, 417, 421

see also Mass media;

School-based interventions

business investment in, 292-293

community-level collaboration, 191, 192, 194, 197, 449, 458

competency of health care workers, 431-432

information technology, 242, 243

obesity, 82

outreach workers, 192

population-level studies and interventions, 72, 75

telecommunications infrastructure, 135

Public goods, 22-23

Public health agencies, 2, 3, 29, 46, 96-170

see also Department of Health and

Human Services;

Local public health agencies;

State public health agencies

academic cooperation, 5, 6, 155-158, 250-251, 360, 365, 375, 381

accountability, 413

accreditation, 9, 155, 156, 157-158

assessment, 141-143, 156-157

bioterrorism response, 96, 100, 137-138, 139, 140, 141-147

business linkages, 13

community coordination with, 11, 181, 182, 185, 187-188, 191-192

delivery system collaborations, 12, 244-251

DHHS agencies, cooperation with, 9-10

funding, 96, 98-99, 100, 112, 145-154 (passim), 160

genetic testing, 140

health care delivery system and, 212, 213, 244-251

historical perspectives, 26, 97-98

information/communication systems, 134, 139, 143, 144, 154, 244-245

Internet access, 421

leadership, 5-6, 375

managed care organizations and, 111, 153

mass media, relations with, 14, 15, 317, 318-319, 327

performance standards, 150, 155-158

personal health care, 25, 246

political influences, 96, 121, 417-418

professional education and, 5, 6, 365

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
×

public education, 421

rural areas, 108, 159, 161

safety-net services, 246, 247

Public Health Foundation (PHF), 148, 150, 155, 156, 332

Public Health Improvement Act, 144, 149

Public health laboratories, 7-8, 136-140

assessment, 8, 140

Association of Public Health Laboratories, 130, 137, 138

bioterrorism response, 96, 137-138, 139, 140, 143, 146

CDC role, 137, 138, 140

chemical terrorism response, 138, 139, 141, 146

competencies of health care workers, 433

DHHS role, 7, 8, 140

diagnostic tests, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140

epidemiology, 136, 140

funding, 8, 136-138, 139, 140, 146, 154

health officials, 137

health workers, 138-139

information/communications infrastructure, 139

local government, 139

National Laboratory System, 139

professional education, 139

regulations for laboratories, 136-137

reporting requirements, 248

safety-net services, 136

state government, 7-8, 137, 139, 140, 146

surveillance, 136, 138, 140, 247, 248

technological innovation, 139, 140

Public health law

Public health law, 101-111, 113

AIDS Federal Policy Act, 310

Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments, 137

Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act, 238

employer-provided health insurance, 127, 248, 273

enforcement, 32, 102

Federal Emergency Response Act, 124

Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act, 103

infectious diseases, state law, 104(n.3), 105, 106

media advocacy, 339-340

model public health law, 4, 5, 106-107

Model State Emergency Health Powers Act, 4-5, 106, 107

Occupational Safety and Health Act, 283, 284

Pollution Prevention Act, 284

Prevention Research Centers, 383-385

professional education funding, selected laws, 369-370

Public Health Improvement Act, 144, 149

Public Health Preparedness and Response Act, 144

Public Health Service Act, 149

Public Health Threats and Emergency Act, 144-145

public health worker training, 117

reform of national, 26

reform of state, 4-5, 26, 98, 104-107, 108, 414, 422

Ryan White CARE Act, 151, 310

seat belts, 73-74

Toxic Substances Control Act, 284

Turning Point Model State Public Health Act, 4-5

Public Health Law Collaborative, 106-107

Public Health Leadership Institute, 391

Public Health Practice Program Office, 99

Public Health Preparedness and Response Act, 144

Public Health Service, see U.S. Public Health Service

Public Health Service Act, 149, 166

Public Health Threats and Emergency Act, 144-145

Public Health Training Centers, 374

The Public Health Workforce: An Agenda for the 21st Century, 117

Public relations, 326

professional training, 367

Public service announcements (PSAs), 15, 319-324

defined, 320

Federal Communication Commission, regulation of, 15, 319-320, 322-323

Q

Quality of care

see also Outcome assessment;

Performance standards

chronic conditions, 232-234

educational attainment, 231

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
×

employment-based health insurance, 268, 271, 272, 273

environmental factors, 231

managed care, 233

minority groups, 27, 63, 222-223, 231-232, 233

National Committee for Quality Assurance, 157, 271

socioeconomic status, 231, 232, 233

state public health agency regulation, 213-214, 231, 244, 257

uninsured persons, general, 231, 232, 458

R

Race/ethnicity, 21, 25, 35, 36

see also Cultural factors;

Immigrants;

Language factors;

specific groups

academia, 358, 362, 372, 419

access to care, 63, 233

advertising of tobacco and alcohol, 76

community-level collaborations, 184, 190, 201

determinants-of-health model, 57, 61-63

diagnostic services, 197-198, 232

digital divide, 331-332

discrimination, 61-62

health insurance, 12, 62-63

health workers, 36, 233, 235-236

immigrants, 38, 62, 111, 457-460

infant mortality, 20

physicians, minority representation, 233, 235-236

preventive interventions, insurance coverage, 222-223

professional training of public health workers, 362

quality of care, general, 27, 63, 222-223, 231-232, 233

seat belt use, 73

socioeconomic status and, 58, 61, 63

tribal governments, 102-103, 421

Radio, 15, 322, 323

RAND Health Insurance Experiment, 218

Rapid Response and Advanced Technology Laboratory, 143

Rapid Syndrome Validation Project, 131

Reasoned action theory

Regionalization

community collaborations, 410

DHHS, 162, 168

professional education, 367

public health funding, 97

Religious influences

community-level collaboration, 190, 191, 454

faith community, 179, 181, 190, 191, 194, 355, 454

Regulatory issues, 9, 23, 101-102, 257

see also Accreditation of institutions;

Credentialing;

Standards

DHHS agencies, regulatory authorities, 9-10, 113-114, 164-165, 169

diet and nutrition, 292

enforcement, 32, 99, 102

environmental, 289-290

essential public health services, 99

federal, general, 111, 114

federal agency cooperation, 164

food labeling, 82

health care delivery system, 213, 257

health insurance, 213

local level, 10, 102

monitoring, 422

occupational safety and health, 283-286 (passim)

pharmaceuticals, 164

population-level studies and interventions, 72

private and nonprofit organizations, 23

public health laboratories, 136-137

public service announcements, 15, 319-320, 322-323

smoking prevention, 76

state-level, 10, 101-102, 104-107

Reporting requirements

federal law, 114, 149

federal/state relations, 169

National Notifiable Disease Reporting System, 248

National Public Health Program Reporting System, 149, 150

public health agency/delivery system collaboration, 247-250

public health laboratories, 248

public health worker training, 127

state, 106, 149-150, 414

Research methodology, 367

see also Assessment

academic research, 16-17, 364, 374-387

applied, 359, 378, 386, 419

basic, 347-348, 358, 359, 378, 386, 419

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
×

biostatistics, 105, 116, 316, 360, 372, 419

committee study at hand, xiii-xiv, xvii, 441-460

competency of public health workers, research , 423-424

descriptive, 378

formative, 334-335, 346, 378, 379

mass media, 334-335, 346-348

occupational safety and health, 286

participatory, 201, 346, 359, 377-378, 380-381, 393, 427

practice-based, 372

process, 378, 379

summative, 378, 379

Research recommendations, xiii, 9, 16, 32

academic research, 16-17, 364, 385, 387

community-based research, 387

essential public health services, 99

interagency cooperation, 164

investigator-initiated research, 385

preventive interventions, 16-17, 387, 422

public health worker training, 117

state law reform, 106

Risk factors, 47

see also Behavioral risk factors;

Environmental factors;

Preventive interventions and health promotion;

specific risk factors

community-level collaborations, 186, 193-198

health insurance holders, 216

models for reduction of, 48-49

population perspectives, 47-48

uninsured persons, 217

World Trade Center attack, response, 287

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 106, 121, 317, 328

see also Turning Point initiative

Ron Brown Award for Corporate

Leadership, 299

Rural areas, 54

academia, 250, 376

hospital nursing shortages, 236

public health agencies, 108, 159, 161

school funding, tax increases for, 253

small and remote communities, 98, 108, 134, 160, 161, 188, 250, 415

Ryan White CARE Act, 151, 310

S

Safety, see Accidents and injuries

Safety-net services, 111, 153-154, 216, 219-221, 245

see also Health insurance

academia, 219

alcohol/drug abuse treatment, 228

community health centers, 153-154, 215, 219

community services, 153-154, 215, 219, 446

defined, 219

federal government, direct provision of, 219, 221, 245

health officials’ role, 216, 220

hospitals, 219, 220

local government, 153, 219-220

mental health care, 228

private sector, 153

public health agencies, general, 246, 247

state government, 153, 219-220

Sanitation, 20, 22, 48, 51, 54, 60, 362

School-based interventions, 194, 386, 445-446, 450, 451-452

obesity, 79, 80, 82, 197

physical education, 79, 188, 194

smoking, 74-75

Schools of public health, 358, 360, 419-420

see also Academia;

Professional education

accreditation, 360-361, 368

Association of Schools of Public Health, xi(n.1), 122, 360-361, 394

communication/information systems, 132, 333

continuing education, 419

credentialing, 122

curricular content, 419, 422(n.9)

international programs, 362, 419

Internet use, 333

leadership training, 122

mass media partnering, 324

minority groups, 362, 419

policy development, 419

recruitment efforts, 420

research agenda, 5-6, 360, 419

state/local public health agency linkages, 419

Screening, see Diagnosis and screening

Seat belts, xv, 73-74, 240

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
×

Sentinel for Health Award for Daytime Drama, 327-328

Sentinel surveillance, 131, 247, 250-251

Sex-based differences, see Gender factors

Sexual behavior, 222, 334

see also Gays and lesbians

contraception, 232, 325-326

television, 325, 328-329

urban areas, 54

Sexually transmitted diseases, 222, 325, 328

see also HIV/AIDS

community-level collaborations, 183-184, 444, 449, 458

competencies of health care workers, 440

employee screening, 274

SHINE Awards, 328

Smoking, xv, 53, 60, 70, 223

advertising, 76

community-level collaborations, 188, 196

employees, 274, 275, 276

mass media interventions,

population-level studies and interventions, 72, 74-76

school-based interventions, 74-75

taxation, 75, 76, 323, 324

Social Climate Survey, 75

Social comparison theory, 342

Social convergence theory, 342

Social factors, general, xv, 21, 22-24, 29, 56-71

see also Cultural factors;

Mass media;

Political influences;

Race/ethnicity academic research, 374

business involvement in community, 293-294, 298-299

community-level collaborations, 184, 188, 204, 451

connectedness, 63-66, 70-71, 180

determinants of health, xv, 36, 56-71, 188, 338, 346, 456

health determinant models, 57, 403-405

media advocacy, 338-339

obesity, 76

oral diseases, 229

peer influences, 74-75, 241, 329-330, 342

professional training, 362

public health defined, 28

public service announcements, 323

telecommunications infrastructure, 135

Social influence theory, 342

Social learning theory, 343-344

Social marketing, 14, 117, 125, 201, 282, 299, 319, 326, 333-338

Socioeconomic status, xv, 21, 23, 25, 68, 69, 70-71

see also Educational attainment;

Income;

Poverty

access to care, general, 233, 239

determinants-of-health model, 57-61

environmental factors, 54

gender and, 58

Healthy People 2010, 19

international perspectives, 68-70

media advocacy, 338

obesity, 79

occupational status, 57, 58

population-level studies and interventions, 71

preventive measures, 25-26

primary care, 240

quality of care, general, 231, 232, 233

race/ethnicity and, 58, 61, 63

social marketing, 336

Stages-of-change theory, 344

Standards

see also Accreditation of institutions;

Competencies of health workers;

Ethical issues;

Performance standards;

Regulatory issues

computer medical records, 242-243

cultural/linguistic competence, 195

dietary guidelines, 79, 80, 292

federal agency cooperation, 164

health care workers, 34

information/communication, 39, 130, 132, 139, 144, 242-243

international movements of goods, 39

national health data set, 127, 417

obesity, clinical guidelines, 81

occupational safety and health, 284

practice scholarship, 394

professional education, 372

public health function, general, 98, 107, 155-158, 415

public health laboratories, 137

public health workforce taxonomy, 117

reporting systems, 130, 150

toxic substance exposure levels, 55

treatment and prevention measures, 272

World Health Organization, 165

State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), 215

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
×

State government, 7, 412

see also Medicaid;

Medicare;

State public health agencies

block grants, 150-152, 228-229, 245, 444

community-level efforts, 203

epidemiology, 144, 146

essential public health services, 110, 168, 413

federal government relations, 10-11, 26, 103-104, 115, 145-146, 148, 150, 151-152, 165, 166-170, 418

health insurance regulation, 213

legislative reform, 4-5, 26, 98, 104-107, 414, 422

local public health agencies, cooperation with, 108-109, 142, 143, 410, 412, 415

managed care organizations, 111, 153

national health data set, 127, 417

organizational factors, 101

professional education and training, 5, 372

public health function, general, 97, 98, 99, 101-102, 104-107, 147-149, 412-413, 414

public health laboratories, 7-8, 137, 139, 140, 146

regulatory role, 10, 101-102, 104-107

reporting requirements, 106, 149-150, 414

safety-net services, 153, 219-220

surveillance, 106, 128, 129, 130-131, 132, 146

toxic substances in food, 55

State Health Leadership Initiative, 121

State-level trends

elderly persons, 35

employer-provided health insurance, 272

income effects on mortality, 69, 70

national health data set, 127, 417

obesity, 77

occupational safety and health, 285

safety-net services, 219

State public health agencies, 107-108, 142, 145-149, 414, 454, 455

academic qualifications of workers, 360

accreditation, 9, 155, 157-158

costs of infrastructure, 144

environmental factors, 416

epidemiology, 144, 146

Graduate Certificate Program, 371-372

health care delivery system and, 213

performance standards, 150, 155-158

professional education, 144, 146, 371-372, 373, 374, 419

quality of care regulation, 213-214, 231, 244, 257

schools of public health, linkages, 419

Stress, xvi

environmental, 60, 66

management, 278, 282, 283

psychosocial, 47, 62, 65, 66, 275, 278, 282

workplace, 275, 278, 279, 282, 283

Substance abuse, 228-229

see also Alcohol abuse

attitudes, 228

community-level efforts, 203, 445

costs to society, 228, 229, 276, 278

employees, 275, 276-277, 278

entertainment television, 328-329

insurance coverage for treatment, 12, 27, 73, 218, 225, 228-231

National Institute on Drug Abuse, 328

social influence interventions, 74-75

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 112

Suicide, 70, 275

Surgeon General, 74, 167, 225, 328

C. Everett Koop National Health Award, 299

dental care, 230

Surveillance, 127-136

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 112, 117, 118, 132, 163

CDC, 128, 129, 131-133, 140, 248, 249-250

chronic diseases, 128, 130

DHHS, 113, 128

diagnostic procedures and, 248-250

food-borne pathogens, 129-130

funding, 127-128, 146

health officials’ role, 248

information technology, 131, 243, 248, 249

international efforts, 40

local government efforts, 128, 129, 130-131, 132

National Center for Health Statistics, 114, 368

National Electronic Disease Surveillance Network, 99

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
×

National Notifiable Disease Reporting System, 248

obesity, 82

partnerships, 131, 132

privacy and confidentiality, 13, 248

private sector, 127-128

professional education, 372

public health agency/delivery system collaboration, 244, 247-250

public health laboratories, 136, 138, 140, 247, 248

sentinel, 131, 247, 250-251

state government, 106, 128, 129, 130-131, 132, 146

syndrome, 130-131

uninsured/underinsured persons, 218

Sustainability

bioterrorism response, 139, 145

change, 202, 254

funding, 7-8, 10, 98-99, 136, 148, 149, 150, 154, 157, 160, 161, 169, 170, 189, 457

technical assistance, 7, 150

Syndrome surveillance, 130-131

T

Taxation, 104

community, 182, 253

credits, 104, 136, 274

hospital/community collaboration, 253

tobacco, 75, 76, 323, 324

Technical assistance, 5, 7

community-level collaborations, 11, 184, 202, 203

federal support for states/localities, 367, 413, 417

information/communications systems, 139, 242-244, 307

sustainability, 7, 150

Technological innovations, 35, 37-38, 387

see also Computer applications;

Internet;

Technical assistance

academic health centers, 251

cost factors, general, 37-38, 39, 131-133

diffusion of, 39, 342-343, 367

health care delivery system, 213

information/communication systems, general, 35, 37-38, 39, 131-133, 134, 136

international perspectives, 38

managed care, 242

personal health care, 37

preventive measures, 35

public health agency/delivery system collaboration, 244, 251

public health laboratories, 139, 140

public health worker understanding of, 116, 117

Telecommunications Act, 134

Television, 31

see also Mass media

community-level collaboration, 255

entertainment programming, 324-329

Hispanics, 320-321

public service announcements, 15, 319-324 (passim)

sexual behavior, 325, 328-329

violence, 311, 328-329

Terrorism, 3

see also Bioterrorism

chemical agents, 138, 139, 141

hospital emergency response, 237

Model State Emergency Health Powers Act, 106

state law reform, 106

World Trade Center, 286-288

Theory of reasoned action, 343

Tobacco use, see Smoking

Toxic substances, 3, 60

community-level efforts, 312-313, 390

epidemiology, 55-56

in food, 55-56

gender factors, 55

industrial pollution, 289-290, 291

lead, 55

methylmercury, 55-56

monitoring systems, 100

rural areas, 54

urban areas, 54

workplace, 284

Toxic Substances Control Act, 284

Training, see Professional education

Transportation, 36

hospital emergency response, 238

Tribal governments, 102-103, 421-422

TRICARE, 215

Turning Point initiative, xiii, xiv(n.3), 4(n.1), 106, 107, 121, 182-183, 184, 185, 203, 337, 442, 443, 451, 452, 454

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
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U

Unequal Treatment, 231-232

Uninsured persons, 1, 11-12, 22, 25, 62-63, 153, 154, 215, 216-219, 221, 416

see also Medicaid;

Safety-net services;

State Children's Health Insurance Program

children, 216, 217, 218, 220

community health centers, 153-154, 215, 219

emergency care, 217-218

employed persons, 215, 217, 271, 273, 274

hospital emergency treatment, 238-239

Medicaid managed care, 220, 221, 225, 241, 246-247

oral health care, 229

physicians, visits to, 217

primary care, 239

quality of care, general, 231, 232, 458

racial/ethnic factors, 62-63, 222-223

State Children’s Health Insurance Program, 215

Universities and colleges, see Academia;

Schools of public health

Urban areas, 36, 54

AIDS, 310

bioterrorism, 7

community-level collaborations, 187, 374, 444-460

housing, 36, 54, 60, 252, 255, 445

local government role, 108

Native Americans, 103

service learning, 376

sexual behavior, 54

U.S. Conference of Mayors, 168

U.S. Epidemiologic Catchment Area, 67

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, 222, 231, 273

U.S. Public Health Service, 112, 113, 149, 162, 167, 222, 245

V

Vaccines, 20, 100, 110, 111, 146, 221, 222, 274

adolescents, 223

childhood, 111, 223, 274, 336-337, 362, 386

federal government, 111

professional training, 362

Veterans Health Administration, 215

Veterinarians, 111, 144, 360

competencies required, 440

Violence, see Crime and violence

Viruses, 27

HIV/AIDS, 40

oral diseases, 230

Vision for Health Consortium, 444-449

Visual perception, 274, 458

Vital Interest in Global Health, 166

Voluntary Hospital Association of America, 254

Voluntary organizations, 23, 30, 417

regulation, health care delivery system, 213

Volunteer workers, 116, 361

W

Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act, 284

Washington Business Group on Health, 271, 297

Water quality, 60, 114

community-level efforts, 180, 190, 193

sanitation, 20, 22, 48, 51, 54, 60, 362

Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?, 365, 366, 424

Women, Infants and Children program, 82

Working Group on Bioterrorism Preparedness, 139

Workplace, see Occupational safety and health

World Health Organization (WHO), 22, 39, 165

community health services, 178

World Trade Center, 286-288

World Wide Web, see Internet

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2003. The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10548.
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The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century Get This Book
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The anthrax incidents following the 9/11 terrorist attacks put the spotlight on the nation’s public health agencies, placing it under an unprecedented scrutiny that added new dimensions to the complex issues considered in this report.

The Future of the Public’s Health in the 21st Century reaffirms the vision of Healthy People 2010, and outlines a systems approach to assuring the nation’s health in practice, research, and policy. This approach focuses on joining the unique resources and perspectives of diverse sectors and entities and challenges these groups to work in a concerted, strategic way to promote and protect the public’s health.

Focusing on diverse partnerships as the framework for public health, the book discusses:

  • The need for a shift from an individual to a population-based approach in practice, research, policy, and community engagement.
  • The status of the governmental public health infrastructure and what needs to be improved, including its interface with the health care delivery system.
  • The roles nongovernment actors, such as academia, business, local communities and the media can play in creating a healthy nation.

    Providing an accessible analysis, this book will be important to public health policy-makers and practitioners, business and community leaders, health advocates, educators and journalists.

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