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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11617.
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Index

A

Academic performance, sleep loss and, 82, 108, 142-144, 145, 184, 266

Academic programs. See Interdisciplinary sleep programs;

Sleep centers and laboratories

Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine, 177

Accreditation, 18, 321

Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), 9, 22, 145, 202

fellowship training programs, 196-197, 199, 200, 296, 314

program requirements for residency training, 191

restriction of resident work hours, 139, 189

Sleep Medicine Working Group, 196

Acute stress disorder, 91

ADHD. See Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Adolescents

academic performance, 82, 108, 142-144, 266

behavioral problems, 63

delayed sleep phase syndrome, 108-109, 143, 266

diabetes and glucose tolerance, 61

employment, 142

grants for research on, 274

health education campaign, 177

hypersomnia, 85, 87

insomnia, 77, 265

medication safety issues, 65, 78, 87, 100

mood disorders, 63, 79, 108, 143

motor vehicle accidents, 148

narcolepsy, 82, 85, 87

nightmares, 91

obesity, 74

OSA, 72, 74

psychological and social pressures, 142

quality of life, 153

research programs, 186

RLS, 98

school start times, 143, 266

sleep deprivation, 46, 57, 60, 61, 63, 142-144, 210

sleep-disordered breathing, 56, 74

sleep-onset abnormalities, 79

sleep patterns, 46-47, 48, 142, 143

sleep requirements, 46, 57, 142

Adults

advanced sleep phase syndrome, 110

alcohol use, 63

cognitive impairment, 146-147

mood disorders, 63

parasomnias, 88

obesity, 59-60, 61

OSA, 61, 66

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11617.
×

periodic limb movement, 100

sleep-disordered breathing, 146-147

sleep loss, 57, 59, 60, 63, 206

sleep patterns, 47, 48

Advanced sleep phase syndrome

etiology and risk factors, 109, 110

genetic factors, 260

manifestations and prevalence, 107, 110

treatment, 110-111

African Americans, 74, 97, 142, 162, 205, 263

Age/aging.

See also Adolescents;

Adults;

Children;

Infants;

Older adults

and impacts of sleep loss, 60

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), 10, 209, 225, 229, 285, 366

Alcohol consumption/abuse, 23, 59, 63, 73, 80, 81, 91, 97, 148, 158, 159, 184, 352

Alertness, 48, 65, 142, 151

Alzheimer’s disease, 91-92, 93, 155, 262

Ambulatory technologies. See Portable monitoring and therapeutic devices

American Academy of Pediatrics, 75, 180

American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM), 2, 22, 26, 29, 67, 177, 179, 187, 188, 218, 219, 221, 224-225, 243, 296, 318

accredited fellowship training programs, 192-196, 314

Medical Education Committee, 189

membership, 235

mentoring program, 249

Pfizer Scholars Grant Program in Sleep Medicine, 244

standards for sleep centers, 312-313

Taskforce 2000, 188

American Association of Medical Colleges, 319

American Board of Internal Medicine, 198, 199, 297, 315

American Board of Medical Specialties, 9, 22, 191, 198-201, 202, 296, 315

American Board of Otolaryngology, 190, 198, 297, 315

American Board of Pediatrics, 190, 198, 297, 315

American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, 198, 297, 315

American Board of Sleep Medicine, 9, 196, 314-315

credentialing nonphysicians, 200-201, 202

certification examination, 197-198

establishment of, 198-201

American College Athletic Association, 185

American College of Chest Physicians, 225, 243

American Diabetes Association, 243

American Heart Association, 243

American Lung Association, 243

American Medical Association, 189

American Professional Sleep Societies, 22

American Sleep Apnea Association, 22, 177

American Sleep Disorders Association. See American Academy of Sleep Medicine

American Sleep Medicine Foundation, 244

Faculty Career Advancement Award, 243

American Thoracic Society, 225, 243, 248

Analysis of NIH grants

clinical, basic, and circadian rhythm projects, 270, 272

for device development, 273

protocol, 269, 275-276

by research strategy, 271, 273

review panel composition, 274-275

RFAs and PAs, 268-268

sleep disorders, 270, 272-273

by species, 271, 274

temporal trends, 269-272

Antiarrhythmics, 104, 105

Anxiety and anxiety disorders, 59, 63, 79, 81, 82

Appetite, 60-61, 72, 267

Arousal from sleep.

See also Sleep-wake regulation

disorders of, 82, 88-90

forced, 88

and myocardial infarction risk, 38

neurological systems, 76, 82

raphe magnus “off” cells, 101

response to respiratory resistance, 39

sleep-disordered breathing and, 65, 71

thresholds, 35-37, 47

Arrhythmias, 65, 69, 74

Asians, 162

Associated Professional Sleep Societies, 177, 186

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11617.
×

Association of SIDS and Infant Mortality Programs, 180

Asthma, 74, 106, 223-224, 235, 352

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 22, 98, 100, 145, 146, 221, 335

Attention deficits, 100, 138, 141-142, 145, 147

Attitudes about sleep and sleepiness, 174-175

Automobile accidents. See Motor vehicle accidents

Awareness. See Public awareness of sleep disorders

B

Back to Sleep campaign, 180-181

Bacterial infections, and sleep, 102

BEARS pediatric screening tool, 190, 336

Behavior

aggressive, 91

obstructive sleep apnea and, 22, 145-146

oppositional, 100

REM sleep behavior disorder, 90

risk taking, 142

sleep loss and, 63, 142

violent, 88

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 152, 203, 208-209

Blood pressure, 38, 63, 68, 69, 70.

See also Hypertension

Body Mass Index (BMI), 60, 336

Brain.

See also individual structures

activity during sleep, 21, 35, 36, 37, 39

blood flow and metabolism, 39, 80, 142, 227

emotional pathways, 80

imaging of cognitive impairments, 142

iron deficiency, 98-99, 227, 262

metastases, 103

pain circuitry, 101

sleep-wake regulation processes and structures, 40-41, 43, 76-77, 80, 101

suprachiasmatic nucleus, 39, 42-43, 261

Breathing. See Respiratory activity;

Sleep-disordered breathing

C

Caffeine, 65, 106

California Technology Assessment Forum, 226

Cancer, and sleep problems, 101, 103, 105, 106

Cardiovascular activity during sleep, 38

Cardiovascular disease

childhood sleep disorders and, 70, 266

education campaigns, 179, 181

OSA and, 68, 69-71, 72, 74, 263-264, 266

sleep loss and, 21, 25, 28, 59, 62-63

treatment-related sleep problems, 104-105

Career development in sleep research.

See also Professional training

advances since 2003 research plan, 267

barriers to, 237-238

career training (K) awards, 238-242, 248, 250, 251, 275-276, 339, 360-367

K12 Multidisciplinary Clinical research Training Program, 241, 247, 248

mentors and mentoring, 6, 234, 237, 238, 242, 246, 248-250, 296, 361, 363, 364, 365, 366, 367

midcareer, 238, 248, 250, 364, 366

model support programs, 244-245

NIH support, 5-6, 25, 234, 238, 238-246, 339, 360-367

opportunities to accelerate, 247-251

professional organization and

foundation support, 243-245, 247, 248

public awareness/education and, 237

recruiting and retaining trainees, 237, 238, 278-279

Caregivers, 154-155

Cataplexy, 83, 85, 86, 87, 103

Catching up on sleep, 64

Catecholamines, 71, 336

Caucasians, 97, 142, 162

Center of Scientific Review, 275, 276

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 5, 347

educational activities, 7, 176, 177-178, 179, 180, 182, 257

sleep-related research, 257, 276, 277

surveillance, 8, 57, 203, 204, 208, 209, 210, 257, 285

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11617.
×

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, 209

Central nervous system tumors, 85

Central sleep apnea, 73, 74, 75, 262, 336

Cerebral blood flow, 39

Cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 (orexin-A), 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 262

Children

academic performance, 145, 146

ADHD, 22, 98, 100, 145, 146, 221

cardiovascular disease risk in adulthood, 70, 266

cognitive deficits, 145

diagnostic technologies, 220, 221, 227

epilepsy, 94

grants for research on, 274

insomnia, 265

medication safety issues, 65, 78, 87, 100, 265

narcolepsy, 87, 175

nightmares, 91

obesity, 61

OSA, 22, 61, 66, 68, 70, 71, 74, 75, 145-146, 153, 156, 227, 263, 265, 266, 352

parasomnias, 88, 89, 91

periodic limb movement, 100

quality of life, 153

sleep deprivation and sleep disorders, 154-155, 353

sleep patterns, 46, 48

sleepwalking, 89

snoring, 145, 266

tonsillar hypertrophy, 70, 71, 74, 146

utilization of health care, 156

CHQ-PF50, 153, 336

Circadian phase advance, 80

Circadian rhythm

age and, 44-45, 46, 47, 49, 261

defined, 41, 336

development, 44-45, 46

function, 41

gender differences, 47-48

grants for research, 270, 272, 275

and metabolism, 61-62

molecular mechanisms, 41-42, 261

and motor vehicle accidents, 148

neurobiology research advances, 260-261

and obesity, 261

shift work and, 58, 109, 261

sleep disorders, 21, 82, 107-111

sleep-wake regulation, 39-40, 41

sleeping sickness and, 104

suprachiasmatic nucleus and, 42-43, 261

and thermoregulation, 43, 45, 47, 106

Clinical Fellowship Program, 245

Clock genes, 41, 42-43, 101, 109, 110, 237, 261

Cognitive deficits

brain imaging studies, 142

disasters, fatigue-related, 20, 138

measuring, 137, 141-142

and medical errors, 138, 139-140, 144-145

OSA and, 145-146, 263, 266

sleep-disordered breathing, 65, 146-147

sleep loss and, 138-142, 145

Cognitive therapy, 78, 336

College students

premed, 185, 187

recruitment for sleep research, 185

sleep disturbances, 176, 184

sleep education programs, 184-185

Colorectal cancer screening campaign, 177-178, 180

Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, 9, 202

Confusional arousals, 88-89, 336

Congenital central hypoventilation

syndrome, 265-266

Congestive heart failure, 65, 69, 74, 95, 152

Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, 68, 70, 71, 72, 75, 96, 147, 151, 153, 154, 156-157, 161, 177, 218, 228, 264, 295, 298, 299, 314

Coronary artery disease, 65, 69, 70

Corticosteroids, 43, 106, 337

Cortisol, 45, 47, 71, 76, 104

Council of Graduate Schools, 246

Council on Education for Public Health, 9, 202

CPAP. See Continuous positive airway pressure

Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, 244, 245

Cytokines, 71, 105, 106

D

Dartmouth Sleep Knowledge and Attitude Survey, 190

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11617.
×

Delayed sleep phase syndrome

etiology and risk factors, 109, 266

genetic factors, 260

interventions, 143

manifestations and prevalence, 83, 107, 108-109

treatment, 109-110, 143

Dementias, 91-93

Dental and orofacial pain, 101

Dental appliances, 75

Department of Commerce, 5, 277, 347

Department of Defense, 5, 257, 276, 277, 347

Department of Education, 5, 179, 277, 347

Department of Energy, 355

Department of Health and Human Services, 204, 258

Department of Labor, 5, 179, 257, 276, 277, 347

Department of Transportation, 5, 179, 257, 276, 277, 347

Department of Veterans Affairs, 208, 219, 257, 258

Depression

adolescents, 63, 79, 143

cancer and, 103, 105

dementias and, 91

and hypersomnia, 85, 87, 296

insomnia and, 23, 77, 79, 80, 81-82, 103, 265

older adults, 48

periodic limb movement and, 100

and quality of life, 152

REM sleep characteristics, 79

sleep loss and, 2, 28, 56, 57, 59, 63, 143, 175, 184

Diabetes

OSA and, 65, 71-72, 74

and quality of life, 153

sleep loss and, 2, 21, 25, 28, 56, 59, 61-62, 267

type 2 defined, 344

Diagnosis of sleep disorders

access to, 9, 218

accreditation criteria, 28

actigraphy, 82, 83, 221, 227

apnea-hypopnea index, 66, 67, 223, 335

circadian rhythm disorder, criteria for, 107-108

comorbid psychiatric disorders and, 80-81

costs, 157, 160-161, 219, 307

demand for, 9, 218

evaluating daytime sleepiness, 226-227

future directions, 228-229

genetic and biochemical tests, 227

hypersomnia, 84, 86, 226

imaging technologies, 227

insomnia, criteria for, 75-76

International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 56, 86, 104, 107-108, 262

microstructural cyclic alternating patterns analysis, 227

MSLT, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 226-227

MWT, 227

narcolepsy, 83, 84, 86, 226, 262

OSA, 65, 67, 83, 160-161

polysomnography, 9, 26, 68, 70, 71, 83, 157, 218, 219, 223, 227

portable tools, 26, 218-223

reimbursement for, 28

revenues from, 310

RLS, 227

scoring and processing of sleep studies, 224-225, 309-310

sleep logs, 82, 83, 227

spectral analysis, 227

survey of trends, 208

telemonitoring from sleep centers, 228

video technologies, 227

waiting time for patients, 26, 218, 303, 307

Disasters, fatigue-related, 20, 138

Disease mortality, 63-64

Dissociative disorders, 89, 342

Dopamine, 40, 41, 87, 98-99, 261, 262

agonists, 90, 99, 100

antagonists, 99

Dreams/dreaming

and muscle atonia, 38, 90

nightmares, 46, 90, 104

sleep stage and, 21

vivid, 38, 104

Drug abuse, 23, 81, 91, 97, 184, 270

E

Eating disorders, 23, 84, 89, 342

Economic impacts

direct costs, 2, 157, 159-161

indirect costs, 108, 158, 160, 161

insomnia, 156, 159-160

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11617.
×

motor vehicle accidents, 158

narcolepsy, 162

obstructive sleep apnea, 156-157, 160-162

productivity losses, 21, 108, 158

utilization of health care, 2, 21, 155-157

Education on sleep disorders. See Medical education in somnology;

Professional training;

Public education

Elderly people. See Older adults

Electrocardiography, 69

Electrooculography, 69, 139, 337

Electroencephalography (EEG), 21, 34, 35, 36, 40, 43, 69, 103, 186, 337

Electromyography, 69

End-stage renal disease, 98, 99, 105-106, 296

Endocrine function, 39

Endothelial dysfunction, 68

Entertainment Industry Foundation, 178

Enuresis, 89

Epilepsy, 93-95, 337, 340

Epworth Sleepiness Scale, 154, 155, 337

Exploding head syndrome, 89, 337

Exploratory Center award, 281

F

Falls, 150, 160

Familial/genetic factors, 73, 74, 77, 79, 85, 87, 90, 94, 97, 98, 109, 110, 260, 261, 262, 263, 265-266

Fatigue, 20, 79, 95, 100, 104, 105, 149, 353

Fellowship (F) awards, 238, 239, 250, 275-276, 337-338, 371-372

Fogarty International Center, 255, 355, 359

Folate deficiency, 98

Francis Fellowship Program, 244

G

Garfield Star Sleeper Campaign, 176

Gastric bypass surgery, 72, 98

Gender differences

insomnia, 76, 77

OSA, 66

REM sleep disorders, 90

RLS, 98

SIDS, 97

sleep patterns, 47-48, 142

thermoregulation, 48-49

Generalized anxiety disorder, 79, 338

Genetic disorders, 85

Genetic factors. See Familial/genetic factors

Ghrelin, 60, 267

Grants for sleep research. See National Institutes of Health

Glucose metabolism

and AHI threshold, 223

circadian rhythm and, 42

CPAP and, 71

OSA and, 65, 71-72

sleep loss and, 59, 61-62, 63

Grants for sleep research. See National Institutes of Health

Growth hormone, 39, 104

H

Harvard University, 187, 236, 239, 298, 376-377

Harvard Work Hours Health and Safety Study, 139

Head trauma, 85, 87

Health care professionals.

See also Professional training

attraction to sleep field, 183

awareness about sleep disorders, 182-183

board certification in sleep medicine, 197-201, 298, 314-315

Health insurance coverage, 28, 209, 219, 315

Healthy Sleep Handbook, 176

Heart attack. See Myocardial infarction

Hemodialysis, 105

Hispanics, 205

HIV/AIDS, 103, 353

Homeostatic sleep pressure, 47, 49

Hormone replacement therapy, 74

Human Brain Project, 355

Huntington’s chorea, 91, 262

Hyperactivity, 106

Hyperarousal, 265

Hypercapnia, 72

Hypersexuality, 84

Hypersomnia

defined, 83, 338

diagnosis, 226

etiology and risk factors, 85, 87

grants for research, 270, 272-273

idiopathic, 82, 84, 86, 87, 272-273

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11617.
×

labeling and stigmatization of individuals, 175

manifestations and prevalence, 82, 84-85, 86, 87

and mortality risk, 74

neurological disorders and, 92, 296

with normal sleep length, 84, 86, 87

OSA and, 65, 66, 68

periodic, 84, 86, 87

and periodic limb movement disorder, 100

with prolonged sleep time, 84, 86, 87

and psychiatric disorders, 78-79, 80-81, 85, 87, 296

secondary, 85, 86, 88, 100, 105

sleep attacks, 93

treatment, 80-81, 87, 94-95

and work-related injuries, 150

Hypertension, 2, 21, 25, 56, 59, 62, 65, 66-69, 70, 74, 95, 180, 181, 223, 338

Hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations, 84, 87, 89, 338

Hypnotic drugs, 77-78, 96, 150, 158, 160, 265, 338

Hypocretin (orexin), 41, 85, 87, 101, 261, 262, 338

Hypolipidemic drugs, 104-105

Hypomania, 106

Hypoperfusion, 74

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, 71, 76

dysregulation, 80, 82

Hypothalamus, 40, 41, 43, 85, 101, 103, 261

Hypoventilation, 38

Hypoxemia, 71, 72, 145, 147

Hypoxia, 71, 74, 263-264, 338, 353

Hypoxic ventilatory response, 39

I

Immune response, 102

Immunologic disorders, 106

Infants

congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, 265-266

low birth weight, 97

newborns, 35, 44-45, 261

premature, 74, 97, 146

SIDS, 96-97, 180-181, 265

sleep patterns, 35, 44-45, 47-48

Infectious diseases, and sleep, 102-104

Inflammatory disorders, 85

Insomnia

brain imaging studies, 265

circadian rhythm disruptions and, 108

comorbid sleep disorders, 295

defined, 338

and depression, 23, 77, 79, 80, 81-82, 103, 265, 296

deterrents to seeking help, 175

economic impacts, 155, 156, 157, 159-160

etiology and risk factors, 23, 40, 76-77, 100

and fall risk in older people, 150, 160

grants for research, 270

human leukocyte antigen DQB1*0602, 83, 85, 86

manifestations and prevalence, 2, 20, 58, 75-76, 159

medications and, 99, 103, 104-105, 106, 150, 159

narcolepsy and, 84

NIH State-of-the-Science Conference, 265

pain and, 101

psychiatric disorders and, 77, 79, 80, 81-82, 156, 159

and quality of life, 75, 152-153

sleeping sickness and, 103

stroke and, 95

treatment, 23, 65, 77-78, 96, 150, 265

undiagnosed and untreated cases, 218, 294-295

utilization of health care, 155, 156, 159

and work-related injuries, 149

Institutional National Research Service Award, 354

Insulin resistance, 71, 72, 264

Intelligence quotient, 145, 146

Interdisciplinary research, defined, 27, 28, 298

Interdisciplinary sleep programs, academic.

See also Sleep centers and laboratories

accreditation and certification, 28, 312-315, 318, 321

administrative jurisdictions, 301

approach, 27-28, 296-303

Centers of Excellence, 11-12, 278-282, 283

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11617.
×

chronic disease management model, 28, 304, 321

consortia, 185, 187

constraints on, 26-28, 300-303

diagnosis-treatment linkages, 28, 303-305

direct costs, 307-309

education and training, 304

examples of approaches, 299

grants, 318, 370

guiding principles, 11, 14-16, 305-306

health insurance coverage, 315

institutional reward system and, 301

key components, 303-306

knowledge base, 26, 296

leadership, 305

macrostructure, 310-311

microstructure, 311

network participation, 12-13, 282, 284, 305, 320

next steps, 315-321

obstacles, 27, 301-302

organizational structures, 13-14, 27-28, 310-311, 312, 316-320

and quality of care, 27

rationale for, 26-28, 294-300

recommendations, 14, 319, 321

research component, 304-305

revenue generation and fiscal independence, 28, 305-310, 311-312

staffing, 298-300, 302-303, 307

transparent policies and procedures, 306, 311

Type I clinical program, 13, 15-16, 279, 284, 316, 317, 319-320

Type II training and research program, 13, 15-16, 200, 284, 316, 317, 318, 320

Type III regional program, 13-14, 15-16, 200, 284, 316, 317, 318, 320

International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 56, 86, 104, 107, 262

Internet, 21, 58

Interventions.

See also Treatment effectiveness of, 150-151

Iron deficiency, 98, 262, 295-296

Irregular sleep schedules, 58

Irregular sleep-wake disorder, 107

Irritability, 79, 108, 184

J

Jet lag, 58, 107

K

K awards. See Career development in sleep research

K complexes, 36, 38

Kleine-Levin syndrome, 84, 86, 87, 273, 340

L

Learning and vocabulary, sleep loss and, 140, 145, 146, 184, 264

Leptin, 60, 72, 267, 340

Lewy body disease, 92, 262, 296

Light-dark cycle, 39, 40, 43

Light exposure, 47, 76, 109, 110, 143

M

Magnetic resonance imaging, 186, 227, 340

Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT), 227

Maternal and Child Health Bureau, 180

Median thalamic stroke, 85

Medical disorders and sleep.

See also individual disorders

cancer, 103, 105

grants for research, 270

infectious diseases, 102-104

pain, 100-101

treatment-related effects, 104-106

Medical education in somnology.

See also Professional training

accreditation and certification, 189, 190, 191-192, 196, 197-201, 202

barriers to curriculum implementation, 25, 188

evaluation of effectiveness of, 188, 189-190

inadequacy of, 187-188

multidisciplinary learning environment, 189, 192, 193, 202

nurses as care managers, 190-191

overview, 187-191

residency training curricula, 191-192

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11617.
×

Sleep Academic Award program, 189-190, 240, 241, 352

undergraduate education, 185, 187

workforce shortages, 192

Medical errors, sleep loss and, 138, 139-140, 144-145, 266

Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 203, 206, 209

Medical residents

medical errors, 138, 139-140, 144-145

motor vehicle accidents, 149

restriction of work hours, 25, 139, 189

somnology training curricula, 191-192

Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, 205, 209-210

MEDSleep, 25, 189

Melatonin, 39, 43, 45, 47, 49, 104, 106, 109-111, 159, 340

Memory, 36, 38, 57, 100, 138, 140, 147, 184

Menopause and menopausal symptoms, 74, 105

Menstruation, 48, 84

Metabolic syndrome, 261, 266, 295, 353

Microsleeps, 138

Microstructural cyclic alternating patterns analysis, 227

Modafinil, 65, 87, 93, 266

Molecular Biology and Genetics of Sleep and Sleep Disorders, 352

Monitoring. See Sleep monitoring

Mood, sleep loss and, 23, 48, 63, 65.

See also Anxiety and anxiety disorders;

Depression

Mortality

falls in older people, 150

RLS and, 99

SIDS, 181

sleep-disordered breathing and, 74-75, 264

survey, 206

work-related fatalities, 150

Motor vehicle accidents, 2, 21, 56, 147-149, 158, 160, 161, 266

Movement disorders.

See also Periodic limb movement disorder;

Restless legs syndrome

neurological disorders and, 92

Multidisciplinary research, defined, 27, 28, 298

Multiple sclerosis, 85

Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT), 82, 197, 199, 226-227, 340

Multiple systems atrophy, 90, 93

Muscular Dystrophy Cooperative Research Centers, 283

Musculoskeletal disorders, 101

MWT. See Maintenance of Wakefulness Test

Myocardial infarction, 2, 38, 56, 60, 62, 69, 70, 95, 153

Myotonic dystrophy, 85

N

Naps/napping, 64, 83, 84, 87, 151, 226

Narcolepsy

and academic performance, 82

and accidents and injuries, 147

with cataplexy, 83, 85, 86, 87, 262, 336

without cataplexy, 85-87, 272

comorbid sleep disorders, 295

defined, 340

diagnosis, 226, 227, 262

economic impacts, 155, 162

etiology and risk factors, 85-87, 237

grants for research, 270, 272

manifestations and prevalence, 34-35, 82-85, 86

and periodic limb movement disorder, 100

and quality of life, 151-152

secondary, 85, 86

and stigma, 175

treatment, 23, 87

undiagnosed and untreated cases, 218, 294-295

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 355

National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 207

National Association of Student Personnel Administrators, 185

National Cancer Institute (NCI), 255, 278-280, 283, 352, 354, 355, 359, 366

National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), 255, 355, 359, 365

National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), 57, 203, 204, 206

National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research, 268, 283

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11617.
×

National Center for Research Resources (NCRR), 354, 365, 366

National Center on Sleep Disorders Research (NCSDR), 22, 256-258

advisory board to, 3, 5, 257, 258-259, 276-277, 345-350

budget, 257

educational materials, 176

establishment, 24, 175, 254, 256, 345

funding, 24, 355

information collection and dissemination, 347

leadership, 3

mission, 24, 256-257, 345

public education campaigns, 7, 175-176, 179, 180, 182, 347

recommended role, 4-5, 7, 8, 10, 277

research plans, 2, 29, 259-267, 347

RFA, PA, 239, 256, 268-269, 274, 275-276

Sleep Academic Award, 189

strengthening, 4-5, 276-277

technology evaluation and validation, 229

National Colorectal Cancer Research Alliance, 178

National Death Index, 206

National Eye Institute (NEI), 24, 255, 354, 357, 358, 366

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 203, 204, 205, 211, 257

National Health Care Survey, 203, 206-208

National Health Interview Survey, 57, 203, 204-206, 211

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), 12, 22, 23, 24, 25, 175, 180, 181, 189, 204, 211, 240, 241, 255, 256, 257, 258, 273, 274, 275, 283, 352, 353, 354, 355, 358, 364, 365, 366, 367

National High Blood Pressure Campaign, 180

National Hospital Discharge Survey, 207-208

National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), 23, 354

National Immunization Survey, 203

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 352, 355, 359

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), 23, 255, 354, 355, 359

National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), 255, 283, 353, 354, 355, 359

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), 22, 180, 255, 258, 268-269, 273, 283, 352, 353, 354, 355, 359, 365, 366

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), 23, 255, 353, 359, 365, 366

National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), 23, 352, 353, 355, 359

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), 23, 352, 355

National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), 255, 357, 358, 366

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 22, 23, 24, 186, 240, 255, 258, 273, 274, 352, 353, 354, 355, 358, 365, 366

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), 22, 23-24, 255, 258, 274, 283, 352, 354, 355, 358, 365, 366

National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR), 23, 255, 353, 354, 355, 358, 365

National Institute on Aging (NIA), 22-23, 255, 258, 274, 352, 353, 354, 355, 358, 365, 366

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), 23, 255, 352, 354, 355, 358, 366

National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), 24, 255, 352, 354, 355, 359

National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), 23, 255, 353, 354, 355, 358

National Institutes of Health (NIH), 22

career development awards, 240-241

conference on insomnia, 265

coordination of sleep research, 2, 254-259;

see also National Center on Sleep Disorders Research;

Trans-NIH Sleep Research Coordinating Committee

Exploratory Center award, 281

grants for sleep research, 24, 25, 222, 235-236, 254, 267-276, 351-355

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11617.
×

Institutional Clinical and Translational Science Award, 282

leadership in somnology research and training, 3-5, 17

loan repayment policies, 247

new career award support, 241-242

Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research, 23

Office of Research on Women’s Health, 355

roadmap initiatives, 14, 241, 242, 247, 285

Science Conference on the Manifestations and Management of Chronic Insomnia, 77

technology development grants, 222, 229

training awards, 200, 238-240

National League for Nursing, 9, 202

National Library of Medicine (NLM), 354, 355

National Occupational Research Agenda, 352

National Research Service Award Institutional Training Grants, 238

National Safety Council, 161

National Sleep Foundation (NSF), 2, 22, 29, 148, 176-177, 179, 355

Pickwick Club Award, 243, 244

National Sleep Public Education and Awareness Campaign, 178-182

National Sleep Awareness Week, 176-177

National Somnology and Sleep Medicine Research and Clinical Network, 7, 12-13, 14, 179, 279, 282-285, 320

National Survey of Family Growth, 206

National Transportation Safety Board, 149

Native Americans, 97

NCSDR. See National Center on Sleep Disorders Research

Neurological disorders with sleep abnormalities

Alzheimer’s disease, 91-92, 262

epilepsy, 93-95

grants for research, 270

multiple system atrophy, 90

Parkinson’s disease, 85, 90, 92-93, 262

spinal cord damage, 101

stroke, 95-96

Nicotine dependence, 81, 97

Nightmare disorder, 89, 90-91, 340

NIH. See National Institutes of Health

Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, 94

Non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep

arousal disorders, 88-90

brain activity, 21, 35, 36, 40

continuous spike wave epilepsy, 94

cycles, 35

defined, 340

disorders of, 34-35

physiological changes, 37, 38

stages, 21, 34, 35-37, 343;

see also Slow-wave sleep

Nonentrained sleep-wake syndrome, 107

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, 106

Nurses and nurse practitioners

medical errors, 145

role in interdisciplinary programs, 298-300

somnology education, 183, 185, 187, 190-191

Nurses Health Study, 61, 62, 71

O

Obesity

education campaign, 177, 179

and hypertension, 66

hypoventilation syndrome, 264-265

and OSA, 61, 66, 72, 160-161, 263, 295

sleep loss and, 2, 21, 25, 56, 59-61, 267

stigma of, 175

utilization of health care, 161

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)

advances in research, 263, 265, 266

age/aging and, 66, 73, 263

alcohol use and, 73

Alzheimer’s disease and, 91, 262

apnea-hypopnea index, 65, 66, 67, 69, 71, 148, 220

and cardiovascular disease and stroke, 69-71, 72, 74, 263-264

in children, 22, 61, 66, 68, 70, 71, 74, 75, 145-146, 153, 156, 263, 265, 266, 352

comorbid sleep disorders, 295

defined, 340

developmental, behavioral, and cognitive effects, 145-146

and diabetes and glucose tolerance, 70, 71-72, 74

diagnosis, 65, 67, 83, 160-161, 225

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11617.
×

economic impacts, 156-157, 160-162

etiology, 72-73

familial/genetic factors, 73, 74, 97

gender differences, 66, 73-74

grants for research, 268

and hypertension, 66-69, 74

manifestations and prevalence, 2, 20, 66, 178, 263

and motor vehicle accidents, 148, 161, 219, 263

obesity and, 61, 66, 72, 73-74, 160-161

and periodic limb movement disorder, 100

portable monitoring equipment for, 220, 225

and quality of life, 153

race and, 66, 73, 74, 161-162, 263

research, 23

risk factors, 73-74, 91

and SIDS risk, 97

socioeconomic status and, 161-162

training requirements for health professionals, 183

treatment, 23, 26, 68, 75, 151, 153, 156-157, 264

and sudden death, 74

undiagnosed and untreated cases, 218

utilization of health care, 156-157, 161

Occupational safety and health.

See also Work

regulation, 150-151

research, 355

Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 257

Older adults

advanced sleep phase, 260

education campaigns, 176

falls, 150

grants for research on, 274

insomnia, 76, 77, 160

neurological disorders, 92

OSA, 66, 68, 73, 154, 263

periodic limb movement disorder, 100

portable monitoring equipment for, 220

quality of life, 154

REM sleep disorders, 90

RLS, 98

sleep patterns, 22-23, 47, 48-49

OSA. See Obstructive sleep apnea

Oxidative stress, 68, 263-264

P

Pain, and sleep problems, 100-101, 105

Parasomnias

defined, 341

grants for research, 270, 272

manifestations and prevalence, 88

NREM sleep arousal disorders, 88-90

psychiatric disorders and, 79

and quality of life, 152

REM sleep disorders, 90-91

treatment, 96

Parker B. Francis Fellowship Program, 244

Parkinson’s disease, 85, 90, 92-93, 262, 296

Pathway to Independence Award program, 242

Performance problems, 2, 82, 108, 142-144, 145, 146-147, 154, 158, 160, 184, 266.

See also Cognitive deficits

Periodic limb movement disorder, 2, 20, 92, 98, 100, 220, 223, 273, 295, 355

Periodic limb movement index, 223

Physical activity education campaign, 177

Physicians. See Health care professionals

Polysomnography, 26, 68, 70, 71, 83, 139, 146, 157, 341

Portable monitoring and therapeutic devices

challenges to developing, 222-228

cost-effectiveness, 157, 221

evaluation of effectiveness, 10, 225-226, 273

feasibility and quality, 220-222, 228

future directions, 228

rationale for, 9, 218-220, 228

validation of, 26, 222-224, 273

Posttraumatic stress disorder, 91, 257

Prader-Willi syndrome, 85, 341

Pregnancy and postpartum period

RLS, 48, 98, 296

sleep patterns, 48

substance abuse, 97

Process C, 39-40

Process S, 39-40

Professional training.

See also Medical education in somnology

access to, 296

accreditation, 177, 192-197, 314

advances since 2003 research plan, 260, 267

awareness programs, 184-185

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11617.
×

board certification, 197-201, 314-315

challenges, 201

costs, 307-309

curriculum development, 6, 8-9, 183, 185-187, 202, 238, 240, 241, 296, 362

fellowship programs, 192-197, 198, 199, 200, 238, 240, 242, 243, 244, 296, 314, 337-338, 371-372

funding, 5, 6, 186, 200, 201-202, 343- 344, 362, 369

graduate research programs, 8-9, 187, 189, 373

improvement strategies, 248-250

integration with other programs, 8, 249-250

interdisciplinary approach, 25-26, 183, 187, 247, 249-251

leadership skills, 240, 241

limitations of current programs, 27, 160 182-183

next steps, 201-202

NIH awards, 25, 238-240

pooling funds for, 241

recommendations, 6, 8-9, 202, 250-251

remote mentoring programs, 248-249

requirements, 182-187

revenues from, 311

tools and products, 25, 202

undergraduate education, 8-9, 183, 184-187, 373

workforce shortages, 192, 296

Program (P) awards, 281, 340-341, 352, 355, 370

Psychiatric disorders with sleep disturbances

database, 208

economic costs, 159

etiology and risk factors, 80

grants for research, 270, 272

insomnia, 77, 78, 81-82, 156, 159, 296

manifestations and prevalence, 78-79, 208, 295

parasomnias, 79

treatment, 80-81

utilization of health care, 156, 175

Psychomotor vigilance task, 142

Public education

absence of sleep content, 175

awareness of sleep disorders, 2, 20, 22, 26, 29, 175, 234

Back to Sleep program, 97, 180-181

CDC activities, 177-178, 257

celebrity spokespersons, 178

for college students, 185

coordinating activities, 179, 180, 181

costs and challenges, 180

curriculum supplements for children and adolescents, 176, 177, 234

evaluation of effectiveness, 176, 179

focus and role, 178-179

grants, 177

integrating with other public health campaigns, 179, 185

multimedia campaigns, 177, 178-182

National High Blood Pressure Education Program, 181

National Sleep Awareness Week, 176-177

National Sleep Public Education and Awareness Campaign, 178-182

NCSDR campaigns, 175-176

private-foundation campaigns, 176-177

rationale for, 179

recommendations, 7, 182

strategies for strengthening, 176, 178-182, 184

Q

Quality of care

accreditation of sleep centers and, 313-314

certification of specialists and, 314-315

health insurance reimbursement and, 315

Quality of life

bed partners of individuals with sleep disorders, 153-154

measuring, 151, 152, 153, 154

sleep loss and, 48, 75, 147, 151-153, 184

R

Race/ethnicity

and OSA, 66, 73, 74, 161-162, 263

and SIDS, 97

and sleep patterns, 142

Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder, 84, 89, 90, 92, 93, 100, 262, 296, 342

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11617.
×

brain wave activity, 37, 40

characteristics, 37-38

cycles, 35

defined, 342

depression and, 79

discovery, 21

infections and, 102

and muscle atonia, 37, 38, 40, 45, 84, 335

nightmare disorder, 89, 90-91

onset of sleep during, 226, 227, 262

OSA and, 69

physiological changes, 37, 38-39

suppressants, 83, 105, 106

Reaction/response time, 138, 140, 141-142, 148

Recommendations

academic interdisciplinary sleep programs, 18, 319, 321

accreditation standards, 11, 321

career development, 6, 250-251

National Somnology and Sleep Medicine Research Network, 12-13, 14, 285

NIH leadership role, 3-5, 7, 8, 10, 17, 277

professional education and training, 6, 8-9, 17, 202, 250-251

public education campaign, 7, 17, 182

sleep laboratories, 10-11, 286, 321

summary of, 17-18

surveillance and monitoring, 7-8, 17, 212

technology development, 10, 18, 229

REM. See Rapid-eye-movement sleep

Renal disease, treatment-related sleep problems, 105-106

Research. See Somnology and sleep medicine research

Research (R) awards, 234, 235, 236, 242, 255, 269-272, 273, 275-276, 296, 341-342, 352, 353, 354, 355, 356-359, 369

Respiratory activity, 38-39

Restless legs syndrome (RLS)

and accidents and injuries, 147

and ADHD, 22

defined, 342

diagnosis, 227

etiology and risk factors, 48, 98-99, 100, 105, 262

grants for research, 270, 273

manifestations and prevalence, 2, 20, 97-98, 295-296

pain and, 101

periodic limb movements and, 100

and quality of life, 152, 153

research grants, 355

treatment, 99-100

Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation, 22, 177

Rheumatologic disorders, 106

S

Schizophrenia, 80

Science Conference on the Manifestations and Management of Chronic Insomnia, 77

SCOR in Neurobiology of Sleep & Sleep Apnea, 352

Screen for Life campaign, 177-178, 180

Serotonin, 40, 41

reuptake inhibitors, 87

SF-36 scale, 151, 154

Shift work

disorder, 20, 21, 57, 58, 64, 77, 107, 109, 266

economic impacts, 158

and motor vehicle crashes, 148-149

obesity and metabolic disorders, 261

personnel turnover and retraining, 158

prevalence, 257

public education campaigns, 176

SIDS. See Sudden infant death syndrome

Silvio O. Conte Centers to Develop Collaborative Neuroscience Research, 281

Sleep Academic Award program, 189-190, 240, 241, 352

Sleep apneas, 105.

See also Obstructive sleep apnea;

Sleep-disordered breathing

and accidents and injuries, 147, 148, 149, 150

AHI for defining, 223

defined, 342

demand for diagnosis and treatment, 219

diagnostic technologies, 222, 223

economic costs of, 157

grants for research, 270

and insulin resistance, 264

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11617.
×

and oxidative stress, 263-264

and psychiatric disorders, 208

and quality of life, 151-152

treatment, 151

Sleep architecture.

See also Non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep;

Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep

age-related changes, 43-49

brain activity, 34, 265

cancer and, 103

cycles, 35-36, 44, 45

defined, 34

iatrogenic effects of medical therapies, 104-106

infections and, 102-104

neurological disorders and, 90, 92

pain and, 101-102

physiological changes, 37, 38-39

pubertal development and, 46-47

sleeping sickness and, 103-104

social cues and, 45, 46

stroke and, 95

types of sleep, 34-35

Sleep centers and laboratories, 22

accreditation, 11, 26, 196, 313-314, 321

community-based, 219

costs, 219

funding, 281

learning experiences in, 188

lung function laboratories compared, 224

models for, 278-282

in NIH clinical research program, 285-286

number in U.S., 218

quality of care, 313-314

recommendation, 10-11, 286

staffing, 219, 224, 307

telemonitoring of hospital polysomnograms, 228

utilization, 26, 182

Sleep-disordered breathing, 82.

See also Obstructive sleep apnea

and accidents and injuries, 147

and ADHD, 100

advances in research, 263-265

apnea-hypopnea index, 67, 95, 263

bed partners of individuals with, 154

and cognitive impairment, 146-147

economic impacts, 155

etiology and risk factors, 72-75, 263

manifestations and prevalence, 56, 65-72, 74

and metabolic syndrome, 353

and mortality, 70, 74-75

and periodic limb movement disorder, 100

and quality of life, 154

treatment, 75, 96, 104

utilization of health care, 155

Sleep disorders. See Circadian rhythm;

Insomnia;

Medical disorders and sleep;

Narcolepsy;

Neurological disorders with sleep abnormalities;

Parasomnias;

Psychiatric sleep disorders with sleep disturbances;

Restless leg syndrome;

Sleep-disordered breathing;

Sleep loss and sleep disorders

Sleep drunkenness (inertia), 84, 342

Sleep Heart Health Study, 61, 67, 68, 69-70, 71, 161, 223, 264

data coordinating center, 352

Sleep hygiene training, 78, 155, 184, 342

Sleep in America poll, 177

Sleep loss and sleep disorders, general.

See also individual disorders

and academic performance, 142-144

access to care, 201, 294-295

adolescents, 142-144

and alcohol use, 63

animal studies, 21, 61-62

and cardiovascular morbidity, 62-63

challenges for individuals with, 174-178

cognitive effects, 138-142

cumulative effects, 2, 142

and diabetes, 61-62

effectiveness of interventions, 150-151

environmental factors, 143

etiology and risk factors, 34, 57-59

family and community effects, 153-155

fragmentation of sleep, 71, 147

and functional status, 151-152, 153-155

and glucose tolerance, 61-62

grants for research by type of, 270, 272-273

health effects, 2, 21, 25, 28, 56, 59-64

lifestyle and sociocultural factors, 174

management and treatment, 64-65

manifestations, 56, 57

and medical errors, 138, 139-140, 144-145

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11617.
×

and mood and behavior, 63

and mortality, 63-64

and obesity, 59-61

prevalence, 2, 20, 56, 57, 206

public health burden, 2, 56, 294

and quality of life, 48, 151-153

Sleep medicine. See Somnology and sleep medicine research

Sleep monitoring. See Portable monitoring and therapeutic devices

Sleep paralysis, 84, 87, 89, 90, 342

Sleep patterns

age and, 44-47, 142, 143

circadian rhythm disruption, 21

temporal distribution, 108

Sleep Research Society, 2, 22, 25, 29, 177, 235, 237, 249

Sleep Research Society Foundation, 177

Sleep restriction therapy, 77, 342

Sleep, Sleep Disorders, and Biological Rhythms, 176

Sleep spindles, 36, 186, 342-343

Sleep terrors, 89, 90, 227, 343

Sleep-wake regulation

brain processes and structures, 40-41, 43, 76-77, 80, 85, 92, 94, 261

iatrogenic effects of medical therapies, 104-106

immune system and, 102

phylogenetic studies, 261-262

two-process model, 39-40

Sleepiness, excessive daytime. See Hypersomnia

Sleeping sickness, 102-104, 335

Sleepwalking, 88, 89-90, 343

Slow-wave sleep

arousal disorders, 90

body temperature and, 43

characteristics, 36-37

defined, 343

depression and, 79

endocrine function, 39

infections and, 102

opioids and, 105

Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grants, 222

Snoring, 65, 66, 70, 73, 74, 99, 145, 150, 221, 266

Socioeconomic status

and insomnia, 160

and narcolepsy, 162

and OSA, 161-162

Somnology and sleep medicine research.

See also Career development in sleep research;

Interdisciplinary sleep programs

academic programs, 5, 235-236, 375-377

adolescents, 186

advances since 2003, 260-267

animal studies, 261-262, 271, 274, 352

basic, 23, 25, 240, 259, 261-262, 270, 272, 279, 282, 354

Basics of Sleep Research guide, 177

bias in studies, 59, 70, 74

Centers of Excellence, 278-282, 283

challenges, 6, 22-26

circadian rhythm, 260-261, 270, 272

clinical, 270, 272, 274, 279, 282, 285-286

collaborations, 28, 276, 277-278

coordination by NIH, 2, 3-5, 22-24, 186, 229, 240, 241, 244, 250, 254-256, 257-258, 267, 268, 275-276, 277, 357

defining, 2 n.1, 20, 23, 250, 342, 343

fellowship training, 192-197, 198, 199, 200

grants from NIH, 4, 200, 235-236, 254, 255, 256, 277, 282, 296, 340-342, 351-359, 368-373, 375-377;

see also Analysis of NIH grants

growth of field, 4, 22, 25, 234-238, 296

historical background, 21-22

human studies, 271, 274

insomnia, 265

interdisciplinary approach, 3-4, 6, 242, 254, 278-282, 297-300

investigator shortages, 2, 5, 6, 25-26, 27, 234, 296

knowledge base, 296

minorities in, 236-237

molecular/genetic studies, 262, 263, 271, 273

national network, 7, 14, 179, 279, 282-285, 320

neurobiology-related, 260-262, 352

next steps, 276-286

outlook for, 254, 267-268

pediatric sleep sciences, 265-266

phylogenetic approaches, 261-262

professional societies, 22, 235

recommendations, 4-5, 277, 283, 285-286

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11617.
×

resource allocation, 4-5, 26

sleep deprivation, 266-267

sleep-disordered breathing, 263-265, 352

sleep disorders, 262, 272-273

sleep laboratories, 285-286

technology development and assessment, 26, 273, 354

Standardized immobilization test, 227

Stigma of sleep disorders, 174-175

Stimulus control therapy, 78

Stress, 76, 77, 91, 94, 184, 222

Stroke, 93, 181, 262

and sleep architecture, 85, 95-96

sleep-disordered breathing and, 65, 69, 70, 95

sleep loss and, 56, 62

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

Back to Sleep campaign, 97, 180-181, 265, 273

etiology and risk factors, 96-97

grants for research, 273

manifestations and prevalence, 96

prevention, 97

Summer Research Institute, 249

Summer Sleep and Chronobiology Research Apprenticeship, 186, 248

Surveillance.

See also individual surveys

diagnoses of sleep disorders, 208

existing data systems and surveys, 203- 212, 257

importance, 203

incorporating new components in surveys, 210-211, 257

physicians’ role in, 191

questionnaire on sleep, 205

recommendations, 212

Sleep in America poll, 177

utilization of health care resources, 207-208

vital statistics, 206

Sympathetic nervous system activity, 38, 61, 63, 65, 68, 69, 71, 72, 73, 74

T

Technology development.

See also Portable monitoring and therapeutic devices

assessment criteria, 226

future directions, 228-229

grants for, 273

recommendation, 10, 229

Thermoregulation, 43, 45, 47, 48-49, 106

Time for Kids magazine, 176

Tonsil enlargement and tonsillectomy, 70, 71, 73, 75

Training. See Professional training

Training (T) awards, 238, 239, 250, 251, 275-276, 343-344, 354, 373

Trans-NIH Sleep Research Coordinating Committee, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 24, 186, 229, 240, 241, 244, 250, 254, 255-256, 257-258, 267, 276, 277, 283, 305, 357

Treatment.

See also Sleep loss and sleep disorders;

individual disorders

access to, 26, 201, 218-219

adherence to, 26, 68, 70, 77, 80, 147, 157, 177, 298, 299, 314

behavioral therapies, 77, 78, 87, 99, 109, 154-155, 265

clinical practice guidelines, 177

cognitive therapy, 78, 265

comorbid psychiatric disorders, 80-81

CPAP therapy, 68, 70, 71, 72, 75, 96, 147, 151, 153, 154, 156-157, 161, 177, 218, 228, 264, 295, 298, 299, 314

demand for, 218

economic costs of, 159, 160-161

effectiveness, 151, 154, 155

extinction program, 155

guidelines, 64

light therapy, 109, 110, 143

management approach, 28, 295-296

melatonin therapy, 109-111, 159

naps, 151

pharmacological, 64-65, 77-78, 87, 90, 93, 99-100, 155, 159;

see also individual drugs and drug classes

residual sleepiness, 295

sleep hygiene training, 78, 155

sleep restriction therapy, 77

Truck drivers, commercial, 149, 150-151, 263, 266

TV watching, 21, 58

Type I, II, III interdisciplinary sleep programs. See Interdisciplinary sleep programs

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11617.
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U

University of Pennsylvania, 236, 239, 298, 307, 376-377

University of Pittsburgh, 236, 239, 376-377

Utilization of health care, 2, 21, 26, 155-157, 159, 161

V

Vigilance deficits, 138, 148

Viral infections, and sleep, 103

W

Wakefulness, 40-41

medications promoting, 64-65

sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity, 73

Weight gain, sleep loss and, 267

Wisconsin Sleep Cohort study, 66, 68, 72

Work.

See also Occupational safety and health;

Shift work

absenteeism, 154, 158, 160

accidents and injuries, 147, 149-150, 158, 160, 266

hours, 138, 139, 148

performance/productivity losses, 2, 146-147, 154, 158, 160

Y

Youth Risk and Behavior Surveillance System, 210

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11617.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11617.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11617.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11617.
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Page 400
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11617.
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Page 401
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11617.
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Page 402
Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11617.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11617.
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Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem Get This Book
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Clinical practice related to sleep problems and sleep disorders has been expanding rapidly in the last few years, but scientific research is not keeping pace. Sleep apnea, insomnia, and restless legs syndrome are three examples of very common disorders for which we have little biological information. This new book cuts across a variety of medical disciplines such as neurology, pulmonology, pediatrics, internal medicine, psychiatry, psychology, otolaryngology, and nursing, as well as other medical practices with an interest in the management of sleep pathology. This area of research is not limited to very young and old patients—sleep disorders reach across all ages and ethnicities. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation presents a structured analysis that explores the following:

  • Improving awareness among the general public and health care professionals.
  • Increasing investment in interdisciplinary somnology and sleep medicine research training and mentoring activities.
  • Validating and developing new and existing technologies for diagnosis and treatment. This book will be of interest to those looking to learn more about the enormous public health burden of sleep disorders and sleep deprivation and the strikingly limited capacity of the health care enterprise to identify and treat the majority of individuals suffering from sleep problems.
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