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Scientific Opportunities with a Rare-Isotope Facility in the United States (2007)

Chapter: Appendix C: Selected List of Operating and Planned Rare-Isotope Facilities Worldwide

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Selected List of Operating and Planned Rare-Isotope Facilities Worldwide." National Research Council. 2007. Scientific Opportunities with a Rare-Isotope Facility in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11796.
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C
Selected List of Operating and Planned Rare-Isotope Facilities Worldwide

TABLE C.1 Selected List of Rare-Isotope Beam Facilities: Existing and Near-Term Capabilities in Asia, Europe, and North America

Facility

Region

Country

Type

Driver

BFRIB

Asia

China

ISOL

100 MeV, 200 µA cyclotron

HIRFL at IMP

Asia

China

IF

HI cyclotrons and storage ring and cooler

RARF at RIKEN

Asia

Japan

IF

HI linac and K540 cyclotron and K70 AVF cyclotron

RIBF at RIKEN

Asia

Japan

IF

Cascade of K520, K980, and K2500 HI cyclotrons to 440 (LI) and 350 (very HI) MeV/A

TRIAC at KEK-JAEA

Asia

Japan

ISOL

40 MeV, 3 µA tandem

VEC-RIB

Asia

India

ISOL

K130 cyclotron to 400 keV/A

CRC

Europe

Belgium

ISOL

30 MeV H cyclotron to 300 µA

DRIBS at Dubna

Europe

Russia

IF and ISOL

U400 and U400M and U200 HI cyclotrons 100 MeV/A

EURISOL

Europe

European Union

ISOL

Linac providing 1 GeV protons with up to 5 MW and multiple 100 kW targets

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Selected List of Operating and Planned Rare-Isotope Facilities Worldwide." National Research Council. 2007. Scientific Opportunities with a Rare-Isotope Facility in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11796.
×

Accelerated Rare-Isotope Beams

Status

Comments

SC linac proposed

Construction from 2003

Up to 10 MeV/A for RIB

 

Operating driver

1100 MeV/A for 12C and 540 MeV/A for 238U driver

 

Operating

Provides intense A < 60 RIBs

Phase II includes degraders, a gas catcher, e-RI collider, polarized RI beams, etc.

Construction

Goal of up to 100 kW of U on target, Phase I operational in 2007, Phase II proposed

18 GHz (CB-ECR) and SC RFQ and IH and SC linacs

Operating

Low-energy RNBs up to 1.1 MeV/A are currently available; RNBs from 5 to 8 MeV/A are planned

HI RFQ linac to 86 keV/A; IH linacs to 400 keV/A

Cyclotron exists, RFQ prototype operational, funded project

Photofission option for producing neutron-rich RIB under consideration; Phase 2 proposal for acceleration up to 2 MeV/A submitted

K110–Cyclone cyclotron

Operating

Up to 9 kW on target and RIBs accelerated from 0.2 to 12 MeV/A

RIB can be accelerated in U400 cyclotron.

Operating

Also uses photofission technique with the MT25 microtron

SC linac

4-year design study funded in 2005.

Continuous energies between keV/A and 100 MeV/A for m < 130

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Selected List of Operating and Planned Rare-Isotope Facilities Worldwide." National Research Council. 2007. Scientific Opportunities with a Rare-Isotope Facility in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11796.
×

Facility

Region

Country

Type

Driver

EXCYT at LNS

Europe

Italy

ISOL

HI SC k = 800 cyclotron up to 1.3 kW on target

FAIR at GSI

Europe

Germany

IF

Uranium to 2 GeV/A for fragmentation

GSI

Europe

Germany

IF

Uranium to 1 GeV/A

ISOLDE at CERN

Europe

European Union

ISOL

1.4 GeV synchrotron with up to 2 µA average

MAFF

Europe

Germany

ISOL

Munich Research Reactor FRM-II

SPES

Europe

Italy

ISOL

100 MeV proton beam on UC x target

SPIRAL at GANIL

Europe

France

ISOL/ IF

HI cyclotrons producing up to 95 MeV/A

SPIRAL 2 at GANIL

Europe

France

ISOL

SC linac produces 40 MeV and 5 mA deuterons; and 1 mA HI up to 14.5 MeV/A

HRIBF at ORNL

North America

United States

ISOL

42 MeV ORIC cyclotron

ISAC-I

North America

Canada

ISOL

100 µA, 500 MeV cyclotron

ISAC-II

North America

Canada

ISOL

Accelerates ISAC-I beams

NSCL at MSU

North America

United States

IF

HI coupled SC cyclotrons 80 to 160 MeV/A for LI and 90 MeV/A for U

RIA

North America

United States

ISOL/ IF

400 kW linac providing 400 MeV/A HI and LI or 900 MeV p

NOTE: BFRIB—Beijing Facility for Rare Isotope Beams; HIRFL—Heavy Ion Research Facility; IMP—Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences; RARF—RIKEN Accelerator Research Facility; RIBF at RIKEN—Rare-Isotope Beam Factory at RIKEN; TRIAC at KEK-JAEA—Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex at High Energy Accelerator Research Organization-Japan Atomic Energy Agency; VEC-RIB—Variable Energy Cyclotron Radioactive Ion Beam; CRC—Centre de Recherche du Cyclotron; DRIBS—Dubna Radioactive Ion Beams; EURISOL—European Isotope Separator On-Line; EXCYT—Exotic Nuclei Production with Cyclotron and Tandem; LNS—Laboratori Nazionali del Sud; FAIR—Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research; GSI—Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung; ISOLDE—On-Line Isotope Mass Separator; CERN—European Organization for Nuclear Research; MAFF—Munich Accelerator for Fission Fragments; SPES—Study and Production of Exotic Species; SPIRAL— Système de Production d’Ions Radioactifs en Ligne; GANIL—Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds; HRIBF—Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility; ORNL—Oak Ridge National Laboratory; ISAC—Isotope Separator and Accelerator; NSCL at MSU—National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University; RIA—Rare Isotope Accelerator; ISOL— Isotope Separator On-Line; SC—superconducting; RIB—rare-isotope beam; IF—in-flight; IH—interdigital H-mode; HI—heavy ion; RFQ—radio-frequency quadrupole; AVF—azimuthally varying field; LI—light ion; RI—rare isotope; CB-ECR—charge-breeding electron cyclotron resonance; RFQ—radio-frequency quadrapole; RNB—radioactive nuclear beam; REX—Radioactive Beam Experiment; ORIC—Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Selected List of Operating and Planned Rare-Isotope Facilities Worldwide." National Research Council. 2007. Scientific Opportunities with a Rare-Isotope Facility in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11796.
×

Accelerated Rare-Isotope Beams

Status

Comments

15 MV tandem

Operating

Negatively charged RIBs can be accelerated to ~0.2 to 8 MeV/A.

Synchrotrons

Construction to start in fall 2007.

Increase RIB intensity by up to 10,000 and energy by factor of 15 over present facility scheduled for completion in 2014

 

Operating

 

REX-ISOLDE linac at 3.1 MeV/A

Operating

Accelerator upgraded to 3.1 MeV/A (5 MeV/A planned) and up to 4 kW on target

REX-ISOLDE concept with 3.7 to 5.9 MeV/A

Planned

ISOL using reactor neutrons as primary driver beam

SC linac to >20 MeV/A

Proposed

1013–1014 particles per second for mass region 80–160; A/q = 1–3

CIME Cyclotron for 1.7 to 25 MeV/A with A < 80 and 1.7 to 10 MeV/A for A~100-150

Operating

ISOL accelerated to E < 25 MeV/A with A < 80; IF produces RIB with A < 100 having E < 100 MeV/A

CIME Cyclotron for 1.7 to 25 MeV/A with A < 80 and 1.7 to 10 MeV/A for A~100-150

Construction phase

Operation planned for 2011-2012; budgeted for 130 million euros

25 MV tandem

Operating

Actinide targets used to produce neutron-rich beams

Linac to 2.0 MeV/A

Operating

Routinely operates with 35 kW primary beam power at target

SC linac brings energy to 6.5 MeV/A for A < 150

Construction

4.3 MeV/A begins operation in 2006; 6.5 MeV/A scheduled for 2009

 

Operating

Gas catcher for slow beams operational, includes A1900 separator

Linac chain

Proposed

E < 20 MeV/A for reaccelerated RIBs with A < 60, 12 MeV/A for A < 240, and >20 MeV/A for in-flight RIBs

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Selected List of Operating and Planned Rare-Isotope Facilities Worldwide." National Research Council. 2007. Scientific Opportunities with a Rare-Isotope Facility in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11796.
×
Page 120
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Selected List of Operating and Planned Rare-Isotope Facilities Worldwide." National Research Council. 2007. Scientific Opportunities with a Rare-Isotope Facility in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11796.
×
Page 121
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Selected List of Operating and Planned Rare-Isotope Facilities Worldwide." National Research Council. 2007. Scientific Opportunities with a Rare-Isotope Facility in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11796.
×
Page 122
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Selected List of Operating and Planned Rare-Isotope Facilities Worldwide." National Research Council. 2007. Scientific Opportunities with a Rare-Isotope Facility in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11796.
×
Page 123
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Over ten years ago, U.S. nuclear scientists proposed construction of a new rare isotope accelerator in the United States, which would enable experiments to elucidate the important questions in nuclear physics. To help assess this proposal, DOE and NSF asked the NRC to define the science agenda for a next-generation U.S. Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). As the study began, DOE announced a substantial reduction in the scope of this facility and put off its initial operation date by several years. The study focused on an evaluation of the science that could be accomplished on a facility reduced in scope. This report provides a discussion of the key science drivers for a FRIB, an assessment of existing domestic and international rare isotope beams, an assessment of the current U.S. position about the FRIB, and a set of findings and conclusions about the scientific and policy context for such a facility.

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