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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2007. Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Detection: Assessing the Challenges–Finding Solutions: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11996.
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Appendix B
Acronyms

ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

APHIS Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

ARIMA autoregressive moving average

ARS Agricultural Research Service

BDV Borna disease virus

BLAST Basic Local Alignment Search Tool

BSN Basic Surveillance Network

CBP Customs and Border Protection

CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

cDNA complementary DNA

CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research

cPCR consensus polymerase chain reaction

CRP Critical Reagents Program

CSREES Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service

DD differential display

DHS Department of Homeland Security

DoD Department of Defense

DOHMH Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (New York City)

DoI Department of the Interior

DoS Department of State

DOTS directly observed therapy shortcourse

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2007. Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Detection: Assessing the Challenges–Finding Solutions: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11996.
×

DSDD domain-specific differential display

DSN disease surveillance network

ECDC European Center for Disease Control

ECL electrochemiluminescence

ED emergency department

EDR Emerging Disease Reports

EFSA European Food and Safety Authority

EISS European Influenza Surveillance Scheme

EMEA European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products

END exotic Newcastle disease

ER emergency room

ESSENCE Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-Based Epidemics

EU European Union

EWGLI European Working Group for Legionella Infections

EWRS Early Warning Response System

FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

FAS Federation of American Scientists

FDA Food and Drug Administration

FIND Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics

FMD foot-and-mouth disease

FTP File Transfer Protocol

GAINS Global Avian Influenza Network for Surveillance

GAO Government Accountability Office

GEIS Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System

GIS Geographic Information System

GLEWS Global Early Warning and Response System

GOARN Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network

GPHIN Global Public Health Intelligence Network

GreenVrdB Greene Viral Database

HCV hepatitis C virus

HHA hand-held assay

HHS Department of Health and Human Services

HIPAA Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act

HIV human immunodeficiency virus

HL-7 Health Level Seven

HMM Hidden Markov Models

HSPD Homeland Security Presidential Directive

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2007. Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Detection: Assessing the Challenges–Finding Solutions: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11996.
×

ICD International Classification of Diseases

ICTV International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses

ICTVdB International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses Database

ICU intensive care unit

IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

IHR International Health Regulation

ILI influenza-like illness

INSTEDD International System for Total Early Disease Detection

IOM Institute of Medicine

IPM Integrated Pest Management

ISID International Society for Infectious Diseases

IT information technology

ITU International Telecommunications Union

JBAIDS Joint Biological Agent Identification and Diagnostic System

LEADERS Lightweight Epidemiological Advanced Detection Emergency Response System

LOD limit of detection

MedISys Medical Intelligence System

MHC major histocompatibility complex

MoH Ministry of Health

mRNA messenger RNA

MS messaging system

NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization

NCBI National Center for Biotechnology Information

NGO nongovernmental organization

NIAID National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

NIH National Institutes of Health

NINDS National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

NLS National Laboratory System

NMRCD Naval Medical Research Center Detachment

NPDN National Plant Diagnostic Network

NPDRS National Plant Disease Recovery System

NRC National Research Council

NRDM National Retail Data Monitor

OIE World Organization for Animal Health

OIG Office of the Inspector General

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2007. Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Detection: Assessing the Challenges–Finding Solutions: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11996.
×

PCR polymerase chain reaction

PDA personal digital assistant

Pfam Protein families database of alignments

PHIN Public Health Information Network

PMM ProMED-mail

ProMED Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases

RDA representational difference analysis

RDP Ribosomal Database Project

RDT rapid diagnostic test

RFI request for information

RODS Real-Time Outbreak and Disease Surveillance System

RSS Really Simple Syndication

RSVP Rapid Syndrome Validation Project

RT-PCR reverse transcriptase–PCR

SARS severe acute respiratory syndrome

SD standard deviation

SLEV St. Louis encephalitis virus

SMS short message service

SNOMED Standardized Nomenclature for Medicine

SNOVET Standardized Nomenclature for Veterinary Medicine

SNVDO Standardized Nomenclature for Veterinary Diagnoses and Operations

SPC statistical process control

SWOT Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats

SYRIS Syndromic Reporting Information System

TaxID Taxonomy identification

TB tuberculosis

TED Technology, Entertainment, and Design

TPA tripropylamine

TRF time-resolved fluorescence

USAID U.S. Agency for International Development

USAMRIID U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases

USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture

USGS U.S. Geological Survey

USPS U.S. Postal Service

VPN virtual private network

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2007. Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Detection: Assessing the Challenges–Finding Solutions: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11996.
×

WCS Wildlife Conservation Society

WHO World Health Organization

WHO-OVL Outbreak Verification List

Wildlife GAINS Wildlife Global Animal Information Network for Surveillance

WNV West Nile virus

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2007. Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Detection: Assessing the Challenges–Finding Solutions: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11996.
×
Page 238
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2007. Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Detection: Assessing the Challenges–Finding Solutions: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11996.
×
Page 239
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2007. Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Detection: Assessing the Challenges–Finding Solutions: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11996.
×
Page 240
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2007. Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Detection: Assessing the Challenges–Finding Solutions: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11996.
×
Page 241
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2007. Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Detection: Assessing the Challenges–Finding Solutions: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11996.
×
Page 242
Next: Appendix C Forum Member Biographies »
Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Detection: Assessing the Challenges–Finding Solutions: Workshop Summary Get This Book
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Early detection is essential to the control of emerging, reemerging, and novel infectious diseases, whether naturally occurring or intentionally introduced. Containing the spread of such diseases in a profoundly interconnected world requires active vigilance for signs of an outbreak, rapid recognition of its presence, and diagnosis of its microbial cause, in addition to strategies and resources for an appropriate and efficient response. Although these actions are often viewed in terms of human public health, they also challenge the plant and animal health communities.

Surveillance, defined as "the continual scrutiny of all aspects of occurrence and spread of a disease that are pertinent to effective control", involves the "systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health data." Disease detection and diagnosis is the act of discovering a novel, emerging, or reemerging disease or disease event and identifying its cause. Diagnosis is "the cornerstone of effective disease control and prevention efforts, including surveillance."

Disease surveillance and detection relies heavily on the astute individual: the clinician, veterinarian, plant pathologist, farmer, livestock manager, or agricultural extension agent who notices something unusual, atypical, or suspicious and brings this discovery in a timely way to the attention of an appropriate representative of human public health, veterinary medicine, or agriculture. Most developed countries have the ability to detect and diagnose human, animal, and plant diseases.

Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Detection: Assessing the Challenges -- Finding Solutions, Workshop Summary is part of a 10 book series and summarizes the recommendations and presentations of the workshop.

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