National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: 7 Lessons Learned: Nuclear Safety Culture
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×

References

ACRS (Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards). 2011. Initial ACRS Review of: (1) The NRC Near-Term Task Force Report on Fukushima and (2) Staff’s Recommended Actions to Be Taken Without Delay. Memorandum to Gregory B. Jaczko, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. October 13. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1128/ML11284A136.pdf.

ACRS. 2012. Draft Interim Staff Guidance Documents in Support of Tier 1 Orders. Memorandum to R. W. Borchardt, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. July 17. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1219/ML12198A196.pdf.

AEC (U.S. Atomic Energy Commission). 1957. Theoretical Possibilities and Consequences of Major Accidents in Large Nuclear Power Plants. WASH-740. Prepared by Brookhaven National Laboratory. Washington, DC: AEC.

AEC. 1962. Calculation of Distance Factors for Power and Test Reactors. TID-14844. Washington, DC: AEC. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML0217/ML021720780.pdf.

AEC. 1974. Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants. Regulatory Guide 1.27, Rev. 1. Washington, DC: U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1303/ML13038A084.pdf.

AESJ (Atomic Energy Society of Japan). 2011a. Estimated Current Status of Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Units 1-3. April 18. Available at http://www.aesj.or.jp/en/release/chousacom_EN_01_110418.pdf.

AESJ. 2011b. Lessons Learned from the Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. May 9. Available at http://www.aesj.or.jp/en/release/gbcom_kyokun_EN_20110530.pdf.

Alvarez, R., J. Beyea, K. Janberg, J. Kang, E. Lyman, A. Macfarlane, G. Thompson, and F.N. von Hippel. 2003. Reducing the hazards from stored spent power-reactor fuel in the United States. Science and Global Security 11: 1-51.

ANS (American Nuclear Society) Special Committee on Fukushima. 2012. Fukushima Daiichi: ANS Committee Report. March (Revised June 2012). La Grange, IL: ANS.

Aoki, M., and G. Rothwell. 2013. A comparative institutional analysis of the Fukushima nuclear disaster: Lessons and policy implications. Energy Policy 53: 240-247.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×

Asahi Shimbun. 2013. State considers loaning TEPCO additional 3 trillion yen. November 11. Available at http://ajw.asahi.com/article/business/AJ201311110038.

Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico Tsunami Hazard Assessment Group. 2008. Evaluation of Tsunami Sources with the Potential to Impact the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts: An Updated Report to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. U.S. Geological Survey Administrative Report.

Bacon-Dussault, M. 2013. Independence of nuclear regulators in the aftermath of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident: A comparative approach. Presentation at IAEA International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems, Ottawa, Ontario, April 8-12.

Barkan, R., U. S. ten Brink, and J. Lin. 2009. Far field tsunami simulations of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake: Implications for tsunami hazard to the U.S. East Coast and the Caribbean. Marine Geology 264: 109-122.

Benz, E. 2013. Lessons learned from Fukushima: Strengthening the international regulation of nuclear energy. William and Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review 37(3/8): 845-880.

Beyea, J., E. Lyman, and F. N. von Hippel. 2013. Accounting for long-term doses in “worldwide health effects of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident.” Energy and Environmental Science 6: 1042-1045.

Blanc, P.-L. 2009. Earthquakes and tsunami in November 1755 in Morocco: A different reading of contemporaneous documentary sources. Natural Hazards and Earth Systems Sciences 9: 725-738.

Blanchard, G., and D. Dosa. 2009. A comparison of the nursing home evacuation experience between Hurricanes Katrina (2005) and Gustav (2008). Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 10(9): 639-643.

Bley, D., S. Kaplan, and D. Johnson. 1992. The strengths and limitations of PSA: Where we stand. Reliability Engineering and System Safety 38: 3-26.

Bolduc, L. 2002. GIC observations and studies in the Hydro-Québec power system. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 64: 1793-1802.

Bondevik, S., F. Løvholt, C. Harbitz, J. Mangerud, A. Dawson, and J. Inge Svendsen. 2005. The Storegga Slide tsunami—comparing field observations with numerical simulations. Marine and Petroleum Geology 22(1-2): 195-208.

Borchardt, R. W. 2012a. Policy Issue (Notation Vote) Memorandum to the Commissioners, Subject: Consideration of Additional Requirements for Containment Venting Systems for Boiling Water Reactors with Mark I and Mark II Containments. SECY-12-0157. Rockville, MD: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/commission/secys/2012/2012-0157scy.pdf.

Borchardt, R. W. 2012b. Policy Issue (Notation Vote) Memorandum to the Commissioners, Subject: State-of-the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses—Recommendation for Limited Additional Analysis. SECY-12-0092. Rockville, MD: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/commission/secys/2012/2012-0092scy.pdf.

Bratton, W. W., and J. A. McCahery. 1995. Regulatory competition, regulatory capture, and corporate self-regulation. North Carolina Law Review 73: 1861-1948.

BRC (Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future). 2012. Report to the Secretary of Energy. January. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy. Available at energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2013/04/f0/brc_finalreport_jan2012.pdf.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×

Breitung, W., C. Chan, S. Dorofeev, A. Eder, B. Gelfand, M. Heitsch, R. Klein, A. Malliakos, E. Shepherd, E. Studer, and P. Thibault. 2000. Flame Acceleration and Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition in Nuclear Safety: State-of-the-Art Report. Issy-les-Moulineaux, France: OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. Available at https://www.oecd-nea.org/nsd/docs/2000/csni-r2000-7.pdf.

Bromet, E. J. 2014. Emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters. Health Physics 106(2): 206-210.

Brumfiel, G. 2011. Fukushima reaches cold shutdown. Nature, doi:10.1038/nature.2011.9674.

Brumfield, T. 2012. Evaluation of Safety Culture in WANO Pre-Startup Reviews. Atlanta, GA: World Association of Nuclear Operators. Available at https://gnssn.iaea.org/NSNI/SC/SCPoP/Papers%20prepared%20for%20meeting/Todd%20Brumfield_Evaluation%20of%20Safety%20Culture%20in%20WANO%20Pre-Startup%20Reviews_Paper.pdf.

Bye, A., E. Lois, V. N. Dang, G. Parry, J. Forester, S. Massaiu, R. Boring, P. Ø. Braarud, H. Broberg, J. Julius, I. Männistö, and P. Nelson. 2011. International Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Empirical Study—Phase 2 Report: Results from Comparing HRA Method Predictions to Simulator Data from SGTR Scenarios. NUREG/IA-0216, Vol. 2. Rockville, MD: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1125/ML11250A010.pdf.

Cabinet Secretariat, Government of Japan. 1999. Act on Special Measures Concerning Nuclear Emergency Preparedness (Act No. 156 of December 17, 1999). Tokyo: Government of Japan.

Camp, A. L., J. C. Cummings, M. P. Sherman, C. F. Kupiec, R. J. Healy, J. S. Caplan, J. R. Sandhop, and J. H. Saunders. 1983. Light Water Reactor Hydrogen Manual. NUREG/CR-2726, SAND82-1137, Rev. 3. Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories and General Physics Corp. Washington, DC: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/nuregs/contract/cr2726/.

Cannon-Bowers, J. A., and E. Salas. 1998. Making Decisions Under Stress: Implications for Individual and Team Training. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Carafano, J. J. 2011. The Great Eastern Japan Earthquake: Assessing Disaster Response and Lessons for the United States. Special Report No. 94. Washington, DC: The Heritage Foundation.

Cardis, E., D. Krewski, M. Boniol, V. Drozdovitch, S. C. Darby, E. S. Gilbert, S. Akiba, J. Benichou, J. Ferlay, S. Gandini, C. Hill, G. Howe, A. Kesminiene, M. Moser, M. Sanchez, H. Storm, L. Voisin, and P. Boyle. 2006. Estimates of the cancer burden in Europe from radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident. International Journal of Cancer 119(6): 1224-1235.

Carlowicz, M. J., and R. E. Lopez. 2002. Storms from the Sun: The Emerging Science of Space Weather. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press.

Chaytor, J. D., U. S. ten Brink, A. R. Solow, and B. D. Andrews. 2009. Size distribution of submarine landslides along the U.S. Atlantic margin. Marine Geology 264(1): 16-27.

CENTRA (CENTRA Technology, Inc.). 2011. OECD/IFP Futures Project on “Future Gobal Shocks”: Geomagnetic Storms. IFP/WKP/FGS(2011)4. Burlington, MA: CENTRA Technology, Inc.

Chang, Y. J., D. Bley, L. Criscione, B. Kirwan, A. Mosleh, T. Madary, R. Nowell, R. Richards, E. Roth, S. Sieben, and A. Xoulis. 2014. The SACADA database for human reliability and human performance. Reliability Engineering & System Safety 126(SI): 117-133.

Chen, S. Y., and T. S. Tenforde. 2012. Optimizing decision making for late-phase recovery one year after the Fukushima nuclear accident [Letter to Editor]. Journal of Radiological Protection 32: 191-192.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×

Chester, F. M., C. Rowe, K. Ujiie, J. Kirkpatrick, C. Regalla, F. Remitti, J. C. Moore, V. Toy, M. Wolfson-Schwehr, S. Bose, J. Kameda, J. J. Mori, E. E. Brodsky, N. Eguchi, S. Toczko, and the Expedition 343 and 343T Scientists. 2013. Structure and composition of the plate-boundary slip zone for the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Science 342(6163): 1208-1211.

CNSC (Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission). 2011. CNSC Fukushima Task Force Report. INFO-0824. Ottawa, Ontario: Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. October.

Commonwealth Edison (Commonwealth Edison Company of Chicago). 1981. Zion Probabilistic Safety Study. Prepared by Pickard, Lowe and Garrick Inc., Westinghouse Electric Corporation, and Fauske and Associates, Inc.

Conklin, C., and J. Edwards. 2000. Selection of protective action guides for nuclear incidents. Journal of Hazardous Materials 75(2-3): 131-144.

Consolidated Edison (Consolidated Edison Company of New York and the New York Power Authority). 1982. Indian Point Probabilistic Safety Study. Prepared by Pickard, Lowe and Garrick Inc., Westinghouse Electric Corporation, and Fauske and Associates, Inc.

Cook, D. H., S. R. Greene, R. M. Harrington, S. A. Hodge, and D. D. Yue. 1981. Station Blackout at Browns Ferry Unit One—Accident Sequence Analysis. NUREG/CR-2182, Vol. 1; ORNL/NUREG/TM-455/V1. Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Available at http://web.ornl.gov/info/reports/1981/3445600211884.pdf.

CSIS (Center for Strategic and International Studies), Nuclear Regulatory Process Review Steering Committee. 1999. The Regulatory Process for Nuclear Power Reactors: A Review. Washington, DC: CSIS.

Cyranoski, D. 2011. Japan faces up to failure of its earthquake preparations. Nature 471: 556-557.

Dal Bó, E. 2006. Regulatory capture: A review. Oxford Review of Economic Policy 22(2): 203-225.

Dogariu, A., and R. B. Miles. 2011. Detecting localized trace species in air using radar resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionization. Applied Optics 50(4): A68-A73.

Domenici, P. V., B. J. Lyons, and J. J. Steyn. 2004. A Brighter Tomorrow: Fulfilling the Promise of Nuclear Energy. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.

Dorfman, D. 2012. The changing perspectives of U.S. and Japanese nuclear energy policies in the aftermath of the Fukushima Daiichi disaster. Pace Environmental Law Review 30(1): 255-283.

Driscoll, N. W., J. K. Weissel, and J. A. Goff. 2000. Potential for large-scale submarine slope failure and tsunami generation along the U.S. mid-Atlantic coast. Geology 28: 407-410.

ENSI (Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate). 2011. Lessons: Fukushima 11032011, Lessons Learned and Checkpoints Based on the Nuclear Accidents at Fukushima. ENSI-AN-8001. Aargau: Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate.

EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute). 2012a. Fukushima Daiichi Accident—Technical Causal Factor Analysis: 2012. Technical Report 1024946. Palo Alto, CA: EPRI. Available at http://www.epri.com/search/Pages/results.aspx?k=1024946&r=mpkeyword%3AAQdUc3VuYW1pCW1wa2V5d29yZAEBXgEk,mptabresults%3AARABUmVzZWFyY2ggUmVzdWx0cwxtcHRhYnJlc3VsdHMBAl4iAiIk.

EPRI. 2012b. Severe Accident Management Guidance Technical Basis Report. Palo Alto, CA: Electric Power Research Institute. Available at http://www.epri.com/abstracts/Pages/ProductAbstract.aspx?ProductId=000000000001025295.

EPRI. 2012c. Summary of the EPRI Early Event Analysis of the Fukushima Daiichi Spent Fuel Pools Following the March 11, 2011 Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan: 2012. Technical Update 1025058. Palo Alto, CA: EPRI. May.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×

EPRI. 2013. Fukushima Technical Evaluation: Phase 1—MAAP5 Analysis. Technical Report 1025750. Prepared by ERIN Engineering and Research, Inc. Palo Alto, CA: EPRI. April.

EPRI and NERC (Electric Power Research Institute and North American Electric Reliability Corporation). 2011. Geo-magnetic Disturbances (GMD): Monitoring, Mitigation, and Next Steps (A Literature Review and Summary of the 2011 NERC GMD Workshop). Technical Report 1024629. Prepared by Hoffman Power Consulting. Palo Alto, CA: Electric Power Research Institute. November.

Evangeliou, N., Y. Balkanski, A. Cozic, and A. P. Møller. 2014. Global and local cancer risks after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident as seen from Chernobyl: A modeling study for radiocaesium (134Cs & 137Cs). Environment International 64: 17-27.

Exelon Generation Company. 2013. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and 3 Mitigation Strategies (MS) Overall Integrated Plan. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1305/ML13059A305.pdf.

Farmer, F. R. 1967. Siting criteria—a new approach. Pp. 303-329 in Proceedings of a Symposium on the Containment and Siting of Nuclear Power Plants Held by the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna, 3-7 April 1967, Vienna, Austria (SM-89/34). Available at http://www.iaea.org/inis/collection/NCLCollectionStore/_Public/44/070/44070762.pdf.

Federal Business Opportunities. 2013. Solicitations: Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency—Solicitation Number: DARPA-BAA-14-11. Arlington, VA: Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. December 11.

FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency). 2013a. Communicating During and After a Nuclear Power Plant Incident. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Homeland Security. June 1.

FEMA. 2013b. Program Manual: Radiological Emergency Preparedness. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Homeland Security. June.

FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission). 2013. Reliability Standards for Geomagnetic Disturbances, FERC Docket No. RM12-22-000; Order No. 779. Washington, DC: FERC. May 16.

Ferguson, C., and M. Jansson. 2013. Regulating Japanese Nuclear Power in the Wake of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident. FAS Issue Brief. Washington, DC: Federation of American Scientists. May.

Figueroa, P. 2013. Risk communication surrounding the Fukushima nuclear disaster: An anthropological approach. Asia Europe Journal 11: 53-64.

Fine, I. V., A. B. Rabinovich, B. D. Bornhold, R. E. Thomson, and E. A. Kilikov. 2005. The Grand Banks landslide-generated tsunami of November 18, 1929: Preliminary analysis and numerical modeling. Marine Geology 215(1): 45-57.

Fink, S. 2013. Five Days at Memorial: Life and Death in a Storm-Ravaged Hospital. New York: Crown.

Fitzgerald, J. E., S. B. Wollner, A. A. Adalja, R. C. Morhard, A. J. Cero, and T. V. Inglesby. 2012. After Fukushima: Managing the Consequences of a Radiological Release (Final Report). Baltimore, MD: Center for Biosecurity of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. March.

Frankel, A. 2013a. Comment on “Why earthquake hazard maps often fail and what to do about it” by S. Stein, R. Geller, and M. Liu. Tectonophysics 592: 200-206.

Frankel, A. 2013b. Rupture history of the 2011 M 9 Tohoku Japan earthquake determined from strong-motion and high-rate GPS recordings: Subevents radiating energy in different frequency bands. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 103(2B): 1290-1306.

FSC (Food Safety Commission of Japan). 2011. Emergency Report on Radioactive Nuclides in Foods. Tokyo: Government of Japan. March.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×

Fujii, Y., K. Satake, S. Sakai, M. Shinohara, and T. Kanazawa. 2011. Tsunami source of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. Earth Planets Space 63(7): 815-820.

Fujiwara, T., S. Kodaira, T. No, Y. Kaiho, N. Takahashi, and Y. Kaneda. 2011. The 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake: Displacement reaching the trench axis. Science 334(6060): 1240.

Furumura, T., S. Takemura, S. Noguchi, T. Takemoto, T. Maeda, K. Iwai, and S. Padhy. 2011. Strong ground motions from the 2011 off-the Pacific-Coast-of-Tohoku, Japan (Mw=9.0) earthquake obtained from a dense nationwide seismic network. Landslides 8: 333-338.

Garrick, B. J. 1968. Unified Systems Safety Analysis for Nuclear Power Plants. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California, Los Angeles.

Garrick, B. J. 2008. Quantifying and Controlling Catastrophic Risks. Burlington, MA: Academic Press.

Gauntt, R., D. Kalinich, J. Cardoni, and J. Phillips. 2012a. MELCOR simulations of the severe accident at the Fukushima IF2 reactor. Presentation at the American Nuclear Society Winter Meeting and Nuclear Technology Expo, San Diego, CA.

Gauntt, R., D. Kalinich, J. Cardoni, J. Phillips, A. Goldmann, S. Pickering, M. Francis, K. Robb, L. Ott, D. Wang, C. Smith, S. St. Germain, D. Schwieder, and C. Phelan. 2012b. Fukushima Daiichi Accident Study (Status as of April 2012). SAND2012-6173. Albuquerque, NM, and Livermore, CA: Sandia National Laboratories. July. Available at energy.sandia.gov/wp/wp-content/gallery/uploads/Fukushima_SAND2012-6173.pdf.

Gavrilin, Y., V. Khrouch, S. Shinkarev, V. Drozdovitch, V. Minenko, E. Shemiakina, A. Ulanovsky, A. Bouville, L. Anspaugh, P. Voillequé, and N. Luckyanov. 2004. Individual thyroid dose estimation for a case-control study of Chernobyl-related thyroid cancer among children of Belarus—Part I: 131I, short-lived radioiodines (132I, 133I, 135I), and short-lived radiotelluriums (131mTe and 132Te). Health Physics 86(6): 565-585.

Geist, E. L., and T. Parsons. 2009. Assessment of source probabilities for potential tsunamis affecting the U.S. Atlantic coast. Marine Geology 264(1-2): 98-108.

Gelfand, B. E., M. V. Silnikov, S. P. Medvedev, and S. V. Khomik. 2012. Thermo-Gas Dynamics of Hydrogen Combustion and Explosion. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Geller, R. J. 2014. Back to the future: Restarting Japan’s nuclear power plants. Nikkei Asian Review, March 7. Available at http://asia.nikkei.com/print/article/20248.

Gertman, D. I., B. P. Hallbert, M. W. Parrish, M. B. Sattision, D. Brownson, and J. P. Tortorelli. 2002. Review of Findings for Human Error Contribution to Risk in Operating Events. NUREG/CR-6753, INEEL/EXT-01-01166. Prepared by Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Rockville, MD: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML0209/ML020930077.pdf.

Ghofrani, H., G. M. Atkinson, K. Goda, and K. Assatourians. 2013. Stochastic Finite-Fault Simulations of the 2011 Tohoku, Japan, Earthquake. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 103(2B): 1307-1320.

Goldberg, S. M., and R. Rosner. 2011. Nuclear Reactors: Generation to Generation. Cambridge, MA: American Academy of Arts & Sciences. Available at amacad.org/pdfs/nuclearreactors.pdf.

González A. J. 2012. The recommendations of the ICRP vis-à-vis the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident aftermath. Journal of Radiological Protection 32(1): N1-7.

González, A. J., M. Akashi, J. D. Boice, Jr., M. Chino, T. Homma, N. Ishigure, M. Kai, S. Kusumi, J. Lee, H. Menzel, O. Niwa, K. Sakai, W. Weiss, S. Yamashita, and Y. Yonekura. 2013. Radiological protection issues arising during and after the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident. Journal of Radiological Protection 33: 497-571.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×

Government of Japan. 2004. Convention on Nuclear Safety National Report of Japan for the Third Review Meeting. Tokyo: Government of Japan. August. Available at http://www.nsr.go.jp/archive/nisa/english/internationalcooperation/conventions/cns/pdf/3rd_NationalReport.pdf.

Government of Japan. 2007. Convention on Nuclear Safety National Report of Japan for the Fourth Review Meeting. Tokyo: Government of Japan. September. Available at http://www.nsr.go.jp/archive/nisa/english/internationalcooperation/conventions/cns/pdf/4th_NationalReport.pdf.

Government of Japan. 2010. Convention on Nuclear Safety National Report of Japan for the Fifth Review Meeting. Tokyo: Government of Japan. September. Available at http://www.nsr.go.jp/archive/nsc/NSCenglish/documents/conventions/2011.pdf.

Government of Japan. 2011a. Additional Report of the Japanese Government to the IAEA: The Accident at TEPCO’s Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations (Second Report) (Summary). September. Tokyo: Government of Japan NERHQ (Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters).

Government of Japan. 2011b. Report of Japanese Government to the IAEA Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Safety: The Accident at TEPCO’s Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations. June. Tokyo: Government of Japan NERHQ (Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters). Available at www.kantei.go.jp/foreign/kan/topics/201106/iaea_houkokusho_e.html.

Greene, S. R. 1986. The role of BWR MK I secondary containments in severe accident mitigation. Proceedings of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission 14th Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting, Bethesda, MD.

Greene, S. R. 1987. The impact of BWR MK I primary containment failure dynamics on secondary containment integrity. Presentation at the 15th Water Reactor Safety Meeting, Gaithersburg, MD, October 19. ORNL Report CONF-8710111-6. Available at http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5835351.

Greene, S. R. 1988. The role of BWR secondary containments in severe accident mitigation: Issues and insights from recent analyses. Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Containment Integrity, Arlington, VA, June 14-17. NUREG/CR-0095, ORNL Report CONF-8806153-1.

Greene, S. R. 1990. The role of BWR secondary containments in severe accident mitigation: Issues and insights from recent analyses. Nuclear Engineering and Design 120: 75-86.

Greene, S. R. 2014. The canary, the ostrich, and the black swan: A historical perspective on our understanding of BWR severe accidents and their mitigation. Nuclear Technology 186(2): 115-138.

Greene, S. R., and S. A. Hodge. 1986. The role of BWR MK I secondary containments in severe accident mitigation. Presentation at the 14th Water Reactor Safety Meeting, Gaithersburg, MD, October 27-31. ORNL Report CONF-8610135-41.

Guldenmund, F. 2010. (Mis)understanding safety culture and its relationship to safety management. Risk Analysis 30(10): 1466-1480.

Gusman, A. R., Y. Tanioka, S. Sakai, and H. Tsushima. 2012. Source model of the great 2011 Tohoku earthquake estimated from tsunami waveforms and crustal deformation data. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 341: 234-242.

Gutierrez, J. M., and A. S. Polonsky. 2007. Fundamentals of Nuclear Regulation in the United States, 2nd Ed. Washington, DC: Morgan, Lewis and Bockius LLP.

Hache, G., and H. M. Chung. 2001. The history of LOCA embrittlement criteria. Pp. 205-237 in Proceedings of the Twenty-Eighth Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting, Bethesda, MD, October 23-25, 2000. NUREG/CP-0172. Prepared by Brookhaven National Laboratory for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×

Haggerty, R. 2011. Potassium iodide and Geiger counter sales spike after Japan disaster. Chicago Tribune, March 15. Available at articles.chicagotribune.com/2011-03-15/news/ct-met-local-iodide-sales-20110315_1_potassium-iodide-radiation-geiger.

Hamada, N., and H. Ogino. 2012. Food safety regulations: What we learned from the Fukushima nuclear accident. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 111: 83-99.

Hamada, N., H. Ogino, and Y. Fujimichi. 2012. Safety regulations of food and water implemented in the first year following the Fukushima nuclear accident. Journal of Radiation Research 53(5): 641-671.

Harbitz, C. B. 1991. Model simulations of tsunami generated by the Storegga Slide. Institute of Mathematics, University of Oslo Preprint Series No. 5.

Hardie, S. M. L., and I. G. McKinley. 2013. Fukushima remediation: Status and overview of future plans. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 133: 75-85.

Hasegawa, R. 2013. Disaster Evacuation from Japan’s 2011 Tsunami Disaster and the Fukushima Nuclear Accident. Study No. 05/13. Paris: Institut du Développement Durable et des Relations Internationales. Available at http://www.iddri.org/Publications/Collections/Analyses/STUDY0513_RH_DEVAST%20report.pdf.

Hayano, R. S., and R. Adachi. 2013. Estimation of the total population moving into and out of the 20 km evacuation zone during the Fukushima NPP accident as calculated using “Auto-GPS” mobile phone data. Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Series B: Physical and Biological Sciences 89(5): 196-199.

Hayashi, Y. 2011. Japan officials failed to hand out radiation pills in quake’s aftermath. Wall Street Journal, September 29. Available at http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052970204010604576596321581004368.

HERP (Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion), Earthquake Research Committee. 2002. Long-term evaluation of seismic activity from offshore Sanriku to offshore Bousou (in Japanese). Available at http://www.jishin.go.jp/main/chousa/kaikou_pdf/sanriku_boso.pdf.

HERP, Earthquake Research Committee. 2005. National Seismic Hazard Maps for Japan (2005)–March 23. Tokyo: Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion, Government of Japan. Available at jishin.go.jp/main/chousa/06mar_yosoku-e/NationalSeismicHazardMaps.pdf.

Heezen, B., and M. Ewing. 1952. Turbidity currents and submarine slumps, and the 1929 Grand Banks Earthquake. American Journal of Science 250: 849-873.

Helm, D. 2006. Regulatory reform, capture, and the regulatory burden. Oxford Review of Economic Policy 22(2): 169-185.

Helton, D., J. Chang, N. Siu, K. Coyne, and M. Leonard. 2010. The role of severe accident management in the advancement of level 2 PRA modeling techniques. In Implementation of Severe Accident Management Measures, ISAMM 2009: Workshop Proceedings. NEA/CSNI/R(2010)10/PART1. Issy-les-Moulineaux, France: OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. Available at http://www.oecd-nea.org/html/nsd/docs/2010/csni-r2010-10-vol1.pdf.

Hogberg, L. 2013. Root causes and impacts of severe accidents at large nuclear plants. AMBIO 42: 267-284.

Hollnagel, E., D. D. Woods, and N. Leveson. 2006. Resilience Engineering: Concepts and Precepts. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

Horiuchi, A., and K. Shimizu. 2001. Did amakudari undermine the effectiveness of regulator monitoring in Japan? Journal of Banking and Finance 25: 573-596.

Hosono, H., Y. Kumagai, and T. Sekizaki. 2013. Development of an information package of radiation risk in beef after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Pp. 187-204 in Agricultural Implications of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident, T. M. Nakanishi and K. Tanoi, eds. Tokyo: Springer Japan.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×

IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). 1994. PSA for the Shutdown Mode for Nuclear Power Plants: Proceedings of a Technical Committee Meeting in Stockholm, November 30-December 3, 1992. IAEA-TECDOC-751. Vienna, Austria: IAEA.

IAEA. 2002. Safety Culture in Nuclear Installations: Guidance for Use in the Enhancement of Safety Culture. IAEA-TECDOC-1329. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency. Available at www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/te_1329_web.pdf.

IAEA. 2003. Method for Developing Arrangements for Response to a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency (Updating IAEA-TECDOC-953). Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency. Available at http://www-pub.iaea.org/books/IAEABooks/6750/Method-for-Developing-Arrangements-for-Response-to-a-Nuclear-or-Radiological-Emergency-Updating-IAEA-TECDOC-953.

IAEA. 2007. IAEA Safety Glossary: Terminology Used in Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection. STI/PUB/1290. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency. Available at http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1290_web.pdf.

IAEA. 2010. Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety: General Safety Requirements, Part 1. Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 1. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency. Available at www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1465_web.pdf.

IAEA. 2011. IAEA International Fact Finding Expert Mission of the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP Accident Following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami—Tokyo, Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP, Fukushima Dai-ni NPP and Tokai Dai-ni NPP, Japan, 24 May-2 June 2011. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency. Available at http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/meetings/PDFplus/2011/cn200/documentation/cn200_Final-FukushimaMission_Report.pdf.

IAEA. 2012. IAEA Mission to Onagawa Nuclear Power Station to Examine the Performance of Systems, Structures and Components Following the Great East Japanese Earthquake and Tsunami—Onagawa and Tokyo, Japan, 30 July-11 August 2012. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency. Available at http://www.iaea.org/newscenter/focus/actionplan/reports/onagawa0413.pdf.

IAEA. 2013a. Actions to Protect the Public in an Emergency Due to Severe Conditions at a Light Water Reactor: Emergency Preparedness and Response Report. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency.

IAEA. 2013b. Preliminary Summary Report: The Follow-up IAEA International Mission on Remediation of Large Contaminated Areas Off-Site the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, Tokyo and Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, 14-21 October. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency. Available at http://www.iaea.org/newscenter/focus/fukushima/remediation-report-211013.pdf.

IAEA. 2014a. Nuclear Power Reactors in the World IAEA-RDS-2/34. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency.

IAEA. 2014b. The Follow-up IAEA International Mission on Remediation of Large Contaminated Areas Off-Site the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, Tokyo and Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, 14-21 October 2013. Final Report. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency.

ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection). 1991. 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. ICRP Publication 60. Annals of the ICRP 21(1-3).

ICRP. 2007. The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. ICRP Publication 103. Annals of the ICRP 37(2-4).

ICRP. 2011. Application of the Commission’s Recommendations to the Protection of People Living in Long-Term Contaminated Areas After a Nuclear Accident or a Radiation Emergency. Annals of the ICRP 39(3): ICRP Publication 111.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×

Imtihani, N., and Y. Mariko. 2013. Media coverage of Fukushima nuclear power station accident 2011 (A case study of NHK and BBC WORLD TV stations). Procedia Environmental Sciences 17: 938-946.

INPO (Institute of Nuclear Power Operations). 2004. Principles for a Strong Nuclear Safety Culture. Atlanta, GA: INPO. Available at www.nrc.gov/about-nrc/regulatory/enforcement/INPO_PrinciplesSafetyCulture.pdf.

INPO. 2005. Performance Objectives and Criteria. INPO 05-003. Atlanta, GA: Institute of Nuclear Power Operations.

INPO. 2011. Special Report on the Nuclear Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Revision 0. INPO 11-005. Atlanta, GA: Institute of Nuclear Power Operations.

INPO. 2012. Special Report on the Lessons Learned from the Nuclear Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Revision 0. INPO 11-005 Addendum. Atlanta, GA: Institute of Nuclear Power Operations.

INPO. 2013. Traits of a Healthy Nuclear Safety Culture. INPO 12-012, Rev. 1. Atlanta, GA: Institute of Nuclear Power Operations. Available at nuclearsafety.info/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/Traits-of-a-Healthy-Nuclear-Safety-Culture-INPO-12-012-rev.1Apr2013.pdf.

INSAG (International Nuclear Safety Group). 1986. Report by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group: Summary Report on the Post-Accident Review Meeting on the Chernobyl Accident. Safety Series No. 75-INSAG-1. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency. Available at ilankelman.org/miscellany/chernobyl.pdf.

INSAG. 1992. Pp. 23-24 in The Chernobyl Accident, Updating of INSAG-1. Safety Series No. INSAG-7: A Report by the International Safety Advisory Group. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency. Available at www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub913e_web.pdf.

INSAG. 2011. The Fukushima Accident. Letter to International Atomic Energy Agency Director General Yukiya Amano from INSAG Chairman Richard A. Meserve. Available at http://www-ns.iaea.org/committees/files/insag/743/INSAGLetterReport20117-26-11.pdf.

INSAG. 2012. Letter to International Atomic Energy Agency Director General Yukiya Amano from INSAG Chairman Richard A. Meserve. Available at http://www-ns.iaea.org/committees/files/insag/743/gc56inf-11_enINSAGlettertoDG.pdf.

INSAG. 2013. Letter to International Atomic Energy Agency Director General Yukiya Amano from INSAG Chairman Richard A. Meserve. Available at http://www-ns.iaea.org/committees/files/insag/743/2013AnnualAssessmentLetter.pdf.

Investigation Committee (Investigation Committee on the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company). 2011. Interim Report (Main Text). Tokyo: Government of Japan. December 26.

Investigation Committee. 2012. Final Report on the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company. Tokyo: Government of Japan. July 23.

IRSN (Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire). 2011. Assessment on the 66th Day of Projected External Doses for Populations Living in the North-West Fallout Zone of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident: Outcome of Population Evacuation Measures. Report DRPH/2011-10. Paris: Directorate of Radiological Protection and Human Health. Available at www.irsn.fr/EN/news/Documents/IRSN-Fukushima-Report-DRPH-23052011.pdf.

IRSN. 2012a. Fukushima, One Year Later: Initial Analyses of the Accident and Its Consequences. Report IRSN/DG/2012-003. Paris: Directorate of Radiological Protection and Human Health. March 12.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×

IRSN. 2012b. Summary of Information Available in Japan Concerning the Contamination of Foodstuffs by the Radionuclides Persisting in the Environment After the Fukushima Accident. Paris: Directorate of Radiological Protection and Human Health. July 13. Available at www.irsn.fr/EN/publications/thematic/fukushima/Documents/IRSN_Fukushima-Accident_Foodstuffs-contamination_13072012.pdf.

JANTI (Japan Nuclear Technology Institute). 2011. Examination of Accident at Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc.’s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and Proposal of Countermeasures. Tokyo: JANTI. October.

JNES (Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization). 2013. Initial Operations in the Local Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters. JNES-RE-2013-0002. Tokyo: JNES. April.

Jo, J., C. C. Lin, and L. Neymotin. 1995. Evaluation of Potential Severe Accidents During Low Power and Shutdown Operations at Surry, Unit 1: Evaluation of Severe Accident Risk During Mid-Loop Operation, Volume 6, Part 1. NUREG/CR-6144, BNL-NUREG-52399, ON: TI95013650, TRN: 95:017227. Washington, DC: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/83860.

JSCE (Japan Society of Civil Engineers). 2006. Tsunami Assessment Method for Nuclear Power Plants in Japan (originally published in Japanese, February 2002). Tokyo: Japan Society of Civil Engineers. Available at http://committees.jsce.or.jp/ceofnp/system/files/JSCE_Tsunami_060519.pdf.

Kagan, Y. Y., and D. D. Jackson. 2013. Tohoku Earthquake: A surprise? Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 103(2B): 1181-1194.

Kai, M. 2012. Some lessons on radiological protection learnt from the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. Journal of Radiological Protection 32(1): N101-N105.

Kanamori, H. 1977. The energy release in great earthquakes. Journal of Geophysical Research 82(20): 2981-2987.

Kaplan, S., and B. J. Garrick. 1981. On the quantitative definition of risk. Risk Analysis 1(1): 11-27.

Kappenman, J. 2010. Geomagnetic Storms and Their Impacts on the U.S. Power Grid. Meta-R-319. Prepared for Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Available at http://web.ornl.gov/sci/ees/etsd/pes/pubs/ferc_Meta-R-319.pdf.

Kappenman, J. G. 2012. A perfect storm of planetary proportions. IEEE Spectrum 49(2): 26-31.

Kataoka, J., A. Kishimoto, T. Nishiyama, T. Fujita, K. Takeuchi, T. Kato, T. Nakamori, S. Ohsuka, S. Nakamura, M. Hirayanagi, S. Adachi, T. Uchiyama, and K. Yamamoto. 2013. Handy Compton camera using 3-D position-sensitive scintillators coupled with large-area monolithic MPPC arrays. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 732: 403-407.

Kaufmann, D., and V. Penciakova. 2011. Preventing nuclear meltdown: Assessing regulatory failure in Japan and the United States. Brookings, Opinion, April 1. Available at http://www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2011/04/01-nuclear-meltdown-kaufmann.

Kawabe, R. 2012. Evaluation of the depth of concrete ablation by molten core. Presentation at the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency Technical Workshop on the Accident of TEPCO’s Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS, Tokyo, Japan, July 23-24, 2012. Tokyo: Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization.

Kawamura, H., T. Kobayashi, A. Furuno, T. In, Y. Ishikawa, T. Nakayama, S. Shima, and T. Awaji. 2011. Preliminary numerical experiments on oceanic dispersion of 131I and 137Cs discharged into the ocean because of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster. Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology 48(11): 1349-1356.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×

Kawano, A. 2012. Lessons learned from the Fukushima accident and challenge for nuclear reform. Presentation to the Committee on Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants, Tokyo, Japan, November 26, 2012. Tokyo: Tokyo Electric Power Company, Inc.

Keller, W., and M. Modarres. 2005. A historical overview of probabilistic risk assessment development and its use in the nuclear power industry: A tribute to the late Professor Norman Carl Rasmussen. Reliability Engineering and System Safety 89: 271-285.

Kirwan, B. 1994. A Guide to Practical Human Reliability Assessment. Bristol, PA: Taylor and Francis.

Kozdon, J. E., and E. M. Dunham. 2013. Rupture to the trench: Dynamic rupture simulations of the 11 March 2011 Tohoku Earthquake. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 103(2B): 1275-1289.

Kubo, H., and Y. Kakehi. 2013. Source process of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake estimated from the joint inversion of teleseismic body waves and geodetic data including seafloor observation data: Source model with enhanced reliability by using objectively determined inversion settings. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 103(2B): 1195-1220.

Kurihara, J. 2013. Crisis communication amid the Fukushima tragedy: A postmortem analysis and recommendations. Presentation at a Workshop at the Canon Institute for Global Studies (CIGS), Tokyo, Japan, July 18, 2013. Tokyo: Canon Institute for Global Studies.

Lay, T., and H. Kanamori. 2011. Insights from the Great 2011 Japan Earthquake. Physics Today 64(12): 33-39.

Lay, T., Y. Fujii, E. Geist, K. Koketsu, J. Rubinstein, T. Sagiya, and M. Simons. 2013. Introduction to the Special Issue on the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 103(2B): 1165-1170.

Lee, J. C., and N. J. McCormick. 2011. Risk and Safety Analysis of Nuclear Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Leonard, L. J., G. C. Rogers, and S. Mazzotti. 2013. Tsunami hazard assessment of Canada. Natural Hazards 70(1): 237-274.

Levenson, N. 1995. Safeware: System Safety and Computers. Boston, MA: Addison Wesley.

Levy, S. 2012. How Fukushima Daiichi severe accidents could be avoided. Presentation at the 2012 American Nuclear Society Winter Meeting Embedded Topical Meeting on Severe Accidents, November 11-15, 2012, San Diego, CA. San Jose, CA: S. Levy and Associates, Inc.

Leyse, M. 2014. Preventing Hydrogen Explosions in Severe Nuclear Accidents: Unresolved Safety Issues Involving Hydrogen Generation and Mitigation. NRDC Report R:14-02-B. New York: Natural Resources Defense Council.

Locat, J., H. Lee, U. S. ten Brink, D. Twichell, E. Geist, and M. Sansoucy. 2009. Geomorphology, stability and mobility of the Currituck Slide. Marine Geology 264(1): 28-40.

Lochbaum, D. 2014. The NRC and Nuclear Power Plant Safety in 2013—More Jekyll, Less Hyde. Cambridge, MA: Union of Concerned Scientists. Available at http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/nuclear_power/NRC-Nuclear-Safety-Report-2013.pdf.

Lochbaum, D., E. Lyman, S. Q. Stranahan, and the Union of Concerned Scientists. 2014. Fukushima: The Story of a Nuclear Disaster. New York: The New Press.

Lois, E., V. N. Dang, J. Forester, H. Broberg, S. Massaiu, M. Hildebrandt, P. Ø. Braarud, G. Parry, J. Julius, R. Boring, I. Männistö, and A. Bye. 2009. International Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Empirical Study—Phase 1 Report: Description of Overall Approach and Pilot Phase Results from Comparing HRA Methods to Simulator Performance Data. NUREG/IA-0216, Vol. 1. Rockville, MD: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML0933/ML093380283.pdf.

Lyons, C., and D. Colton. 2012. Aerial measuring system in Japan. Health Physics 102(5): 509-515.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×

Maeda, T., T. Furumura, S. Noguchi, S. Takemura, S. Sakai, M. Shinohara, K. Iwai, and S. J. Lee. 2013. Seismic- and tsunami-wave propagation of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake as inferred from the tsunami-coupled finite-difference simulation. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 103(2B): 1456-1472.

Macfarlane, A. 2012. Assessing Progress in Worldwide Nuclear Safety. Remarks at the International Nuclear Safety Group (INSAG) Forum, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, September 17. Rockville, MD: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1226/ML12261A373.pdf.

Mainichi. 2013. Fukushima decontamination needs 5 tril. yen budget: nat’l institute. July 24.

Masson, D. G., C. B. Harbitz, R. B. Wynn, G. Pedersen, and F. Løvholt. 2006. Submarine landslides: Processes, triggers and hazard prediction. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences 364(1845): 2009-2039.

Matsuo, Y., and Y. Yamaguchi. 2013. The rise in cost of power generation in Japan after the Fukushima Daiichi accident and its impact on the finances of the electric power utilities. November 18. Institute of Energy Economics, Japan. Available at http://eneken.ieej.or.jp/data/5252.pdf.

McCaffrey, R. 2008. Global frequency of magnitude 9 earthquakes. Geology 36: 263-266.

Melgar, D., and Y. Bock. 2013. Near-field tsunami models with rapid earthquake source inversions from land- and ocean-based observations: The potential for forecast and warning. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 118(11): 5939-5955.

METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry). 2013. Areas to which evacuation orders have been issued. Tokyo: METI, Government of Japan. Available at www.meti.go.jp/english/earthquake/nuclear/roadmap/pdf/20130807_01.pdf.

MHLW (Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan). 2012. New Standard Limits for Radionuclides in Foods. Presentation from the Department of Food Safety Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau, Tokyo, Government of Japan, June 7. Available at www.mhlw.go.jp/english/topics/2011eq/dl/new_standard.pdf.

Minoura, K., F. Imamura, D. Sugawara, Y. Kono, and T. Iwashita. 2001. The 869 Jōgan tsunami deposit and recurrence interval of large-scale tsunami on the Pacific coast of northeast Japan. Journal of Natural Disaster Science 23(2): 83-88.

MITRE. 2011. Impacts of Severe Space Weather on the Electric Grid. JSR-11-320. McLean, VA: MITRE Corp., JASON Program Office. November.

Mizushima, A. 2012. The Japan-US “military” response to the earthquake, and the strengthening of the military alliance as a result. Fukushima on the Globe, December 12. Available at http://fukushimaontheglobe.com/the-earthquake-and-the-nuclear-accident/whats-happened/the-japan-us-military-response.

Mori, N., T. Takahashi, T. Yasuda, and H. Yanagisawa. 2011. Survey of 2011 Tohoku earthquake tsunami inundation and run-up. Geophysical Research Letters 38(7): L00G14, doi: 10.1029/2011GL049210.

Mori, N., T. Takahashi, and the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami Joint Survey Group. 2012. Nationwide post event survey and analysis of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake tsunami. Coastal Engineering Journal 54(01): 1-27.

Morino, Y., T. Ohara, and M. Nishizawa. 2011. Atmospheric behavior, deposition, and budget of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. Geophysical Research Letters 38(7): L00G11, doi: 10.1029/2011GL048689.

Morrow, S., and V. Barnes. 2012. Independent Evaluation of INPO’s Nuclear Safety Culture Survey and Construct Validation Study. Technical Paper. Rockville, MD: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×

Mumaw, R. J., D. Swatzler, E. M. Roth, and W. A. Thomas. 1994. Cognitive Skill Training for Nuclear Power Plant Operational Decision Making. NUREG/CR-6126. Prepared for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1115/ML11151A201.pdf.

NAE and NRC (National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council). 2011. Macondo Well Deepwater Horizon Blowout: Lessons for Improving Offshore Drilling Safety. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Available at http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=13273.

NAIIC (Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission). 2012. The Official Report of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission. Tokyo: National Diet of Japan.

Nakahara, H. 2013. Envelope inversion analysis for high-frequency seismic energy radiation from the 2011 Mw 9.0 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 103(2B): 1348-1359.

Nakamura, A., and M. Kikuchi. 2011. What we know, and what we have not yet learned: Triple disasters and the Fukushima nuclear fiasco in Japan. Public Administration Review 71(6): 893-899.

Nakamura, Y., S. Kodaira, S. Miura, C. Regalla, and N. Takahashi. 2013. High-resolution seismic imaging in the Japan trench axis area off Miyagi, northeastern Japan. Geophysical Research Letters 40(9): 1713-1718.

Narabayashi, T. 2012. Lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Keynote address to the 7th International Symposium on Turbulence, Heat and Mass Transfer, Palermo, Italy, September 24-27, 2012.

National Police Agency of Japan. 2014. Damage situation and police countermeasures associated with 2011 Tohoku district—off the Pacific Ocean Earthquake. Presentation from Japan Emergency Disaster Countermeasures Headquarters, National Police Agency of Japan, Tokyo. Available at www.npa.go.jp/archive/keibi/biki/higaijokyo_e.pdf. Accessed on June 3, 2013.

NCRP (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements). 2009. Ionizing Radiation Exposure of the Population of the United States. Report No. 160. Bethesda, MD: NCRP.

NEA (Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 1999. The Role of the Nuclear Regulator in Promoting and Evaluating Safety Culture. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. June.

NEA. 2000. OECD Flame Acceleration and Deflagration to Detonation Transition in Nuclear Safety: State-of-the-Art Report by a Group of Experts. Nuclear Safety NEA/CSNI/R(2000)7, August. Issy-les-Moulineaux, France: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.

NEA. 2002. Chernobyl: Assessment of Radiological and Health Impacts, 2002 Update of Chernobyl: Ten Years On. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

NEA. 2013. The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident: OECD/NEA Nuclear Safety Response and Lessons Learnt. Paris: Nuclear Energy Agency, Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development. Available at http://www.oecd-nea.org/pub/2013/7161-fukushima2013.pdf.

NEA. 2014. Status Report on Hydrogen Management and Related Computer Codes. NEA/CSNI/R(2013)8 (JT03359912). Available at http://www.oecd-nea.org/nsd/docs/2014/csni-r2014-8.pdf.

NEI (Nuclear Energy Institute). 1994. Severe Accident Issue Closure Guidelines. NEI 91-04, Rev. 1. Washington, DC: NEI. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML0728/ML072850981.pdf.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×

NEI. 2002. B.S.b Phase 2 & 3 Submittal Guideline. NEI 06-12, Rev. 2. Washington, DC: NEI. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML0700/ML070090060.pdf.

NEI. 2012. Diverse and Flexible Coping Strategies (FLEX) Implementation Guide. NEI 12-06 Revision 0. Washington, DC: Nuclear Energy Institute. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1214/ML12143A232.pdf.

NEI. 2013. Industry Support and Use of PRA and Risk-Informed Regulation, Letter to USNRC Chair Allison M. Macfarlane, December 19. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1335/ML13354B997.pdf.

NEI, INPO, and EPRI (Nuclear Energy Institute, Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, and Electric Power Research Institute). 2012. The Way Forward: U.S. Industry Leadership in Response to Events at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Washington, DC: Nuclear Energy Institute. Available at http://www.nei.org/corporatesite/media/filefolder/Way_Forward_2_23_12.pdf.

NERHQ-TEPCO (Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters-Tokyo Electric Power Company). 2011. Report of Japanese Government to the IAEA Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Safety—The Accident at TEPCO’s Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations. Tokyo: Government of Japan.

Nettles, M., G. Ekström, and H. C. Koss. 2011. Centroid-moment-tensor analysis of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake and its larger foreshocks and aftershocks. Earth, Planets and Space 63(7): 519-523.

Ng, K. H., and M. L. Lean. 2012. The Fukushima nuclear crisis reemphasizes the need for improved risk communication and better use of social media. Health Physics 103(3): 307-310.

NISA (Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency). 2012. Technical Knowledge of the Accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Provisional Translation). Tokyo: Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. Avalable at http://www.nsr.go.jp/archive/nisa/english/press/2012/06/en20120615-1-1.pdf.

Noggerath, J., R. Geller, and V. Gusiakov. 2011. Fukushima: The myth of safety, the reality of geoscience. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 67(5): 37-46.

Nomura, S., S. Gilmour, M. Tsubokura, D. Yoneoka, A. Sugimoto, T. Oikawa, M. Kami, and K. Shibuya. 2013. Mortality risk amongst nursing home residents evacuated after the Fukushima nuclear accident: A retrospective cohort study. PLOS ONE 8(3): e60192.

Norman, D. 1990. The problem of automation: Inappropriate feedback and interaction, not over-automation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B 327: 585-593.

NRA (Nuclear Regulation Authority). 2013a. FY2012 Nuclear Regulation Authority Annual Report (provisional English translation). Tokyo: NRA.

NRA. 2013b. Practical measures for evacuees to return to their homes. Tokyo: Nuclear Regulation Authority. November 20.

NRC (National Research Council). 1987. Technical Aspects of Hydrogen Control and Combustion in Severe Light-Water Reactor Accidents. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 1998. Peer Review in Environmental Technology Development Programs: The Department of Energy’s Office of Science and Technology. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Available at http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=6408.

NRC. 2004a. Distribution and Administration of Potassium Iodide in the Event of a Nuclear Incident. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Available at http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=10868.

NRC. 2004b. Safety and Security of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage (U). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. An abbreviated public version of this report was issued in 2006 and is available at http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11263.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×

NRC. 2006a. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Available at http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11340.

NRC. 2006b. Safety and Security of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage: Public Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Available at http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11263.

NSC (Nuclear Safety Commission). 2013. Emergency Preparedness for Nuclear Facilities (May 2007), Chapter 2: Sections 2.1, 2.2, 2.6; Chapter 3: Sections 3.1, 3.2; Chapter 5; and Appendixes D, F, J, L, and N (Technical Language Service, Trans.). Tokyo: Government of Japan. Available at www.nsr.go.jp/archive/nsc/anzen/sonota/houkoku/bousai220823.pdf.

NRT (National Response Team). 2000. Joint Information Center Model: Collaborative Communications During Emergency Response. Available at http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/nrt/jic-model.pdf.

NTSB (U.S. National Transportation Safety Board). 2011. Accident Report: Pacific Gas and Electric Company Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline Rupture and Fire, San Bruno, California, September 9, 2010. NTSB: PAR-11-01, NTIS: PB2011-916501. Washington, DC: NTSB.

NSCJ (Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan, Special Committee on Nuclear Safety Standards and Guides). 2012. Proposed Requirements for Incorporation into Safety Design Guide and Other Related Regulatory Guides, Annex 1 (March 14) (provisional translation). Available at http://www.nsr.go.jp/archive/nsc/NSCenglish/geje/20120322review_1_1.pdf.

Ogino, H., and T. Hattori. 2013. Operational level for unconditional release of contaminated property from affected areas around Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Radiation Protection Dosimetry 157(3): 446-454.

OIG (Office of the Inspector General). 2002. Office of the Inspector General Event Inquiry: NRC’s Regulation of Davis-Besse Regarding Damage to the Reactor Vessel Head. Case No. 02-03S. Washington, DC: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. December 30. Available at www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/insp-gen/2003/02-03s.pdf.

OIG. 2012. Gaps Continue to Exist in Nursing Home Emergency Preparedness and Response During Disasters: 2007-2010. OEI-06-09-00270. Washington, DC: Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

Okrent, D. 1981. Nuclear Reactor Safety: On the History of the Regulatory Process. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

ONR (Office of Nuclear Regulation). 2011. Japanese Earthquake and Tsunami: Implications for the UK Nuclear Industry Final Report. ONR-FR-REP-11-002 Revision 2. Bootle, UK: Health and Safety Executive.

Pacific Gas and Electric Company. 2010. Methodology for probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis: Trial application for the Diablo Canyon Power Plant site. Presentation to the PEER Workshop on Tsunami Hazard Analyses for Engineering Design Parameters, Berkeley, CA.

Pariès, J. 2011. Lessons from the Hudson. Chapter 2 in Resilience Engineering in Practice: A Guidebook, E. Hollnagel, J. Pariès, D. Woods, and J. Wreathall, eds. Farnham, UK: Ashgate.

Pascucci-Cahen, L., and P. Momal. 2012. Massive radiological releases profoundly differ from controlled releases. Eurosafe Forum. November 6. Available at http://www.irsn.fr/FR/Actualites_presse/Actualites/Documents/EN_Eurosafe-2012_Massive-releases-vscontrolled-releases_Cost_IRSN-Momal.pdf.

Payne, E. 2011. Radiation fears spark run on West Coast pharmacies, health food stores. Cable News Network (CNN), March 16.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×

Pereira, A. S. 2006. The opportunity of a disaster: The economic impact of the 1755 Lisbon Earthquake. CHERRY DP 03/06. Centre for Historical Economics and Related Research at York, York University. Available at http://www.york.ac.uk/media/economics/documents/cherrydiscussionpapers/0603.pdf.

Persensky, J., S. Browde, A. Szabo, L. Peterson, E. Specht, and E. Wight. 2004. Effective Risk Communication: The Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s Guidelines for External Risk Communication. NUREG/BR-0308. Rockville, MD: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML0406/ML040690412.pdf.

Philadelphia Electric Company. 1981. Probabilistic Risk Assessment, Limerick Generating Station, Philadelphia, PA.

Phillips, J., J. Cardoni, R. Gauntt, D. Kalinich, and A. Goldmann, 2012. MELCOR simulations of the severe nuclear accident at the Fukushima 1F2 reactor. Presentation at American Nuclear Society Winter Meeting, November 15, 2012.

Pöllänen, R., H. Toivonen, K. Peräjärvi, T. Karhunen, T. Ilander, J. Lehtinen, K. Rintala, T. Katajainen, J. Niemelä, and M. Juusela. 2009. Radiation surveillance using an unmanned aerial vehicle. Applied Radiation and Isotopes 67: 340-344.

Povinec, P. P., M. Gera, K. Holý, K. Hirose, G. Lujaniené, M. Nakano, W. Plastino, I. Sýkora, J. Bartok, and M. Gažák. 2013. Dispersion of Fukushima radionuclides in the global atmosphere and the ocean. Applied Radiation and Isotopes 81: 383-392.

Progress Energy. 2008. Application for Combined License for Levy Nuclear Power Plant Units 1 and 2, NRC Project No. 756, attached to a letter to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission from James Scarola. NPD-NRC-2008-022. July 28. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML0822/ML082260277.pdf.

Rasmussen, J. 1983. Skills, rules, and knowledge; signals, signs, and symbols, and other distinctions in human performance models. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics 13(3): 257-266.

Reason, J. 2008. The Human Contribution: Unsafe Acts, Accidents, and Heroic Recoveries. Farnham, UK: Ashgate.

Rempe, J., M. Farmer, M. Corradini, L. Ott, R. Gauntt, and D. Powers. 2012. Revisiting insights from Three Mile Island Unit 2 postaccident examinations and evaluations in view of the Fukushima Daiichi accident. Nuclear Science and Engineering 172(3): 223-248.

Richardson, P., K. Rickwood, and P. Rickwood. 2013. Public involvement as a tool to enhance nuclear safety. Energy Strategy Reviews 1(4): 266-271.

Riley, P. 2012. On the probability of occurrence of extreme space weather events. Space Weather 10(2): S02012, doi: 10.1029/2011SW000734.

RJIF (Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation’s Independent Investigation Commission on the Fukushima Nuclear Accident). 2014. The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Disaster: Investigating the Myth and Reality, M. K. Bricker, ed. London: Routledge.

Robb, K. R., M. W. Francis, and M. T. Farmer. 2013. Enhanced Ex-Vessel Analysis for Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1: Melt Spreading and Core-Concrete Interaction Analyses with MELTSPREAD and CORQUENCH. ORNL/TM-2012/455. Prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN. Available at http://info.ornl.gov/sites/publications/files/Pub39382.pdf.

Rogovin, M., G. T. Frampton, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Special Inquiry Group. 1980. Three Mile Island: A Report to the Commissioners and to the Public, Vols. I-II. NUREG/CR-1250. Washington, DC: Rogovin, Stern and Huge.

Roth, E. M., A. Mosleh, Y. J. Chang, R. Richards, D. Bley, S. H. Shen, and A. Zoulis. 2012. Model-based framework for characterizing contextual factors for HRA applications. Presentation at the 11th International Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management Conference and the annual European Safety and Reliability Conference, Helsinki, Finland, June 25-29, 2012.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×

Sakai, T., T. Takeda, H. Soraoka, K. Yanagisawa, and T. Annaka. 2006. Development of a probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis in Japan. In Proceedings of ICONE14 International Conference on Nuclear Engineering, July 17-20, Miami, FL. ICONE14-89183. New York: American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Available at http://jsmillerdesign.com/FukushimaPapers/Development%20of%20a%20Probalistic%20Tsunami%20Hazard%20Analysis%20in%20Japan.pdf.

Salame-Alfie, A., P. Mulligan, F. Fisher-Tyler, R. McBurney, and E. Fordham. 2012. Fukushima disaster response—the states’ perspective. Health Physics 102(5): 580-583.

Sarter, N. B., D. D. Woods, and C. E. Billings. 1997. Automation surprises. Pp. 1926-1943 in Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics, 2nd Ed., G. Salvendy, ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Sasakawa, Y. 2012. International expert symposium in Fukushima: Radiation and Health Risks. Journal of Radiological Protection 32(1): E7-E8.

Satake, K., Y. Namegaya, and S. Yamaki. 2008. Numerical simulation of the AD 869 Jogan tsunami in Ishinomaki and Sendai plains (in Japanese with English abstract). Annual Report of Active Fault and Paleoearthquake Researches 8: 71-89.

Satake, K., Y. Fujii, T. Harada, and Y. Namegaya. 2013. Time and space distribution of co-seismic slip of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake as inferred from tsunami waveform data. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 103(2B): 1473-1492.

Schaede, U. 1995. The “Old Boy” network and government-business relationships in Japan. Journal of Japanese Studies 21(2): 293-317. Available at http://www.jstor.org/stable/133010.

SCJ (Science Council of Japan). 2011. Report to the Foreign Academies from Science Council of Japan on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident. Tokyo: SCJ. May 2.

Sehgal, B. R., ed. 2012. Nuclear Safety in Light Water Reactors: Severe Accident Phenomenology. Waltham, MA: Academic Press.

Shiroyama, H. 2012. Regulatory Failures of Nuclear Safety in Japan—The Case of Fukushima Accident. Available at http://tokyo2013.earthsystemgovernance.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/0202-SHIROYAMA_Hideaki-.pdf.

Shneider, M. N., and R. B. Miles. 2005. Microwave diagnostics of small plasma objects. Journal of Applied Physics 98: 033301.

Silva, K., Y. Ishiwatari, and S. Takahara. 2013. Cost per severe accident as an index for severe accident consequence assessment and its applications. Reliability Engineering and System Safety 123(2014): 110-122.

Siu, N., D. Marksberry, S. Cooper, K. Coyne, and M. Stutzke. 2013. PSA technology challenges revealed by the Great East Japan Earthquake. Presentation at the Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management Topical Conference in Light of the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Accident, Tokyo, Japan, April 15-17, 2013. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1303/ML13038A203.pdf.

Smith, D. E., S. Shi, R. A. Cullingford, A. G. Dawson, S. Dawson, C. R. Firth, I. D. L. Foster, P. T. Fretwell, B. A. Haggart, L. K. Holloway, and D. Long. 2004. The Holocene Storegga Slide tsunami in the United Kingdom. Quaternary Science Reviews 23(23-34): 2291-2321.

Stein, S., and E. A. Okal. 2007. Ultralong period seismic study of the December 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and implications for regional tectonics and the subduction process. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 97: S279-S295.

Stein, S., R. J. Geller, and M. Liu. 2012. Why earthquake hazard maps often fail and what to do about it. Tectonophysics 562-563: 1-25.

Stein, S., R. J. Geller, and M. Liu. 2013. Reply to comment by Arthur Frankel on “Why earthquake hazard maps often fail and what to do about it.” Tectonophysics 592: 207-209.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×

Steinhauser, G., A. Brandl, and T. E. Johnson. 2014. Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: A review of the environmental impacts. Science of the Total Environment 470-471: 800-817.

Sugawara, D., F. Imamura, K. Goto, H. Matsumoto, and K. Minoura. 2013. The 2011 Tohoku-oki Earthquake Tsunami: Similarities and differences to the 869 Jogan Tsunami on the Sendai Plain. Pure and Applied Geophysics 170(5): 831-843.

Suzuki, W., S. Aoi, H. Sekiguchi, and T. Kunugi. 2011. Rupture process of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki mega-thrust earthquake (M9.0) inverted from strong-motion data. Geophysical Research Letters 38(7): L00G16, doi: 10.1029/2011GL049136.

Tajima, F., J. Mori, and B. L. N. Kennett. 2013. A review of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw 9.0): Large-scale rupture across heterogeneous plate coupling. Tectonophysics 586: 15-34.

Tanigawa, K., Y. Hosoi, N. Hirohashi, Y. Iwasaki, and K. Kamiya. 2012. Loss of life after evacuation: Lessons learned from the Fukushima accident. Lancet 379(9819): 889-891.

Task Force for the Reform of Nuclear Safety Regulations and Organisations. n.d. Reform of Nuclear Regulation Organisation and System in Japan. Tokyo: Cabinet Secretariat, Government of Japan. Available at http://www.nsr.go.jp/archive/nisa/shingikai/700/14/240724/AT-6-1.pdf.

Tateno, S., and H. M. Yokoyama. 2013. Public anxiety, trust, and the role of mediators in communicating risk of exposure to low dose radiation after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant explosion. Journal of Science Communication 12(2): A03.

Taylor, J. M. 1996. Memorandum from James M. Taylor, Executive Director of Operations, dated April 29, 1996, to the Commissioners Regarding: Status of the Integration Plan for Closure of Severe Accident Issues and the Status of Severe Accident Research. SECY-96-088. Rockville, MD: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/commission/secys/1996/secy1996-088/1996-088scy.pdf.

ten Brink, U. 2009. Tsunami hazard along the U.S. Atlantic Coast. Marine Geology 264(1-2): 1-3.

ten Brink, U. S., H. J. Lee, E. L. Geist, and D. Twichell. 2009. Assessment of tsunami hazard to the U.S. East Coast using relationships between submarine landslides and earthquakes. Marine Geology 264(1-2): 65-73.

Ten Hoeve, J. E., and M. Z. Jacobson. 2012. Worldwide health effects of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. Energy and Environmental Science 5: 8743-8757.

TEPCO. 2011a. Fukushima Nuclear Accident Analysis Report (Interim Report). Tokyo: Tokyo Electric Power Company, Inc. December 2. Available at http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/press/corp-com/release/betu11_e/images/111202e14.pdf.

TEPCO. 2011b. Fukushima Nuclear Accident Investigation Report: Interim Report—Supplemental Volume. Tokyo, Japan: Tokyo Electric Power Company, Inc. December 2.

TEPCO. 2011c. Mid-and-Long-Term Roadmap Towards the Decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Units 1-4 (December 2011). Available at http://www.meti.go.jp/english/earthquake/nuclear/decommissioning/.

TEPCO. 2011d. The Nuclear Safety and Quality Assurance Meeting’s Accident Investigation Examination Committee’s Opinion of the Tokyo Electric Power Company’s “Fukushima Nuclear Accident Investigation Report (Midterm Report).” Available at http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/press/corp-com/release/betu11_e/images/111202e15.pdf.

TEPCO. 2012a. Estimation of the Released Amount of Radioactive Materials into the Atmosphere as a Result of the Accident in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Tokyo: Tokyo Electric Power Company, Inc. March.

TEPCO. 2012b. Fukushima Nuclear Accident Analysis Report. Available at http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/nu/fukushima-np/interim/index-e.html. Tokyo: Tokyo Electric Power Company, Inc. June 20.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×

TEPCO. 2012c. MAAP Code-Based Analysis of the Development of the Events at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Tokyo: Tokyo Electric Power Company, Inc. March.

TEPCO. 2013. Evaluation of the Situation of Cores and Containment Vessels of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Units-1 to 3 and Examination into Unsolved Issues in the Accident Progression: Progress Report No. 1 (December). Available at http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/press/corp-com/release/betu13_e/images/131213e0101.pdf.

TEPCO. 2014. New Comprehensive Special Business Plan. January 15. Available at http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/press/corp-com/release/betu14_e/images/140115e0205.pdf.

Tohoku (Tohoku Electric Power Company). 2012. Safe shutdown of Onagawa Nuclear Power Station: The closest BWRs to the 3/11/11 epicenter. Presentation to the Committee on Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants, Tokyo, Japan, November 29, 2012. Honcho, Japan: Tohoku Electric Power Company.

Tominaga, T., M. Hachiya, H. Tatsuzaki, and M. Akashi. 2014. The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011. Health Physics 106(6): 630-637.

Tupin, E. A., M. A. Boyd, J. E. Mosser, and J. S. Wieder. 2012. U.S. EPA response to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Health Physics 102(5): 563-569.

UCS (Union of Concerned Scientists). 2011a. Statement by David Lochbaum—Director of Nuclear Safety Project, before the U.S. Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee, March 29. Available at http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/nuclear_power/lochbaum-senate-energy-3-29-2011.pdf.

UCS. 2011b. The NRC and Nuclear Power Plant Safety in 2010: A Brighter Spotlight Needed. March. Cambridge, MA: UCS Publications. Available at http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/nuclear_power/nrc-2010-full-report.pdf.

UCS. 2012. The NRC and Nuclear Power Plant Safety in 2011: Living on Borrowed Time. Cambridge, MA. UCS Publications. Available at http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/nuclear_power/nrc-nuclear-safety-2011-full-report.pdf.

UCS. 2013a. NRC’s Failure to Enforce Reactor Fire Regulations. Cambridge, MA: Union of Concerned Scientists. Available at www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/nuclear_power/ucsnrc-fire-regulations-5-2-13.pdf.

UCS. 2013b. The NRC and Nuclear Power Plant Safety in 2012: Tolerating the Intolerable. March. Cambridge, MA. UCS Publications. Available at http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/nuclear_power/NRC-nuclear-safety-2012-report.pdf.

UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). 2011. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation: UNSCEAR 2008 Report to the General Assembly, Volume II with Scientific Annexes C, D, and E. New York: United Nations. Available at www.unscear.org/docs/reports/2008/11-80076_Report_2008_Annex_D.pdf.

UNSCEAR. 2013a. Effects of radiation exposure of children. Annex B in Sources, Effects and Risks of Ionizing Radiation, UNSCEAR 2013 Report, Volume II. New York: United Nations.

UNSCEAR. 2013b. Levels and effects of radiation exposure due to the nuclear accident after the 2011 Great East-Japan Earthquake and tsunami. Scientific Annex A in Sources, Effects, and Risks of Ionizing Radiation, UNSCEAR 2013 Report, Volume I, Report to the General Assembly. New York: United Nations. Available at http://www.unscear.org/docs/reports/2013/13-85418_Report_2013_Annex_A.pdf.

USDHS (U.S. Department of Homeland Security). 2013. National Response Framework, 2nd ed. Washington, DC: USDHS. May.

U.S. Embassy (Embassy of the United States, Tokyo, Japan). 2011. Travel Warning. Available at japan.usembassy.gov/e/acs/tacs-travel20110317.html. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of State.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×

USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1992. Manual of Protective Action Guides and Protective Actions for Nuclear Incidents (Revised 1991). EPA 400-R-92-001. Washington, DC: USEPA.

USEPA. 2013. PAG Manual: Protective Action Guides and Planning Guidance for Radiological Incidents (Draft for Interim Use and Public Comment). Washington, DC: USEPA.

USFDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 1998. Accidental Radioactive Contamination of Human Food and Animal Feeds: Recommendations for State and Local Agencies. UCM094513. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. August 13.

USFDA. 2004. Supporting Document for Guidance Levels for Radionuclides in Domestic and Imported Foods. UCM078341. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

USGAO (U.S. General Accounting Office). 1983. Response to Specific Questions on the Indian Point Probabilistic Safety Study. GAO/RCED-83-158. Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office. Available at http://gao.gov/assets/150/140084.pdf.

USGAO (U.S. Government Accountability Office). 2008. Report to Congressional Requesters—Nuclear Safety: NRC’s Oversight of Fire Protection at U.S. Commercial Nuclear Reactor Units Could Be Strengthened. GAO-08-747. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Accountability Office. Available at www.gao.gov/new.items/d08747.pdf.

USGAO. 2012. Report to Congressional Requesters—Nuclear Regulatory Commission: Oversight and Status of Implementing a Risk-Informed Approach to Fire Safety. GAO-13-8. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Accountability Office. Available at www.gao.gov/assets/650/649658.pdf.

USGAO. 2014. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Transportation and Infrastructure, Committee on Environment and Public Works, U.S. Senate—Nuclear Safety: Countries’ Regulatory Bodies Have Made Changes in Response to the Fukushima Daiichi Accident. GAO-14-109. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Accountability Office. Available at www.gao.gov/assets/670/661464.pdf.

USNRC (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission). 1975. Reactor Safety Study: An Assessment of Accident Risks in U.S. Commercial Nuclear Power Plants, WASH-1400, NUREG-75/014. Washington, DC: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/nuregs/staff/sr75-014/.

USNRC. 1980a. Clarification of TMI Action Plan Requirements: Final Report. NUREG-0737. Washington, DC: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/nuregs/staff/sr0737/final/index.html.

USNRC. 1980b. Functional Criteria for Emergency Response Facilities. NUREG-0696. Washington, DC: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/nuregs/staff/sr0696/sr0696.pdf.

USNRC. 1980c. NRC Action Plan Developed as a Result of the TMI-2 Accident, Vols. 1 and 2. NUREG-0660. Washington, DC: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML0724/ML072470526.pdf (Vol. 1) and http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML0724/ML072470524.pdf (Vol. 2).

USNRC. 1980d. Proposed rule: Severe accident design criteria. Federal Register 45(Oct. 2): 65474.

USNRC. 1980e. TMI-2 Lessons Learned Task Force Status Report and Short-Term Recommendations. NUREG-0578. Washington, DC: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML0900/ML090060030.pdf.

USNRC. 1982. Guidelines for the Preparation of Emergency Operating Procedures: Resolution of Comments on NUREG-0799. NUREG-0899. Washington, DC: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1025/ML102560007.pdf.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×

USNRC. 1983. Clarification of TMI Action Plan Requirements: Requirements for Emergency Response Capability. NUREG-0737, Supplement No. 1. Washington, DC: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/nuregs/staff/sr0737/sup1/sr0737sup1.pdf.

USNRC. 1985. Policy statement on severe reactor accidents regarding future designs and existing plants. Federal Register 50(153): 32138. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML0037/ML003711521.pdf.

USNRC. 1986. Safety goals for the operation of nuclear power plants; policy statement; republication. Federal Register 51(Aug. 21): 30028. Available at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/commission/policy/51fr30028.pdf.

USNRC. 1987. Severe Accident Risks: An Assessment for Five U.S. Nuclear Power Plants—Draft Report. NUREG-1150. Washington, DC: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

USNRC. 1989. Policy statement on the conduct of nuclear power plant operations. Federal Register 54: 3424. Available at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/commission/policy/54fr3424.pdf.

USNRC. 1990. Severe Accident Risks: An Assessment for Five U.S. Nuclear Power Plants. NUREG-1150. Washington, DC: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/nuregs/staff/sr1150/.

USNRC. 1995. Use of Probabilistic Risk Assessment Methods in Nuclear Regulatory Activities: Final Policy Statement. Federal Register 60(158): 42622-42629. Available at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1995-08-16/pdf/95-20237.pdf.

USNRC. 1997a. Individual Plant Examination Program: Perspectives on Reactor Safety and Plant Performance, Final Report, Vols. 1-5. NUREG-1560. Washington, DC: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

USNRC. 1997b. Regulatory Analysis Technical Evaluation Handbook, Final Report. NUREG/BR-0184. Rockville, MD: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML0501/ML050190193.pdf.

USNRC. 1998. Peer Review for High-Level Waste Repositories. NUREG-1297. Rockville, MD: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

USNRC. 2000a. Letter from Richard A. Meserve, Chairman of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, to Edward J. Markey, U.S. House of Representatives, dated March 9, in response to letter of November 10, 1999, on potassium iodide stockpiles. Washington, DC: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML0036/ML003693033.pdf.

USNRC. 2000b. Memorandum from Annette L. Vietti-Cook, Secretary of the Commission, dated December 22, 2000, Regarding: SECY-00-0037—Status of Potassium Iodide Activities and SECY-00-0040—Final Amendments to 10 CFR 50.47. Rockville, MD: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML0037/ML003780292.pdf.

USNRC. 2000c. Technical Basis and Implementation Guidelines for a Technique for Human Event Analysis (ATHEANA). NUREG-1624, Rev. 1. Washington, DC: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/nuregs/staff/sr1624/r1/.

USNRC. 2001. Commission Voting Record, Decision Item: SECY-02-0069—Status of Potassium Iodide Activities. Rockville, MD: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. June 29. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML0118/ML011860293.pdf.

USNRC. 2002a. Commission Voting Record, Decision Item: SECY-02-0089—Revised Draft NUREG-1633 and Public Information Brochure on Potassium Iodide (KI) for the General Public. Rockville, MD: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. November 26. Available at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/commission/secys/2002/secy20020089/2002-0089scy.pdf.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×

USNRC. 2002b. Federal policy on use of potassium iodide. Federal Register 67(7): 1355.

USNRC. 2002c. Perspectives Gained from the Individual Plant Examination of External Events (IPEEE) Program—Final Report, Volume 1. NUREG-1742. Rockville, MD: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML0212/ML021270070.pdf.

USNRC. 2005. NRC Regulatory Issue Summary 2005-18: Guidance for Establishing and Maintaining a Safety Conscious Work Environment. Rockville, MD: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/gencomm/reg-issues/2005/ri200518.pdf.

USNRC. 2006. Regulatory Guide 1.97: Criteria for the Accident Monitoring Instrumentation for Nuclear Power Plants, Revision 4. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML0615/ML061580448.pdf.

USNRC. 2007. Regulatory Guide 1.23: Meteorological Monitoring Programs for Nuclear Power Plants, Rev. 1. Rockville, MD: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML0703/ML070350028.pdf.

USNRC. 2009a. Power reactor security requirements: Final rule. Federal Register 74 (Mar. 27): 13926-13993.

USNRC. 2009b. Regulatory Guide 1.200, Rev. 2: An Approach for Determining the Technical Adequacy of Probabilistic Risk Assessment Results for Risk-Informed Activities. Rockville, MD: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML0904/ML090410014.pdf.

USNRC. 2010. The Evolution of Mitigating Measures for Large Fire and Explosions: A Chronological History from September 11, 2001 Through October 7, 2009 (summary and detailed chronology). Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML0929/ML092990417.pdf.

USNRC. 2011a. Developing an Emergency Risk Communication (ERC)/Joint Information Center (JIC) Plan for a Radiological Emergency. NUREG/CR-7032. Prepared by Center for Risk Communication, New York. Rockville, MD: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1104/ML110490119.pdf.

USNRC. 2011b. Final safety culture policy statement. Federal Register 76: 34773. Available at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-14/html/2011-14656.htm.

USNRC. 2011c. Guidance on Developing Effective Radiological Risk Communication Messages: Effective Message Mapping and Risk Communication with the Public in Nuclear Plant Emergency Planning Zones. NUREG/CR-7033. Prepared by Center for Risk Communication, New York. Rockville, MD: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1104/ML110490120.pdf.

USNRC. 2011d. NRC Provides Protective Action Recommendations Based on U.S. Guidelines. NRC News No. 11-050, March 16. Rockville, MD: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/news/2011/11-050.pdf.

USNRC. 2011e. NRC sees no radiation at harmful levels reaching U.S. from damaged Japanese nuclear power plants (revised). NRC News No. 11-046, March 13. Rockville, MD: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1107/ML110720002.pdf.

USNRC. 2011f. Supplemental Inspection for Repetitive Degraded Cornerstones, Multiple Degraded Cornerstones, Multiple Yellow Inputs, or One Red Input. NRC Inspection Procedure 95003. Rockville, MD: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/insp-manual/inspection-procedure/ip95003.pdf.

USNRC. 2012a. A Proposed Risk Management Regulatory Framework: A Report to NRC Chairman Gregory B. Jaczko from the Risk Management Task Force. NUREG-2150. Rockville, MD: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1210/ML12109A277.pdf.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×

USNRC. 2012b. Boiling water reactor (BWR) systems. Chapter 3 in Nuclear Power for Electrical Generation (Reactor Concepts Manual). USNRC Technical Training Center. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1209/ML120970422.pdf.

USNRC. 2012c. Compliance with Order EA-12-049, Order Modifying Licenses with Regard to Requirements for Mitigation Strategies for Beyond-Design-Basis External Events. Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate (JLD). JLD-ISG-2012-01. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1214/ML12146A014.pdf.

USNRC. 2012d. Letter and Order Modifying Licenses with Regard to Requirements for Mitigation Strategies for Beyond-Design-Basis External Events. EA-12-049. Rockville, MD: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1205/ML12054A735.pdf.

USNRC. 2012e. Long-term cooling and unattended water makeup of spent fuel pools. Federal Register 77(243): 74778-74798.

USNRC. 2013a. A Comparison of U.S. and Japanese Regulatory Requirements in Effect at the Time of the Fukushima Accident. Rockville, MD: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1332/ML13326A991.pdf.

USNRC. 2013b. Information Digest, 2013-2014, Vol. 25. NUREG 1350. Washington, DC: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Public Affairs. Available at www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/nuregs/staff/sr1350/.

USNRC. 2013c. State-of-the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses Project, Vol. 1: Peach Bottom Integrated Analysis. NUREG/CR-7110, Rev. 1. Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories. Rockville, MD: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1202/ML120260675.pdf.

USNRC. 2013d. State-of-the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses Project, Vol. 2: Surry Integrated Analysis. NUREG/CR-7110, Revision 1. Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories. Rockville, MD: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/nuregs/contract/cr7110/v2/.

USNRC NTTF (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Near-Term Task Force). 2011. Recommendations for Enhancing Reactor Safety in the 21st Century: The Near-Term Task Force Review of Insights from the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Accident. Rockville, MD: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1118/ML111861807.pdf.

USNRC and USEPA (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Task Force on Emergency Planning). 1978. Planning Basis for the Development of State and Local Government Radiological Emergency Response Plans in Support of Light Water Nuclear Power Plants. NUREG-0396/EPA 520/1-78-016. Washington, DC: USNRC and USEPA. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML0513/ML051390356.pdf.

USNRC and EPRI (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Electric Power Research Institute). 2012. EPRI/NRC-RES Fire Human Reliability Analysis Guidelines. NUREG-1921, EPRI 1023001. Washington, DC: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Palo Alto, CA: Electric Power Research Institute. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1221/ML12216A104.pdf.

USNRC and FEMA (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Federal Emergency Management Agency). 1980. Criteria for Preparation and Evaluation of Radiological Emergency Response Plans and Preparedness in Support of Nuclear Power Plants. NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1. Washington, DC: USNRC and FEMA. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML0404/ML040420012.pdf.

Walker, J. S. 2004. Three Mile Island: A Nuclear Crisis in Historical Perspective. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×

Wall, J., R. Elms, and D. Nock. 2004. Developing an incident management simulation for training emergency responders. Paper 1865. Presentation at the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC), Orlando, Florida, May 15, 2004.

Wang, Q., and X. Chen. 2012. Regulatory failures for nuclear safety—the bad example of Japan—implication for the rest of the world. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16(5): 2610-2617.

Wang, Q., X. Chen, X. Yi-chong. 2013. Accident like the Fukushima unlikely in a country with effective nuclear regulation: Literature review and proposed guidelines. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 17: 126-146.

Whaley, A. M., J. Xing, R. Boring, S. Hendrickson, J. Joe, and K. Le Blanc. 2012. Building a Psychological Foundation for Human Reliability Analysis (Draft). NUREG-2114, INL/EXT-11-23898. Available at http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1131/ML113180490.pdf.

WHO (World Health Organization). 2013. Health risk assessment from the nuclear accident after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami based on a preliminary dose estimation. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.

Williamson, B., J. Lyter, D. Roniger, and P. Ellison. 2013. Revising BWR emergency procedures: The BWR Owners’ Group has completed a revision of emergency procedure guidelines in light of lessons from Fukushima. Nuclear Energy International, November 18. Available at www.neimagazine.com/features/featurerevising-bwr-emergency-procedures/.

Wise, C. R. 2006. Organizing for Homeland Security After Katrina: Is Adaptive Management What’s Missing? Public Administration Review 66(3): 302-318.

WNA (World Nuclear Association). 2014. Fukushima Accident. London, UK: World Nuclear Association. Available at www.world-nuclear.org/info/Safety-and-Security/Safety-of-Plants/Fukushima-Accident/.

World Energy Council. 2012. World Energy Perspective: Nuclear Energy One Year After Fukushima. London, UK: World Energy Council. Available at http://www.worldenergy.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/PUB_world_energy_perspective__nuclear_energy_one_year_after_fukushima_2012_WEC.pdf.

World Travel and Tourism Council. 2011. The Tohoku Pacific Earthquake and Tsunami. December Update. Available at http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CCUQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.wttc.org%2F~%2Fmedia%2Ffiles%2Freports%2Fspecial%2520and%2520periodic%2520reports%2Fjapan_report_dec_update_rgb_1.ashx&ei=tjXxU5e2LY3-yQS-iIHYBg&usg=AFQjCNHj0JHQEZfLtmywx2W_x4_0P0gZfg&sig2=Mkt3NyoNuwAZYXIf3IDJiw&bvm=bv.73231344,d.aWw.

Yamanaka, Y. 2012. Research plan regarding improvement of simulation code for understanding the status of fuel debris in the reactor. Presentation at the International Symposium on the Decommissioning of TEPCO’s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1-4, March 14, 2012, Tokyo, Japan. Tokyo: Minister of Economy, Trade, and Industry.

Yamazaki, Y., K. F. Cheung, and T. Lay. 2013. Modeling of the 2011 Tohoku near-field tsunami from finite-fault inversion of seismic waves. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 103(2B): 1444-1455.

Yasumura, S., M. Hosoya, S. Yamashita, K. Kamiya, M. Abe, M. Akashi, K. Kodama, and K. Ozasa. 2012. Study protocol for the Fukushima health management survey. Journal of Epidemiology 22(5): 375-383.

Yasumura, S., A. Goto, S. Yamazaki, and M.R. Reich. 2013. Excess mortality among relocated institutionalized elderly after the Fukushima nuclear disaster. Public Health 127(2):186-8.

Yasutaka, T., W. Naito, and J. Nakanishi. 2013. Cost and effectiveness of decontamination strategies in radiation contaminated areas in Fukushima in regard to external radiation dose. PLOS ONE 8(9): e75308.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×

Yue, H., and T. Lay. 2013. Source rupture models for the Mw 9.0 2011 Tohoku Earthquake from joint inversions of high-rate geodetic and seismic data. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 103(2B): 1242-1255.

Zitellini, N., F. Chierici, R. Sartori, and L. Torelli. 1999. The tectonic source of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and tsunami. Annals of Geophysics 42(1): 49-55.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
Page 256
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
Page 257
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
Page 258
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
Page 259
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
Page 260
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
Page 261
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
Page 262
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
Page 263
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
Page 264
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
Page 265
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
Page 266
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
Page 267
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
Page 268
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
Page 269
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
Page 270
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
Page 271
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
Page 272
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
Page 273
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
Page 274
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
Page 275
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
Page 276
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
Page 277
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
Page 278
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
Page 279
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
Page 280
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
Page 281
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
Page 282
Next: Appendix A: Biographical Sketches of Committee, Technical Advisor, and Staff »
Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $80.00 Buy Ebook | $64.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

The March 11, 2011, Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami sparked a humanitarian disaster in northeastern Japan. They were responsible for more than 15,900 deaths and 2,600 missing persons as well as physical infrastructure damages exceeding $200 billion. The earthquake and tsunami also initiated a severe nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Three of the six reactors at the plant sustained severe core damage and released hydrogen and radioactive materials. Explosion of the released hydrogen damaged three reactor buildings and impeded onsite emergency response efforts. The accident prompted widespread evacuations of local populations, large economic losses, and the eventual shutdown of all nuclear power plants in Japan.

Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants is a study of the Fukushima Daiichi accident. This report examines the causes of the crisis, the performance of safety systems at the plant, and the responses of its operators following the earthquake and tsunami. The report then considers the lessons that can be learned and their implications for U.S. safety and storage of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste, commercial nuclear reactor safety and security regulations, and design improvements. Lessons Learned makes recommendations to improve plant systems, resources, and operator training to enable effective ad hoc responses to severe accidents. This report's recommendations to incorporate modern risk concepts into safety regulations and improve the nuclear safety culture will help the industry prepare for events that could challenge the design of plant structures and lead to a loss of critical safety functions.

In providing a broad-scope, high-level examination of the accident, Lessons Learned is meant to complement earlier evaluations by industry and regulators. This in-depth review will be an essential resource for the nuclear power industry, policy makers, and anyone interested in the state of U.S. preparedness and response in the face of crisis situations.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!