# Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants(2014)

## Chapter: Appendix N: Conversions and Units

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Page 369
Suggested Citation:"Appendix N: Conversions and Units." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
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Appendix N

Conversions and Units

 Distance-Related Conversions kilometers (km) and miles (mi) 1 km = 0.62 mi 1 mi = 1.6 km km2 (square kilometers) and mi2 (square miles) 1 km2 = 0.39 mi2 1 mi2 = 2.59 km2 m (meters) and ft (feet) 1 m = 3.28 ft 1 ft = 0.30 m m3 (cubic meters) and ft3 (cubic feet) 1 m3 = 35.3 ftt3 1 ft3 = 0.03 m3 km/h (kilometers per hour) and mph (miles per hour) 1 km/h = 0.62 mph 1 mph = 1.6 km/hr Radiation-Related Conversions mSv (millisieverts), mrem (millirem), and mGya (milligray) 1 mSv = 100 mrem = 1 mGy 1 mrem = 0.01 mSv = 0.01 mGy Bq (becquerels) and Ci (curies) 1 Bq = 2.7 × 10−11 Ci 1 Ci = 3.7 × 1010 Bq Other MJ (megajoules) and kWh (kilowatt hours) 1 MJ = 0.28 kWh 1 kWhr = 3.6 MJ MPa (megapascals) and psi (pounds per square inch) 1 MPa = 145 psi 1 psi = 0.007 MPa Celsius and Fahrenheit °C = (5/9)*(°F − 32°) °F = (9/5)*°C + 32° metric tons and pounds (lbs) 1 metric ton (tonne) = 2,204 lbs
Page 370
Suggested Citation:"Appendix N: Conversions and Units." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
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Prefixes
 pico- 10-12 micro- 10-6 milli- 10-3 kilo- 103 mega- 106 giga- 109 tera- 1012 peta- 1015

a Millisieverts and millirem are units of effective dose, whereas Gray is a unit of absorbed dose. They are numerically equivalent when exposure is from gamma rays and x-rays.

 Unit of Measure Abbreviation Type of Measure Becquerel Bq radiation activity Celsius C temperature centimeters cm distance Fahrenheit F temperature feet ft distance gallon gal volume gallons per minute gpm flow rate Gray Gy absorbed radiation dose Joule J energy kilogram kg mass kilometers km distance kilopascals kPa pressure kilovolts kV electrical potential kilowatt kW electrical power kilowatt-hour kWh energy liters per minute Lpm flow rate megapascals MPa pressure megawatts electric MWe electrical power meters m distance millimeters mm distance millirem mrem effective radiation dose millisievert mSv effective radiation dose newton N force pound lb mass pound-force lbf force pounds (-force) per square inch psi pressure volts V electrical potential

Page 369
Suggested Citation:"Appendix N: Conversions and Units." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
Page 370
Suggested Citation:"Appendix N: Conversions and Units." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
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Next: Appendix O: Acronyms »
Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants Get This Book
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The March 11, 2011, Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami sparked a humanitarian disaster in northeastern Japan. They were responsible for more than 15,900 deaths and 2,600 missing persons as well as physical infrastructure damages exceeding \$200 billion. The earthquake and tsunami also initiated a severe nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Three of the six reactors at the plant sustained severe core damage and released hydrogen and radioactive materials. Explosion of the released hydrogen damaged three reactor buildings and impeded onsite emergency response efforts. The accident prompted widespread evacuations of local populations, large economic losses, and the eventual shutdown of all nuclear power plants in Japan.

Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants is a study of the Fukushima Daiichi accident. This report examines the causes of the crisis, the performance of safety systems at the plant, and the responses of its operators following the earthquake and tsunami. The report then considers the lessons that can be learned and their implications for U.S. safety and storage of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste, commercial nuclear reactor safety and security regulations, and design improvements. Lessons Learned makes recommendations to improve plant systems, resources, and operator training to enable effective ad hoc responses to severe accidents. This report's recommendations to incorporate modern risk concepts into safety regulations and improve the nuclear safety culture will help the industry prepare for events that could challenge the design of plant structures and lead to a loss of critical safety functions.

In providing a broad-scope, high-level examination of the accident, Lessons Learned is meant to complement earlier evaluations by industry and regulators. This in-depth review will be an essential resource for the nuclear power industry, policy makers, and anyone interested in the state of U.S. preparedness and response in the face of crisis situations.

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