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Suggested Citation:"Appendix O: Acronyms." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
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Appendix O

Acronyms

Euro
¥ Yen

ABWR

Advanced boiling water reactor

AC

Alternating current

ACRS

Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards

ADAMS

Agencywide Documents Access and Management System

ADS

Automatic depressurization system

AEA

Atomic Energy Act

AEC

Atomic Energy Commission

AESJ

Atomic Energy Society of Japan

AFW

Auxiliary feedwater

ALARA

As Low As Reasonably Achievable

AM

Accident management

ANS

American Nuclear Society

AOP

Abnormal operating procedures

ASME

American Society of Mechanical Engineers

ATWS

Anticipated transient without scram

B.5.b

Section B.5.b of Order EA-06-137

BDB

Beyond design basis

B.P.

Before present

BWR

Boiling water reactor

CANDU

Canada deuterium uranium

CDC

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Suggested Citation:"Appendix O: Acronyms." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×

CERCLA

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act

CFR

Code of Federal Regulations

CME

Coronal mass ejection

CNSC

Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission

CS

Core spray

CST

Condensate storage tank

CV

Containment vessel

DARPA

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

DARTTM

Deep-Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis

DBA

Design-basis accident

DBT

Design-basis threat

DC

Direct current

DHS

U.S. Department of Homeland Security

DIET

National Diet of Japan

DOD

U.S. Department of Defense

DOE

U.S. Department of Energy

DRYAMB

Dry ambient pressure (containment)

D/W

Drywell

EAL

Emergency action level

EC

European Commission

ECCS

Emergency core cooling system

EDG

Emergency diesel generator

EDMGs

Extensive damage mitigation guidelines

ENSI

Eidgenössisches Nuklearsicherheitsinspektorat (Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate)

ENSREG

European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group

EOC

Emergency operations center

EOPs

Emergency operating procedures

EPRI

Electric Power Research Institute

EPZ

Emergency planning zone

ERC

Emergency response center

ERDA

Energy Research and Development Administration

EU

European Union

FEMA

U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency

FLEX

Diverse and Flexible Coping Strategies

FRMAC

Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center

GE

General Electric Company

GRIPS

National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (Japan)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix O: Acronyms." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×

GPS

Global Positioning System

GRS

Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS),

 

mbH

GWe

Gigawatt electric

HERP

Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion (Japan)

HHS

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

HO

Hydraulically operated

HPCI

High-pressure coolant injection

HPCS

High-pressure core spray

HQ

Headquarters

HRA

Human reliability analysis

HSPD

Homeland Security Presidential Directive

IAEA

International Atomic Energy Agency

IC

Isolation condenser

ICECND

Ice condenser (containment)

ICM

Interim compensatory measure

ICRP

International Commission on Radiological Protection

INES

International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale

INPO

Institute of Nuclear Power Operations

IOM

Institute of Medicine (U.S. National Academies)

INSAG

International Nuclear Safety Group (International Atomic Energy Agency)

IPEEE

Individual plant examination of external events

IRSN

Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (France)

JAEA

Japan Atomic Energy Agency

JAEC

Japan Atomic Energy Commission

JAES

Japan Atomic Energy Society

JANSI

Japan Nuclear Safety Institute

JANTI

Japan Nuclear Technology Institute

JAPC

Japan Atomic Power Company

JNES

Japanese Nuclear Energy Safety Organization

JSCE

Japan Society of Civil Engineers

JST

Japan Standard Time; Japan Science and Technology Agency

KI

Potassium iodide

K-NET

Kyoshin Network

KiK-Net

Kiban Kyoshin Network

L

Length

Suggested Citation:"Appendix O: Acronyms." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×

LOCA

Loss-of-coolant accident

LPCI

Low-pressure coolant injection

LPCS

Low-pressure core spray

LR

License renewal

LWR

Light-water reactor

MAAP

Modular accident analysis program

MCR

Main control room

MELCOR

Methods for Estimation of Leakages and Consequences of Releases

METI

Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (Japan)

MEXT

Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (Japan)

MHLW

Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (Japan)

MIT

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MN

MegaNewton

MO

Motor-operated

MOE

Ministry of the Environment (Japan)

MOU

Memorandum of understanding

MRFA

Maximally reasonably foreseeable accident

MSIV

Main steam isolation valves

MSL

Main steam line

MW

Megawatt

MWe

Megawatt electric

MWt

megawatt thermal

N/A

Not applicable

NAE

National Academy of Engineering (U.S. National Academies)

NAIIC

Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission (Japan)

NARAC

National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center

NAS

National Academy of Sciences (United States)

NCRP

National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

NEA

Nuclear Energy Agency (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development)

NEI

Nuclear Energy Institute

NEPA

National Environmental Policy Act

NERHQ

Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters

NISA

Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (Japan)

NIST

National Institute of Standards and Technology

NOAA

U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Suggested Citation:"Appendix O: Acronyms." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×

NPP

Nuclear power plant

NPS

Nuclear power station

NRA

Nuclear Regulation Authority (Japan)

NRC

National Research Council (U.S. National Academies)

NRF

National Response Framework

NSC

Nuclear Safety Commission (Japan)

NTSB

National Transportation Safety Board

NTTF

Near-Term Task Force Review of Insights from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission)

O.P.

Onahama Peil (Onahama Port Construction Standard Surface)

OECD

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

OL

Operating license

ONR

Office for Nuclear Regulation (United Kingdom)

ORNL

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

OSHA

U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

P

Pressure

PAGs

Protective action guidelines

PAZ

Precautionary action zone

PCV

Primary containment vessel

PRA

Probabilistic risk assessment

PSA

Probabilistic safety analysis; Probabilistic safety assessment

psi

Pounds per square inch

psia

Pounds per square inch absolute

psig

Pounds per square inch gage

PWR

Pressurized water reactor

R/B

Reactor building

RCIC

Reactor core isolation cooling

REM

Roentgen equivalent man

REP

Radiological emergency preparedness

RFP

Reactor feedwater pump

RHR

Residual heat removal

RIR

Risk-informed regulations

RPV

Reactor pressure vessel

RWCU

Reactor water cleanup unit

RWST

Reactor water storage tank

S/C

Suppression chamber

Suggested Citation:"Appendix O: Acronyms." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×

SAM

Severe accident management

SAMG

Severe accident management guidelines

SBO

Station blackout

SCJ

Science Council of Japan

SDF

Self-Defense Forces (Japan)

SFP

Spent fuel pool

SG

Steam generator

SGTS

Standby gas treatment system

SI

Système Internationale (International System of Units)

SNF

Spent nuclear fuel

SNL

Sandia National Laboratories

SNM

Special nuclear materials

SPAR

Standardized plant analysis risk

SPEEDI

System for Prediction of Environment Emergency Dose Information

SPDS

Safety parameter display system

SPSA

Seismic probabilistic safety assessment

SRV

Safety relief valve

SSAMG

Shutdown severe accident management guidelines

SSCs

Structures, systems, and components

T

Temperature

T/B

Turbine building

TAF

Top of active fuel

TEPCO

Tokyo Electric Power Company

TMI

Three Mile Island

TOPOFF

Top officials’ exercises

UCS

Union of Concerned Scientists

UNSCEAR

United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation

USEPA

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

USFDA

U.S. Food and Drug Administration

USGAO

U.S. Government Accountability Office

USNRC

U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

V

Volt

VDC

Volt DC

WANO

World Association of Nuclear Operators

WENRA

Western European Nuclear Regulators’ Association

WHO

World Health Organization

Suggested Citation:"Appendix O: Acronyms." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
Page 371
Suggested Citation:"Appendix O: Acronyms." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
Page 372
Suggested Citation:"Appendix O: Acronyms." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
Page 373
Suggested Citation:"Appendix O: Acronyms." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
Page 374
Suggested Citation:"Appendix O: Acronyms." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
Page 375
Suggested Citation:"Appendix O: Acronyms." National Research Council. 2014. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18294.
×
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The March 11, 2011, Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami sparked a humanitarian disaster in northeastern Japan. They were responsible for more than 15,900 deaths and 2,600 missing persons as well as physical infrastructure damages exceeding $200 billion. The earthquake and tsunami also initiated a severe nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Three of the six reactors at the plant sustained severe core damage and released hydrogen and radioactive materials. Explosion of the released hydrogen damaged three reactor buildings and impeded onsite emergency response efforts. The accident prompted widespread evacuations of local populations, large economic losses, and the eventual shutdown of all nuclear power plants in Japan.

Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants is a study of the Fukushima Daiichi accident. This report examines the causes of the crisis, the performance of safety systems at the plant, and the responses of its operators following the earthquake and tsunami. The report then considers the lessons that can be learned and their implications for U.S. safety and storage of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste, commercial nuclear reactor safety and security regulations, and design improvements. Lessons Learned makes recommendations to improve plant systems, resources, and operator training to enable effective ad hoc responses to severe accidents. This report's recommendations to incorporate modern risk concepts into safety regulations and improve the nuclear safety culture will help the industry prepare for events that could challenge the design of plant structures and lead to a loss of critical safety functions.

In providing a broad-scope, high-level examination of the accident, Lessons Learned is meant to complement earlier evaluations by industry and regulators. This in-depth review will be an essential resource for the nuclear power industry, policy makers, and anyone interested in the state of U.S. preparedness and response in the face of crisis situations.

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