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Suggested Citation:"Photo and Illustration Credits." National Research Council. 2015. Reaching Students: What Research Says About Effective Instruction in Undergraduate Science and Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18687.

Photo and Illustration Credits

iStockphoto; Eric Mazur; Kaatje Kraft; Kaatje Kraft; Kaatje Kraft; Karl Wirth; David Gosser; John W. Parks; John W. Parks; David McConnell; McConnell, D., et al. (2006). Using ConcepTests to assess and improve student conceptual understanding in introductory geoscience courses. Journal of Geoscience Education, 54(1), 63; Sidney Cahn; Sidney Cahn; iStockphoto; Wirth, K.R. (2003, November). Using an M&M® magma chamber to illustrate magmatic differentiation. In Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, 34, 250; Susan Singer; Stephen Krause; Stephen Krause; Adapted with permission from Sokoloff, D.R., and Thornton, R.K. (1997). Using interactive lecture demonstrations to create an active learning environment. The Physics Teacher, 35(6), 342; iStockphoto; Reprinted with permission from Cooper, M.M., Grove, N., Underwood, S.M., and Klymkowsky, M.W. (2010). Lost in Lewis structures: An investigation of student difficulties in developing representational competence. Journal of Chemical Education, 87(8), 871; Adapted from figures appearing in Novick, L.R., and Catley, K.M. (2007). Understanding phylogenies in biology: The influence of a gestalt perceptual principle. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 13(4), 197–223; Reproduced with permission from Kali, Y., and Orion, N. (1996). Spatial abilities of high-school students in the perception of geologic structures. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 33(4), 377; iStockphoto; Reprinted with permission from Long, T.M., Dauer, J., Kostelnik, K.M., Momsen, J.L., Wyse, S.A., Bray Speth, E., and Ebert-May, D. (2014). Fostering ecoliteracy through model-based instruction. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 12(2), 138–139; Chris Necuze, FIU News; Mohamed Mohamed; iStockphoto; Vicente Talanquer; Stephen Krause; Dave Tewksbury; Dave Tewksbury; Model 1—Two Digestive Enzymes from POGIL Activities for AP* Biology. © 2014 Flinn Scientific, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Reproduced for one-time use with permission from Flinn Scientific, Inc., Batavia, Illinois, U.S.A.; Chris Necuze, FIU News; Chris Necuze, FIU News; Reprinted with permission from Heron, P.L., and McDermott, L.C. (1998). Bridging the gap between teaching and learning in geometrical optics. Optics and Photonics News, 9(9), 34; iStockphoto; The POGIL Project; (top and bottom) The POGIL Project; Chris Necuze, FIU News; The POGIL Project; Mark Leckie; AAU Undergraduate STEM Education Initiative; Jessamyn Trout, California State University San Marcos; Stephen Tsui; Katherine Perkins. (2014). PhET Interactive Simulations, University of Colorado Boulder. Available:; (top, middle, and bottom) Robert J. Beichner; North Carolina State University; The POGIL Project; The POGIL Project; Dee Silverthorn; AAU Undergraduate STEM Education Initiative; Edward E. Prather; AAU Undergraduate STEM Education Initiative; iStockphoto; Henry Campa III; Henry Campa III; Sidney Cahn; Sidney Cahn; AAU Undergraduate STEM Education Initiative; AAU Undergraduate STEM Education Initiative

Suggested Citation:"Photo and Illustration Credits." National Research Council. 2015. Reaching Students: What Research Says About Effective Instruction in Undergraduate Science and Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18687.
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The undergraduate years are a turning point in producing scientifically literate citizens and future scientists and engineers. Evidence from research about how students learn science and engineering shows that teaching strategies that motivate and engage students will improve their learning. So how do students best learn science and engineering? Are there ways of thinking that hinder or help their learning process? Which teaching strategies are most effective in developing their knowledge and skills? And how can practitioners apply these strategies to their own courses or suggest new approaches within their departments or institutions? Reaching Students strives to answer these questions.

Reaching Students presents the best thinking to date on teaching and learning undergraduate science and engineering. Focusing on the disciplines of astronomy, biology, chemistry, engineering, geosciences, and physics, this book is an introduction to strategies to try in your classroom or institution. Concrete examples and case studies illustrate how experienced instructors and leaders have applied evidence-based approaches to address student needs, encouraged the use of effective techniques within a department or an institution, and addressed the challenges that arose along the way.

The research-based strategies in Reaching Students can be adopted or adapted by instructors and leaders in all types of public or private higher education institutions. They are designed to work in introductory and upper-level courses, small and large classes, lectures and labs, and courses for majors and non-majors. And these approaches are feasible for practitioners of all experience levels who are open to incorporating ideas from research and reflecting on their teaching practices. This book is an essential resource for enriching instruction and better educating students.

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