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The Social Impact of AIDS in the United States (1993)

Chapter: Front Matter

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1993. The Social Impact of AIDS in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1881.
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THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF AIDS IN THE UNITED STATES

Albert R. Jonsen and Jeff Stryker, editors

Panel on Monitoring the Social Impact of the AIDS Epidemic

Committee on AIDS Research and the Behavioral, Social, and Statistical Sciences

Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1993

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1993. The Social Impact of AIDS in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1881.
×

National Academy Press
2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their competences and with regard for the appropriate balance.

This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

The project that is the subject of this report was supported by the Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; the Lilly Endowment, Inc.; and the Sierra Foundation.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

National Research Council (U.S.). Panel on Monitoring the Social Impact of the AIDS Epidemic.

The social impact of AIDS in the United States / Panel on Monitoring the Social Impact of the AIDS Epidemic ; Committee on AIDS Research and the Behavioral, Social, and Statistical Sciences, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 0-309-04628-9

1. AIDS (Disease)—Social aspects—United States. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on AIDS Research and the Behavioral, Social, and Statistical Sciences. II. Title

RA644.A25N27 1993

362.1’969792’00973—dc20 92-38885

CIP

Copyright 1993 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1993. The Social Impact of AIDS in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1881.
×

PANEL ON MONITORING THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE AIDS EPIDEMIC

ALBERT R. JONSEN (Chair),

Department of Medical History and Ethics, School of Medicine, University of Washington

RONALD BAYER,

School of Public Health, Columbia University

RICHARD A. BERK,*

Department of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles

ALLAN M. BRANDT,

Departments of Social Medicine and History of Science, Harvard University, and Harvard Medical School

DAVID L. CHAMBERS,

School of Law, University of Michigan

DEBORAH COTTON,

School of Public Health, Harvard University

JOHN H. GAGNON,

Department of Sociology, State University of New York, Stony Brook

SHIRLEY LINDENBAUM,

The Graduate Center, City University of New York

EARL E. SHELP,

Foundation for Interfaith Research and Ministry, Houston, Texas

MARK D. SMITH,

Kaiser Family Foundation, Menlo Park, California

JAMES TRUSSELL,

Office of Population Research, Princeton University

JEFF STRYKER, Study Director (through June 1991)

*  

 Did not participate after spring 1991.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1993. The Social Impact of AIDS in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1881.
×

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an advisor to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1993. The Social Impact of AIDS in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1881.
×

COMMITTEE ON AIDS RESEARCH AND THE BEHAVIORAL, SOCIAL, AND STATISTICAL SCIENCES

JANE MENKEN (Chair)

Population Studies, University of Pennsylvania

DON DES JARLAIS (Vice Chair),

New York State Division of Substance Abuse, New York

MARSHALL BECKER,

School of Public Health, University of Michigan

ROBERT BORUCH,

Department of Psychology, Northwestern University

THOMAS COATES,

School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco

ROBYN DAWES,

Department of Social and Decision Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University

JOHN GAGNON,

Department of Sociology, State University of New York, Stony Brook

ALBERT R. JONSEN,

Department of Medical History and Ethics, School of Medicine, University of Washington

SHIRLEY LINDENBAUM,

The Graduate Center, City University of New York

LINCOLN MOSES,

Department of Statistics, Stanford University

BAILUS WALKER, Dean of Public Health,

University of Oklahoma

LIAISON REPRESENTATIVES TO THE PANEL FROM THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE

WENDY BALDWIN,

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

G. STEPHEN BOWEN,

Health Resources and Services Administration

DAVID BROWNELL,

Centers for Disease Control

VIRGINIA CAIN,

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

ANITA EICHLER,

National Institute of Mental Health

JACOB GAYLE,

Centers for Disease Control

MARCIA ORY,

National Institute on Aging

AMY R. SHEON,

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

ELLEN STOVER,

National Institute on Mental Health

RONALD W. WILSON,

Centers for Disease Control

CONSULTANTS TO THE PANEL

CINDY BOUILLON-JENSEN,

Department of Medical History and Ethics, University of Washington

ERNEST DRUCKER,

Montefiore Medical Center, New York

JOHN GRIGGS,

United Hospital Fund, New York

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1993. The Social Impact of AIDS in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1881.
×

GREGORY HEREK,

Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis

MARTIN LEVINE,

Department of Sociology and Social Psychology, Florida Atlantic University

HARRY MARKS,

Institute of the History of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University

CATHERINE O'NEILL,

Legal Action Center, New York

RONALD STALL,

Center for AIDS Prevention, San Francisco

RAND STONEBURNER,

New York City Department of Health

BARBARA VAUGHAN,

Office of Population Studies, Princeton University

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1993. The Social Impact of AIDS in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1881.
×

Acknowledgments

The panel's work was supported primarily by the Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. We thank the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for coordinating this support. The Lilly Endowment, Inc., and the Sierra Health Foundation provided funding that enabled the panel to undertake the study of religion and religious groups. We are very grateful to these private foundations for their assistance.

First and foremost I thank my fellow panel members, without whose untiring work and much tried patience this book would not have been possible (see Appendix A for biographical sketches). The list below identifies the panel and staff members who prepared the first drafts of each chapter—and sometimes uncounted subsequent drafts—and those who collaborated with ideas. The first authors wrote the substance of the chapters; the collaborators contributed some language and important ideas. The purpose of this list is to give credit to individuals, but of course the responsibility for the entire text rests with the panel.

  1. Albert Jonsen and James Trussell, in collaboration with John Gagnon and Shirley Lindenbaum

  2. Ronald Bayer, in collaboration with Mark Smith

  3. Mark Smith, in collaboration with Deborah Cotton and Jeff Stryker

  4. Deborah Cotton and Allan Brandt

  5. Albert Jonsen and Earl Shelp

  6. Jeff Stryker, Mark Smith, and Earl Shelp

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1993. The Social Impact of AIDS in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1881.
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  1. Jeff Stryker

  2. David Chambers, in collaboration with Shirley Lindenbaum

  3. John Gagnon and Shirley Lindenbaum, in collaboration with Albert Jonsen, Jeff Stryker, and James Trussell

The panel benefited from the collaboration and the advice of many scholars and other people deeply involved in the HIV/AIDS epidemic (see Appendix B). We wish to thank all of them for their generous help.

The panel appreciates the hard work of the staff of the National Research Council. They were indispensable to the administration, research, and editing that went into this report. We thank Charles F. Turner, who was the parent committee's study director, and Jeff Stryker, the panel study director. Heather G. Miller and Susan L. Coyle of the committee staff provided helpful research assistance in the first phase of the panel's activities. Kirsten Johnson and Tracy Brandt were most efficient research and administrative assistants. In the final drafting of the report, Elaine McGarraugh coordinated everyone else as well as managing innumerable manuscript drafts. Eugenia Grohman and consultant Jean Shirhall were excellent editors, and Susanne Stoiber oversaw the completion of the panel's work. On behalf of the panel, I express my sincere gratitude for the staff's work.

Albert R. Jonsen, Chair

Panel on Monitoring the Social Impact of the AIDS Epidemic

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1993. The Social Impact of AIDS in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1881.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1993. The Social Impact of AIDS in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1881.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1993. The Social Impact of AIDS in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1881.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1993. The Social Impact of AIDS in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1881.
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The Social Impact Of AIDS In The United States

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1993. The Social Impact of AIDS in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1881.
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The Social Impact of AIDS in the United States Get This Book
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Europe's "Black Death" contributed to the rise of nation states, mercantile economies, and even the Reformation. Will the AIDS epidemic have similar dramatic effects on the social and political landscape of the twenty-first century? This readable volume looks at the impact of AIDS since its emergence and suggests its effects in the next decade, when a million or more Americans will likely die of the disease.

The Social Impact of AIDS in the United States addresses some of the most sensitive and controversial issues in the public debate over AIDS. This landmark book explores how AIDS has affected fundamental policies and practices in our major institutions, examining

  • How America's major religious organizations have dealt with sometimes conflicting values: the imperative of care for the sick versus traditional views of homosexuality and drug use.
  • Hotly debated public health measures, such as HIV antibody testing and screening, tracing of sexual contacts, and quarantine.
  • The potential risk of HIV infection to and from health care workers.
  • How AIDS activists have brought about major change in the way new drugs are brought to the marketplace.
  • The impact of AIDS on community-based organizations, from volunteers caring for individuals to the highly political ACT-UP organization.
  • Coping with HIV infection in prisons.

Two case studies shed light on HIV and the family relationship. One reports on some efforts to gain legal recognition for nonmarital relationships, and the other examines foster care programs for newborns with the HIV virus. A case study of New York City details how selected institutions interact to give what may be a picture of AIDS in the future.

This clear and comprehensive presentation will be of interest to anyone concerned about AIDS and its impact on the country: health professionals, sociologists, psychologists, advocates for at-risk populations, and interested individuals.

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