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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 1992. The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1998.
×

technology transfer in, 71, 72

Biotechnology industry

establishment of commercial, 71

federal funding for, 51, 55-57

relationships between universities and, 166

technology transfer in, 146-150

Boeing, 58

Brookhaven National Laboratory, 68

Budget Reconciliation Act of 1989, 111

Bureau of Economic Analysis, 14

C

Capital

availability of venture, 110, 146, 147

cost of to U.S. firms, 39-40

Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB), 58, 60

Civilian aircraft industry, 57-58, 60

Civilian Industrial Technology Program, 115

Civilian technology.

See also Technology

conclusions regarding federal programs in, 97-98

federal policy toward, 5

government's role in, 1

guidelines for federal involvement in, 1-2

Civilian Technology Agency (CTA)

advantages of, 126-127

disadvantages of, 127-128

establishment of, 124-125

organization and structure of, 125-126

Civilian Technology Corporation (CTC)

advantages of, 132, 135-136

creation of, 2-3, 128-129

disadvantages of, 133-134

initial investment areas for, 131

operation, instructions, and performance of, 130-133

organization and structure of, 129-130

panel recommendations regarding, 135

Clean Air Act of 1970, 150

Clean Coals Technologies Program, 151

Collaborative research and development (R&D)

benefits of, 82, 91-92

European, 89-92, 172-173

evaluation of, 121-122, 174-175

federal support for, 80-82

foreign participation in, 119, 175

government-industry. See Government-industry collaborative research and development (R&D)

Japanese, 83-89, 91, 158, 173-174

organization and goals of, 82, 156

overview of, 79-80, 156-159

private sector. See Private sector collaborative research and development (R&D)

technology transfer through, 146

university-industry. See University-industry collaborative research and development (R&D)

Combustion Research Facility, 151

Commercialization. See Technology commercialization

Commission of the European Communities, 83

Competitiveness

challenges for U.S. in, 41-42

methods of strengthening U.S., viii

Computer industry, 54-55

Consortia.

See also Collaborative research and development (R&D)

definition of, 156

managers of, 162

promise and outlook for, 158-159

role of, 162

Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs)

authority to participate in, 79

cost-sharing provisions in, 117

establishment and description of, 71, 194

in selected federal agencies, 73-74

technology transfer through, 146, 147, 149, 155

Cost sharing

in collaborative programs, 92

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 1992. The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1998.
×

between government and industry, 60-61

policy guidelines for, 116-117

Cray Research, Inc., 55

D

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), viii, 48, 61, 125, 126

description of, 62-63

panel recommendations regarding, 63-65, 98, 124

relationship between SEMATECH and, 81, 195

role in dual-use technology development, 2, 62-63, 70, 98

Defense Authorization Act for FY 1991, 155

Department of Agriculture

funding of agricultural research by, 53, 54

funding of biotechnology research by, 56

laboratory program spending by, 70

Department of Commerce (DOC)

Advanced Technology Program, 2, 66-67, 152, 195

creation of Industrial Extension Service at, 2

role in technology transfer, 145

Department of Defense (DOD), 53

federal laboratory funding by, 70

relationship between DARPA and, 62-63

relationship between SEMATECH and, 81

role in technology transfer, 145

Department of Energy (DOE), 69-70, 117-119, 124

Cooperative Research and Development Agreements program, 194

funding of Superconductivity Pilot Centers by, 82

human genome project administered by, 56

technology transfer programs in, 72, 76, 78, 151, 152

Department of Health and Human Services, 56

Domestic Policy Council, 124

Dual-use technology

panel recommendations regarding, 63-65

relationships between, 61

role of DARPA in, 2, 62-63, 70, 98

E

Economic Growth Act of 1990, 125

Economic Recovery Act of 1981, 111

Economy, changes in global, vii, 50, 108

Edison Technology Centers, 153

Education, state of primary and secondary, 40, 95

Electric Power Research Institute, 80

Energy Conservation Utilization Technology Program, 151

Energy-related technologies, 94

Engineering

compensation for careers in, 39-40

women and minorities in, 18, 21

Engineering Research Associations (ERAs), 83

Engineering Research Centers (ERCs), 82, 145, 158, 170, 192-193

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 150

ESPRIT program, 90

EUREKA project, 89-90

Europe, 89-92, 172-173.

See also individual countries

European Community (EC), 89, 90, 172

Executive Order 12591, 71

Exports

growth in U.S., 22-23, 114

merchandise, 32-33

of technology-intensive products, 22-23

Extension programs. See Agricultural extension programs; Industrial extension programs

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 1992. The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1998.
×

F

Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology , 124, 158

Federal laboratories

collaboration with industry, 170-171

contributions to private sector technology goals by, 68-69, 72-76

guidelines for improvements in technology transfer by, 76-79

missions and funding of, 69-70

overview of, 67-69

panel recommendations regarding, 77

technology transfer and commercialization and 2, 68, 70-71, 98, 147

Federal Laboratory Consortium, 154, 155

Federal Science and Technology Survey Committee, 153

Federal technology programs

administered by Commerce Department, 65-67

administered by Small Business Administration, 65.

See also Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR)

in agriculture, 53-54

assessment of, 59-61

in biomedicine, 55-56

in biotechnology, 51, 56-57

in civil aviation, 57-58, 60

in computers and microelectronics, 54-55

conclusions regarding, 97-98

conducted by federal laboratories. See Federal laboratories

in dual-use technology, 62-65.

See also Dual-use technology

overview of, 49-51, 61

support for basic research in, 49-53

in synthetic fuels, 58-59

Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986, 71, 73, 79, 146, 154, 194

Fellowships, 51-52

Filiere Electronique, 90

Fourth Generation Computer Systems, 83

Framework Programs, 89

France, 90

Fujitsu, ICL, 90

G

Gas Research Institute, 80

General Electric Co., 58

Georgia Institute of Technology's Research Institute, 93

Germany

competitive ability in, 15

payments of royalties and fees to, 37-38

programs to enhance work force skills in, 40

subsidies for jet aircraft development in, 90

Global economy, vii, 50, 108

Government-industry collaborative research and development (R&D)

description of, 169-170

examples of, 158, 194-196

factors in successful, viii-ix

Government-owned, contractor-operated laboratories (GOCO).

See also Federal laboratories

conversion of government labs to, 78

discussion of, 69, 70

funding for, 70

Government-owned, government-operated laboratories (GOGO).

See also Federal laboratories

closure of, 79

conversion to GOCOs, 78

discussion of, 69

funding for, 70

Government Patent Policy Act of 1980, 148, 154

Gross national product (GNP)

by industry, 24-25

real output by industry as percentage of, 26-27

H

Hatch Act (1887), 54

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 1992. The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1998.
×

High Performance Computing and Communications Program, 158

Human genome project, 56

I

IBM, 55

IBM-Europe, 90

Imports, 32

Industrial extension programs

administration of, 93

investment by foreign governments in, 95

panel recommendations regarding, 97

state, 153

Industrial Extension Service (IES)

establishment of, 2, 114

panel recommendations regarding, 97

Industrial Innovation Initiatives program, 115

Industry-government collaborative research and development (R&D). See Government-industry collaborative research and development (R&D)

Industry-university collaborative research and development (R&D). See University-industry collaborative research and development (R&D)

Infrastructure, 41

Innovation. See Technological innovation

Insurance, product liability, 149

Invention. See Technology creation

J

Japan

artificial intelligence project in, 193

collaborative R&D programs in, 83-89, 91, 158, 173-174

competitive ability in, 15

Key Technology Center program in, 84-89, 173-174

payments of royalties and fees to, 36-38

work force skills enhancement in, 40

Japan Development Bank (JDB), 85

Japan Industrial Technology Association, 84

Japanese Technology Literature Act of 1986, 154

Japanese Tobacco Company (JNR), 85

JESSI project, 90

K

Key Technology Center program (Japan), 84-89, 173-174

L

Labor productivity, 5, 95

Legislative request for study, 179-181

Liability insurance, product, 149

Licenses

agency listings for 1989, 73

role of university scientists in, 149

technology transfer and timing of, 147

Linear model of technology development, 16

Los Alamos National Laboratory, 55

M

Macroeconomic policy, 6

Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Improvement Act of 1987, 154

Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award Program, 66

Managed collaboration, 144

Manufacturers

cost of adoption and size of, 15

disparity in technology adoption by, 29

Manufacturing output

changes by industry, 28

as percentage of total GNP, 26-27

share of GNP for, 24-25

status of U.S., 21-23

Manufacturing Technology Centers (MTCs), 93-94, 97, 152

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 1992. The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1998.
×

Market failure, 3, 49-51, 109

in adoption of new technology, 51

in pre-commercial areas, 50

stages of, 109

Microelectronics, 54-55

Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation (MCC), 80, 159 , 163, 193-194

Military research and development (R&D).

See also Dual-use technology

implications for, 61

reorientation of priorities regarding, 98

as source of civilian technology, 34-35

Ministry of Industrial Trade and Industry (MITI) (Japan), 83, 84, 86, 88

Minorities, 18

N

National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), 53, 194

accomplishments of, 57-58, 60

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 57, 71, 159, 194

National Aerospace Plane, 62

National Apparel Technology Center, 80, 193

National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS), 81, 114, 115, 117, 151

National Competitiveness Technology Transfer Act (1989), 71, 155

National Cooperative Research Act of 1984 (NCRA), 71, 80, 151, 154 , 157, 193

National Defense Manufacturing Technology Plan, 155

National Energy Strategy, 152

National Heart Institute, 56

National Institute of Mental Health, 56

National Institute of Standards and Technology Authorization Act for FY 1989, 155

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

management of technology adoption programs by, 97

Manufacturing Technology Centers, 93-94, 97, 152

structure and function of, 65-67, 118, 194-195

National Institutes of Health (NIH), 53, 124

biomedical R&D funding by, 55-57, 118, 148

budget of, 70

role in technology transfer, 71, 72, 145, 148-150

National Quality Award, 154

National Science and Technology Policy, Organization, and Priorities Act of 1976, 153

National Science Foundation Authorization Act for FY 1986, 154

National Science Foundation (NSF)

biotechnology research funding by, 56

Engineering Research Centers, 82, 145, 158, 170, 192-193

federal laboratory spending by, 70

industry-university collaborative research centers of, 158, 192

legislation affecting, 154

role in technology transfer, 145

National Science Foundation (NSF) University-Industry Cooperative Research Center program, 82

New Technological Opportunities program, 115

Nippon Telephone and Telegraph Company (NTT), 85

North Carolina Microelectronics Center, 82, 193

O

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 76

Office of Industrial Technology, 154

Office of Research Grants, 56, 57

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 1992. The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1998.
×

Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), 77, 124, 129, 153

Offices of Research and Technology Applications, 71

Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988, ix, 65, 93, 152, 154-155, 179-180

Optoelectronics Technology Research Corporation (OTRC), 86-87, 174

P

Panel on the Government Role in Civilian Technology

biographical information regarding, 186-190

conclusions

regarding ATP program, 67

regarding expanded mission agency funding, 123-124, 135

regarding technology adoption, 12, 29

regarding technology commercialization, 29

regarding technology policy, 97-98, 114, 135

recommendations

regarding creation of Civilian Technology Corporation, 135

regarding dual-use technology, 63-65

regarding establishment of Industrial Extension Service, 97

regarding federal laboratories, 77

regarding SBIR program, 65

regarding technology policy, 96, 97

Patent and Trademark Amendments Act, 71

Patents

activity of U.S., 21, 22

agency listings for 1989, 73

legislation regarding, 148

technology transfer and, 147, 148

U.S. receipts and payments for, 36-38

Per capita personal income, 5

Personal income, 5

Pharmaceutical industry, 165-166

Political interference, 60, 118, 130

Pre-commercial research and development (R&D)

antitrust regulations and, 157

expanded mission agency funding of, 122-124

federal role in, 109-114, 122

nature of, 19-20, 49

panel conclusions regarding, 12

promotion of investment in, 2-3

support for, viii, 2, 20

President's Council on Science and Technology, 124

Private sector

federal laboratory support for, 68-69, 72-76

funding for, 19

investment risk borne by, 134

responsibilities of, 30, 117

success of federal incentives for, 60-61

Private sector collaborative research and development (R&D)

advantages of, 158

agenda broadening for, 164

assessment of, 91-92

elements of successful, 161, 162

examples of, 193-194

expected returns of, 161

importance of, 159-161

number of participants in, 164

overview of, 159

technology and information sharing problems in, 163-164

technology transfer and, 162-163

Private sector funding

in biotechnology, 56

extent of, 87

incentives for, 50

Product liability insurance, 149

Productivity growth

capital investment and, 9-10

demographic shifts and, 10

discussion of U.S., 6-9

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 1992. The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1998.
×

energy costs and, 10-11

importance of, 5, 122

international manufacturing, 35-36

long-term, 3

research and development spending and, 11

state of U.S., 4-5, 14, 41-42

Public Health Service Act (1944), 56

R

Radioastronomy, 13

Research.

See also Basic research

federal support for basic, 49-52

foreign access to U.S., 52-53

Research and development (R&D).

See also Collaborative research and development (R&D);

Pre-commercial research and development (R&D)

cost in technology-intensive sectors, 34

dispersion of transnational, 33-34

factors in successful joint government-industry, viii-ix

government involvement in private sector, 112-113

mechanisms to facilitate pre-commercial, ix

military-funded, 34-35.

See also Military research and development (R&D)

tax credits for, 111-112

transnational, 33

Research Association for the Promotion of Mining and Industrial Technology Act (1961), 83

Research funding

in biotechnology, 56

for defense-related programs, 61, 122-123

extent of, 18

for federal laboratories, 68

need for stable, 60

for pre-commercial state of technology development, 30

for private sector, 19

S

SAGE air defense program, 54, 55

Science careers, 18, 21

Semiconductor industry

research collaboration in, 80, 81, 91

technology commercialization in, 29, 30

Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology Research Corporation (SEMATECH)

anticipated returns of, 171-172

certification of vendors by, 162

description of, 117, 119, 171, 194-196

establishment of, 114, 115, 170

role in diffusion and adoption of semiconductor manufacturing equipment , 91

Semiconductor Research Corporation, 80, 159

Small Business Competitiveness Demonstration Program Act of 1988, 155

Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR)

cost-sharing provisions in, 117

description of, 65

funding for, 2

panel recommendations regarding, 65

technology transfer through, 151

Smith-Lever Act (1914), 54

Software Productivity Consortium, 80, 159

Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), 72

Spain, 90

Specialty Metals Processing Consortia, 152

State and Local Extension Initiatives programs, 94

State governments

administration of industrial extension programs by, 93

stimulation of technology transfer by, 153

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 1992. The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1998.
×

Steveson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980, 71, 154, 155, 194

Strategic Defense Initiative, 62

Stretch program, 55

Supercomputers, 55

Superconductivity Pilot Centers, 82, 151

Supersonic Transport program, 50

Suppliers, 145

Sweden, 15

Synthetic Fuels Corporation (SFC), 58-59

Synthetic fuels industry, 58-60

T

Tax incentives for R&D, 111-112

Tax Reform Act of 1986, 111

Technological innovation.

See also Technology commercialization

challenges to U.S. advantage in, 95-96

explanation and discussion of, 12-14

U.S. dominance in, 12

Technology.

See also Civilian technology

economic return of new, 13-14

problems in sharing information and, 163

structure of postwar, 31-39

U.S. as exporter of, 21

U.S. performance in, 18, 21, 41-42, 108

Technology Administration, 97

Technology adoption

explanation and discussion of, 14-15

federal role in, 92-98

panel conclusions regarding, 12, 29

panel recommendations regarding, 96, 97

weaknesses in, 29

Technology commercialization.

See also Technological innovation

explanation and discussion of, 12-14

of immature technology, 61

interactive character of, 157

role of federal laboratories in, 67, 69.

See also Federal laboratories

U.S. performance in, 29, 42

Technology Corporation of America Act of 1990, 125

Technology creation

explanation of, 12

federal support for, 122

time lag between innovation and, 13, 157

Technology policy

characteristics of postwar, 31

panel conclusions regarding, 12, 97-98

panel recommendations regarding, 96, 97

rationale for change in, 3, 5

structure of postwar, 32

Technology policy guidelines

overview of, 115-116

regarding cost sharing, 116-117

regarding diversification of investment, 118-119

regarding industry involvement in project initiation and design, 117-118

regarding political interference, 118

regarding program evaluation, 121-122

regarding projects open to foreign firms, 119-121

Technology policy options

Civilian Technology Agency as, 124-128

Civilian Technology Corporation as, 128-134

conclusions regarding, 134-136

expanded mission agency funding of pre-commercial R&D as, 122-124

Technology transfer

in automotive electronics industry, 150-151

barriers to, 16, 18

beyond industrial laboratories, 144-146

in biotechnology industry, 146-150

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 1992. The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1998.
×
Page 214
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 1992. The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1998.
×
Page 215
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 1992. The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1998.
×
Page 216
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 1992. The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1998.
×
Page 217
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 1992. The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1998.
×
Page 218
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 1992. The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1998.
×
Page 219
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 1992. The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1998.
×
Page 220
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. 1992. The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1998.
×
Page 221
The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance Get This Book
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As U.S. industry faces worldwide challenges, policymakers are asking questions about the role of the federal government--not only in promoting basic research but also in ushering new innovations to the marketplace. This book offers an expert consensus on how government and industry together can respond to the new realities of a global marketplace.

The volume offers firm conclusions about policy and organizational changes with the greatest potential to improve our technological competitiveness--and presents three alternative approaches for a new federal role.

The volume examines

  • How federal involvement in technology development affects the nation's economic well-being.
  • What we can learn from past federal efforts to stimulate civilian technology development--in the United States and among our major industrial competitors.
  • How trends in productivity, R&D, and other key areas have affected U.S. performance, and how we compare to the world's rising industrial economies.

Offering guidance on one of the 1990s most important issues, this volume will be indispensible to federal policymakers, executives in industry and technology, and researchers.

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