National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Immigration Policy and the Search for Skilled Workers: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20145.
×

IMMIGRATION POLICY

AND THE SEARCH FOR SKILLED WORKERS

Summary of a Workshop

Gail Cohen, Aqila Coulthurst, and Joe Alper, Rapporteurs

Committee on High-Skilled Immigration Policy
and the Global Competition for Talent

Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy

Policy and Global Affairs

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, DC

www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Immigration Policy and the Search for Skilled Workers: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20145.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS     500 Fifth Street, NW     Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by Contract/Grant No. 10000653 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, with additional funding provided by Microsoft. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-33782-3
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-33782-8
DOI: 10.17226/20145

Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2015 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Immigration Policy and the Search for Skilled Workers: A Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Immigration Policy and the Search for Skilled Workers: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20145.
×

image

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president.

The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.

The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.

Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Immigration Policy and the Search for Skilled Workers: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20145.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Immigration Policy and the Search for Skilled Workers: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20145.
×

PLANNING COMMITTEE ON HIGH-SKILLED IMMIGRATION POLICY AND THE GLOBAL COMPETITION FOR TALENT

Jennifer Hunt, Chair, Rutgers University

Edward Alden, Council on Foreign Relations

Ellen Dulberger, Ellen Dulberger Enterprises, LLC

David McKenzie, The World Bank

Subhash Singhal, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Paula Stephan, Georgia State University

Project Staff

Gail Cohen, Executive Director (Study Director, from Fall 2014)

David Ammerman, Financial Officer

Aqila Coulthurst, Associate Program Officer

Cynthia Getner, Financial Officer (through Spring 2014)

Karolina Konarzewska, Program Coordinator (through Summer 2015)

Stephen Merrill, Director Emeritus (Study Director, through Fall 2014)

David Visi, Mirzayan Fellow (through Winter 2015)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Immigration Policy and the Search for Skilled Workers: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20145.
×

BOARD ON SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND ECONOMIC POLICY (STEP)

For the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, this project was overseen by the Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy (STEP), a standing board established by the National Academy of Sciences and Engineering and the Institute of Medicine in 1991. The mandate of the Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy, one of several program units in the Policy and Global Affairs division, is to advise federal, state, and local governments and inform the public about economic and related public policies to promote the creation, diffusion, and application of new scientific and technical knowledge to enhance the productivity and competitiveness of the U.S. economy and foster economic prosperity for all Americans. The STEP Board and its committees marshal research and the expertise of scholars, industrial managers, investors, and former public officials in a wide range of policy areas that affect the speed and direction of scientific and technological change and their contributions to the growth of the U.S. and global economies. Results are communicated through reports, conferences, workshops, briefings, and electronic media subject to the procedures of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to ensure their authoritativeness, independence, and objectivity. The members of the STEP Board and staff are listed below:

Richard K. Lester, Chair, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (from Spring 2015)

Jeff Bingaman, Former U.S. Senator, New Mexico

Ellen Dulberger, Ellen Dulberger Enterprises, LLC

Alan M. Garber, Harvard University (through September 2014)

Ralph E. Gomory, New York University

Michael Greenstone, University of Chicago

John L. Hennessy, Stanford University

William H. Janeway, Warburg Pincus, LLC (through Fall 2015)

Paul L. Joskow, Chair, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation (through Spring 2015)

David T. Morgenthaler, Morgenthaler Ventures

Luis M. Proenza, University of Akron

Kathryn L. Shaw, Stanford University

Laura D’Andrea Tyson, University of California-Berkeley

Harold R. Varian, Google, Inc. (through Summer 2015)

Jay Walker, Patent Properties, Inc./TEDMED

STEP Staff

Paul Beaton, Senior Program Officer

Gail Cohen, Executive Director

McAlister Clabaugh, Program Officer (through Fall 2015)

Aqila Coulthurst, Associate Program Officer

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Immigration Policy and the Search for Skilled Workers: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20145.
×

David Dierksheide, Program Officer

Karolina Konarzewska, Program Coordinator (through Summer 2015)

Fred Lestina, Senior Program Assistant (from Fall 2015)

Natacha Montgomery, Senior Program Assistant (through Fall 2015)

Stephen Merrill, Director Emeritus

Sujai Shivakumar, Senior Program Officer

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Immigration Policy and the Search for Skilled Workers: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20145.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Immigration Policy and the Search for Skilled Workers: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20145.
×

Preface and Acknowledgments

The market for high-skilled workers is becoming increasingly global, as are the markets for knowledge and ideas. While high-skilled immigrants in the United States represent a much smaller proportion of the workforce than they do in countries such as Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom, these immigrants have an important role in spurring innovation and economic growth in all countries and filling shortages in the domestic labor supply. As this workshop summary report will show, “high-skill” is defined differently in different countries but is often used as a proxy for highly educated. This workshop report summarizes the proceedings of a Fall 2014 workshop that focused on how immigration policy can be used to attract and retain foreign talent. Presenters covered immigration policy in specific countries including Australia, Canada, Israel, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom; they also looked at trends in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, in the Middle East and in Southeast Asian countries. Workshop participants compared policies on encouraging migration and retention of skilled workers, attracting qualified foreign students and retaining them post-graduation, input by states or provinces in immigration policies to add flexibility in countries with regional employment differences, among other topics. The panelists also discussed how immigration policies have changed over time in response to undesired labor market outcomes and whether there was sufficient data to measure those outcomes.

STATEMENT OF TASK

The project was approved by the Governing Board Executive Committee of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine with the following charge:

An ad hoc committee under the Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy (STEP) will organize a workshop to examine the effects of changes in selected industrialized countries’ treatment of temporary and permanent immigrants with advanced training and skills, especially in the sciences, engineering, and software development, in an effort to understand the effects of

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Immigration Policy and the Search for Skilled Workers: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20145.
×

the policy changes, in relation to other factors, on entry and retention and domestic labor markets and educational patterns. The workshop will also compare these countries' administrative mechanisms (e.g., commissions and point systems), methods of integrity assurance, and data collection and evaluation. The committee will develop the agenda, select and invite speakers and discussants, and moderate the discussions. An individually authored workshop summary will be prepared by a rapporteur.

As a part of the study charge, the planning committee commissioned the following policy briefs which are available on the STEP website at http://sites.nationalacademies.org/PGA/step/PGA_146763.

  • Trade-Offs Within a Skilled Immigration Policy: Lessons from Canada, Summary of a Presentation by Charles Beach
  • A Comparison of the U.S. and Canadian Immigration Systems by Pia Orrenius and Madeline Zavodny
  • The UK Experience of Immigration Policy by Jonathan Wadsworth
  • High-Skilled Migration to Asian Nations: Summary Version by Graeme Hugo
  • A Comparison of Skilled Migration Policy: Australia, Canada, and New Zealand by Lesleyanne Hawthorne
  • Paper on Global Demand for International Students as Skilled Migrants by Lesleyanne Hawthorne
  • Flows of Students, Computer Workers, and Entrepreneurs by Lindsay Lowell
  • High-Skilled Immigration and Imperfect Labor Markets: Theory and Cross-Country Evidence by Herbert Brücker
  • International Migration and U.S. Innovation by William Kerr

THIS REPORT

This workshop report has been prepared by the rapporteurs as a factual summary of what occurred at the workshop. The committee’s role was limited to planning and convening the workshop, and serving as panel moderators. The views contained in the report are those of individual workshop participants and do not necessarily represent the views of all workshop participants, the committee, or the Academies.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

On behalf of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, we express our appreciation and recognition for the insights, experiences, and perspectives made available by the participants of this meeting. We would particularly like to recognize Joe Alper for his help in preparing the first draft of this workshop summary, and Radiah Rose-Crawford of the Academies’ staff for her assistance in preparing this report for publication.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Immigration Policy and the Search for Skilled Workers: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20145.
×

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS OF REVIEWERS

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for quality and objectivity. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process.

We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Erik Antonsson, Northrop Grumman Corporation; David Card, University of California, Berkeley; Janette Haughton, Australian Embassy, Washington DC; Neil Ruiz, Brookings Institution; and Philip Webre, Congressional Budget Office.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the report, nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Julia Phillips, Sandia National Laboratories (Retired), appointed by the Academies, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Immigration Policy and the Search for Skilled Workers: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20145.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Immigration Policy and the Search for Skilled Workers: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20145.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Immigration Policy and the Search for Skilled Workers: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20145.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Immigration Policy and the Search for Skilled Workers: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20145.
×
Page R1
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Immigration Policy and the Search for Skilled Workers: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20145.
×
Page R2
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Immigration Policy and the Search for Skilled Workers: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20145.
×
Page R3
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Immigration Policy and the Search for Skilled Workers: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20145.
×
Page R4
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Immigration Policy and the Search for Skilled Workers: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20145.
×
Page R5
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Immigration Policy and the Search for Skilled Workers: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20145.
×
Page R6
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Immigration Policy and the Search for Skilled Workers: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20145.
×
Page R7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Immigration Policy and the Search for Skilled Workers: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20145.
×
Page R8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Immigration Policy and the Search for Skilled Workers: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20145.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Immigration Policy and the Search for Skilled Workers: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20145.
×
Page R10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Immigration Policy and the Search for Skilled Workers: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20145.
×
Page R11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Immigration Policy and the Search for Skilled Workers: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20145.
×
Page R12
Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Immigration Policy and the Search for Skilled Workers: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20145.
×
Page R13
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Immigration Policy and the Search for Skilled Workers: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20145.
×
Page R14
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Immigration Policy and the Search for Skilled Workers: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20145.
×
Page R15
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Immigration Policy and the Search for Skilled Workers: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20145.
×
Page R16
Next: 1 Introduction and Overview »
Immigration Policy and the Search for Skilled Workers: Summary of a Workshop Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $55.00 Buy Ebook | $43.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

The market for high-skilled workers is becoming increasingly global, as are the markets for knowledge and ideas. While high-skilled immigrants in the United States represent a much smaller proportion of the workforce than they do in countries such as Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom, these immigrants have an important role in spurring innovation and economic growth in all countries and filling shortages in the domestic labor supply.

This report summarizes the proceedings of a Fall 2014 workshop that focused on how immigration policy can be used to attract and retain foreign talent. Participants compared policies on encouraging migration and retention of skilled workers, attracting qualified foreign students and retaining them post-graduation, and input by states or provinces in immigration policies to add flexibility in countries with regional employment differences, among other topics. They also discussed how immigration policies have changed over time in response to undesired labor market outcomes and whether there was sufficient data to measure those outcomes.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!