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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Metrics That Matter for Population Health Action: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21899.
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METRICS THAT MATTER
for POPULATION
HEALTH ACTION

WORKSHOP SUMMARY

Joe Alper, Rapporteur

Roundtable on Population Health Improvement

Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice

Institute of Medicine

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Metrics That Matter for Population Health Action: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21899.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS500 Fifth Street, NWWashington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and the Aetna Foundation (#10001504), The California Endowment (20112338), General Electric, HealthPartners, Kaiser East Bay Community Foundation (20131471), The Kresge Foundation (101288), Mayo Clinic, Missouri Foundation for Health (12-0879-SOF-12), National Association of City and County Health Officials, Nemours, New York State Health Foundation (12-01708), Novo Nordisk, ReThink Health, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (70555), and Sanofi. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-39153-5
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-39153-9
Digital Object Identifier: 10.17226/21899

Additional copies of this workshop summary are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http/www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2016 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Metrics that matter for population health action: Workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21899.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Metrics That Matter for Population Health Action: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21899.
×

images

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president.

The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.

The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.

Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Metrics That Matter for Population Health Action: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21899.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Metrics That Matter for Population Health Action: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21899.
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PLANNING COMMITTEE ON METRICS THAT MATTER FOR POPULATION HEALTH ACTION1

GEORGE ISHAM (Co-Chair), Senior Advisor, HealthPartners, and Senior Fellow, HealthPartners Institute for Education and Research

DAVID A. KINDIG (Co-Chair), Professor Emeritus and Emeritus Vice-Chancellor, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health

RAJIV BHATIA, Executive Director, The Civic Engine

MARY LOU GOEKE, Executive Director, United Way of Santa Cruz County

MARTHE GOLD, Visiting Scholar, New York Academy of Medicine, and Emeritus Professor, Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education, City College of New York

THOMAS LaVEIST, William C. and Nancy F. Richardson Professor in Health Policy and Director, Hopkins for Health Disparities Solutions, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

SANNE MAGNAN, President and Chief Executive Officer, Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement

KATHERINE PAPA, Director of Public Health Initiatives, AcademyHealth

PAMELA RUSSO, Senior Program Officer, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

LILA J. FINNEY RUTTEN, Associate Scientific Director, Population Health Science Program, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic

__________________

1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteur and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Metrics That Matter for Population Health Action: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21899.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Metrics That Matter for Population Health Action: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21899.
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ROUNDTABLE ON POPULATION HEALTH IMPROVEMENT1

GEORGE ISHAM (Co-Chair), Senior Advisor, HealthPartners, and Senior Fellow, HealthPartners Institute for Education and Research

DAVID A. KINDIG (Co-Chair), Professor Emeritus and Emeritus Vice-Chancellor, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health

TERRY ALLAN, Health Commissioner, Cuyahoga County Board of Health

CATHERINE BAASE, Global Director of Health Services, The Dow Chemical Company

GILLIAN BARCLAY, former Vice President, Aetna Foundation

RAYMOND J. BAXTER, Senior Vice President, Community Benefit, Research and Health Policy, Kaiser Permanente, and President, Kaiser Permanente International

RAPHAEL BOSTIC, Judith and John Bedrosian Chair in Governance and Public Enterprise, Sol Price School of Public Policy, University of Southern California

DEBBIE I. CHANG, Vice President, Policy and Prevention, Nemours

CHARLES FAZIO, Medical Director, HealthPartners

GEORGE R. FLORES, Program Manager, The California Endowment

JACQUELINE MARTINEZ GARCEL, Vice-President, New York State Health Foundation

ALAN GILBERT, Director, Global Government and NGO Strategy, GE healthymagination

MARY LOU GOEKE, Executive Director, United Way of Santa Cruz County

MARTHE R. GOLD, Visiting Scholar, New York Academy of Medicine, and Emeritus Professor, Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education, City College of New York

GARTH GRAHAM, President, Aetna Foundation

ROBERT HUGHES, President and Chief Executive Officer, Missouri Foundation for Health

ROBERT M. KAPLAN, Chief Science Officer, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

JAMES KNICKMAN, President and Chief Executive Officer, New York State Health Foundation

___________________

1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s forums and roundtables do not issue, review, or approve individual documents. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteur and the institution.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Metrics That Matter for Population Health Action: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21899.
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PAULA LANTZ, Professor and Associate Dean for Research and Policy Engagement, Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, University of Michigan

MICHELLE LARKIN, Assistant Vice President, Health Group, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

THOMAS A. LaVEIST, William C. and Nancy F. Richardson Professor in Health Policy and Director, Hopkins for Health Disparities Solutions, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

JEFFREY LEVI, Executive Director, Trust for America’s Health

SARAH R. LINDE, Rear Admiral, U.S. Public Health Service, Chief Public Health Officer, Health Resources and Services Administration

SANNE MAGNAN, President and Chief Executive Officer, Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement

PHYLLIS D. MEADOWS, Associate Dean for Practice, Office of Public Health Practice, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, and Senior Fellow, Health Program, The Kresge Foundation

BOBBY MILSTEIN, Director, ReThink Health

JUDITH A. MONROE, Director, Office for State, Tribal, Local, and Territorial Support, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

JOSÉ MONTERO, Vice President of Population Health and Health Systems Integration, Cheshire Medical Center/Dartmouth Hitchcock Keene

MARY PITTMAN, President and Chief Executive Officer, Public Health Institute

PAMELA RUSSO, Senior Program Officer, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

LILA J. FINNEY RUTTEN, Associate Scientific Director, Population Health Science Program, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic

BRIAN SAKURADA, Senior Director, Managed Markets and Integrated Health Systems

MARTÍN JOSE SEPÚLVEDA, Fellow and Vice President, Health Industries Research, IBM Corporation

ANDREW WEBBER, Chief Executive Officer, Maine Health Management Coalition

IOM Staff

ALINA BACIU, Study Director

COLIN FINK, Senior Program Assistant

AMY GELLER, Senior Program Officer

LYLA HERNANDEZ, Senior Program Officer

BETTINA RITTER, Research Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Metrics That Matter for Population Health Action: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21899.
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DARLA THOMPSON, Associate Program Officer

ROSE MARIE MARTINEZ, Senior Board Director

Consultant

JOE ALPER, Rapporteur

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Metrics That Matter for Population Health Action: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21899.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Metrics That Matter for Population Health Action: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21899.
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Reviewers

This workshop summary has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published workshop summary as sound as possible and to ensure that the workshop summary meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this workshop summary:

Sarah Burd-Sharps, Social Science Research Council

Dale Fleming, County of San Diego

Moira Inkelas, University of California, Los Angeles

Kristen Lewis, Social Science Research Council

Matt Stiefel, Kaiser Permanente

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the workshop summary before its release. The review of this workshop summary was overseen by Sue Curry, University of Iowa. She was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this workshop summary was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this workshop summary rests entirely with the rapporteur and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Metrics That Matter for Population Health Action: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21899.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Metrics That Matter for Population Health Action: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21899.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Metrics That Matter for Population Health Action: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21899.
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2-8 Heat maps showing measures of public transit, recreation, and quality elementary education

2-9 Injury density per mile in San Francisco

2-10 Bay Area regional indicators for transportation planning

2-11 Regional indicators used to score a proposed transportation project

2-12 Cost–benefit analysis for transportation projects in the San Francisco Bay Area

2-13 A comparison of GDP and GPI illustrates the fact that indicators do not necessarily lead to progress

3-1 The County Health Rankings and Roadmaps action model

3-2 Percentage of 11th grade students who reported feeling “very safe” or “safe” at school

3-3 Gang-related cases and number of gang-related cases by jurisdiction, January to June 2013

3-4 Elements of the population health continuum today

3-5 The desired population health continuum of the future

3-6 Dignity Health’s Community Need Index (CNI) online mapping tool

4-1 Impact of geography on life expectancy

4-2 World Health Organization conceptual model for taking action on the social determinants of health

4-3 Income and disease burden

4-4 All-cause mortality risk for men and women by years of education

4-5 Potential impact of education on mortality

4-6 Health outcomes in Kentucky, 2014

4-7 Age-adjusted mortality rates by race, ethnicity, and gender, 2009

4-8 Age and smoking prevalence by race and ethnicity among men

4-9 Age and smoking prevalence by race and ethnicity among women

4-10 Education and disparities in diabetes, age adjusted

4-11 Education and disparities in self-reported “fair” or “poor” health, age-adjusted

4-12 Income and self-rating of health: “very good” or “excellent” health

4-13 Income and hypertension diagnosis

4-14 African American/White Index of Dissimilarity 2000 and 2010

Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Metrics That Matter for Population Health Action: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21899.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Metrics That Matter for Population Health Action: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21899.
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Acronyms and Abbreviations

ADL

activity of daily living

AHA American Hospital Association
BRFSS

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Surveys

CDC

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

GDP

Gross Domestic Product

GPI Genuine Progress Indicator
HALE

health-adjusted life expectancy

HIPAA Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
HUD U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
IOM Institute of Medicine
IT information technology
NCI

National Cancer Institute

NIDA National Institute on Drug Abuse
PERE

Program for Environmental and Regional Equity at the University of South California

RBA results-based accountability
RWJF Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Metrics That Matter for Population Health Action: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21899.
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SEER

Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results

UCLA

University of California, Los Angeles

WHO

World Health Organization

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Metrics That Matter for Population Health Action: Workshop Summary Get This Book
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In times of rapid change and constrained resources, measures that are important, focused, and reliable are vital. However there is an overabundance of measures available for evaluating various aspects of population health and previous efforts to simplify existing sets to meet the needs of all decision makers have been unsuccessful. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop to explore the status and uses of measures and measurement in the work of improving population health. Participants explored existing and emerging population health metric sets and characteristics of metrics necessary for stakeholder action across multiple sectors. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

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