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38 This chapter identifies and assesses the cost data sources available for the different freight modes. The term âdata sourceâ represents a wide array of materials, from one-time- reports collected using an informal data collection process to sources that are the result of statistically designed, regular data collection processes that guarantee a high standard of quality. Data sources also have different levels of geographic coverage, some local and others national in scope (though in some cases the data can be disaggregated at the local and regional level). Data collection frequency also varies, as some data sources are collected regularly while others are not. There are also significant differences in the level of detail in the freight cost data available for each mode. These differences reflect the varying amounts of research conducted to com- pile the data. Not surprisingly, those modes that have been the subject of sustained research on freight cost estimation (truck, rail) have more highly detailed data cost data available than other modes where little research has been conducted. These differences in quality, coverage, frequency, and detail suggest that caution must be exercised when considering aggregate statistics about the number of data sources avail- able for various modes. The team identified the available sources of freight cost data and assessed their suitability beginning with a comprehensive search of the data sources regularly collected by public- and private-sector organizations, including the following: â¢ Reviews of federal agency websites and online data libraries. â¢ Internet keyword searches. General search terms such as âfreight cost dataâ were used, but in most cases mode-specific searches and cost component searches were performed. â¢ Interviews with individuals from organizations that focus on the various freight modes. Summary tables were then developed that outline the vari- ous data sources available for each mode of freight. The sum- mary tables include the agency or organization that provides the data, description and observations of the data sources, key data words, geographical scope, number of data points, frequency and date of most recent publication, and the web address (URL) needed to access the information. The team found that some data sources are not regularly collected, but still provide good information about the costs for a freight mode, and these are presented as âone-time reportsâ in sepa- rate summary tables. Once the data sources were identified, the team compiled a comprehensive list of cost data elements for each of the freight modes. These cost data elements are the specific costs that help determine the total cost of a freight movement; dif- ferent cost elements might be used depending on the analysis. The tables also separate the cost data elements into several main costs types, including: general, operational, overhead- related, equipment, and labor. The team reviewed the suit- ability of each cost data source to assess their applicability. The metrics used include: â¢ The type of cost data provided in the source. â¢ The level of detail provided. â¢ The reliability of the cost data source: â Are details available on the methodology used to assem- ble the information? â What is the industry coverage? â What is the sample size used? â¢ The geographical coverage of the cost data source. â¢ The age of the cost data source: â What is the most recent year available? â How often are the data updated? â¢ The cost of the cost data source: â Are the cost data available free of charge? â If a charge exists, what is it? This analysis focused mainly on regularly published data sources; however, some one-time reports were included. The data in one-time reports should be used with caution, however, C H A P T E R 5 Identification and Assessment of Data Sources
39 as they may be out-of-date. Also, it is recommended that when using cost data, a review of new data sources should be com- pleted, as future sources could prove beneficial. The summary tables provide an idea of how many data sources provide data about specific cost elements. However, the fact that a cost element is found in a data source does not imply that the source completely fulfills the data needs for that cost element; it only establishes that the source contains some data about the cost data element. The ranking of each data source shown in the summary tables is: â¢ Excellent (Signified by a Black Circle î¤): The data source provides a reliable information source for a particular cost data element. â¢ Medium (Signified by a Half-black Circle î¦): The data source provides useful cost data, but the person using the data should exercise caution to ensure the information is what is needed for the analysis. â¢ Minimal (Signified by a White Circle î³): The data source may provide some insight into a particular data element, but the person using the data may need to obtain more data, either because the cost is an estimate, or because the sample size was small. â¢ Blank: If the cell has been left blank, no data are available for this particular cost element from this data source. The performance of the various data sources was assessed. Each data source was evaluated on the following criteria: (1) data contents, (2) spatial coverage, (3) industry coverage, (4) data collection frequency, (5) data accuracy, (6) cost, and (7) data access. The results were summarized in a multi-criteria matrix for each freight mode, where each cell contains a qual- itative assessment of how the data source scores on each crite- rion. The tables for each mode can be seen in their respective sections of this chapter. 5.1 Assessment of Data Sources for the Various Modes of Freight 5.1.1 Truck Freight Trucking has the most available data sources of any freight mode, though a significant number of these sources are reports produced by trade groups, which only provide a national view. Given that the trucking industry is highly heterogeneous, a need clearly exists for local, regional, and industry-specific cost estimates. Information about data sources for trucking is summarized in Table 5.1. Table 5.2 assesses the suitability of truck freight data sources. Most data sources do not cover all industry sectors, and those that have aggregate coverage by area do not per- form well in terms of spatial coverage. Generally, the sources perform well in terms of data accuracy and accessibility, and they are available at a low cost to users (or no cost, for Inter- net sources). Table 5.3 summarizes the number of cost data elements found in the sources evaluated and the level of detail of the sources for trucking, based on the rankings of the sources in Appendix B. The complete list of the cost data elements found in sources for trucking is presented in Appendix B. No single source provides data for all truck freight cost data elements, but 63% of those elements can be found in at least one of the sources listed. Ancillary-related inputs (48%) and operational inputs (50%) have the lowest percentage of cost data elements found in the sources. Labor-related and equipment-related inputs have the highest percentage of cost data elements found in sources (67% and 71%, respectively). Clearly, some assembling of data from different sources is required in estimating truck freight costs, but the process is further complicated by a lack of information about where to find the specific data needed. 5.1.2 Rail Freight Rail freight is second only to trucking in terms of freight cost data sources available. Data are routinely provided by Class I railroads as part of their annual reports to the Sur- face Transportation Board (STB). As a result, the cost data available for rail freight is of significantly higher quality than what is available for any other freight mode. These R-1 reports contain aggregated financial data for each of the seven Class I railroads found in the United States, but they can also be useful as guides if a cost analysis is needed for a smaller railroad. Table 5.4 shows the available data sources for rail cost data elements, and Table 5.5 assesses their suitability. Table 5.6 summarizes the number of rail cost data elements, and the level of detail found in the sources for rail freight, based on the rankings of the sources in Appendix B. The complete list of the cost data elements found in sources for rail freight is presented in Appendix B. As is the case for trucking, most rail freight data sources perform well in terms of data contents, data accuracy, and industry coverage. Rail freight data sources also perform well in terms of spatial coverage. The costs associated with obtain- ing the data are minimal or free, and accessing the data is gen- erally simple. The coverage of rail freight cost data elements is fairly high compared with that of all other freight modes. Sources provide 87% of the data elements, though no single source provides a comprehensive data set. The quality of the data differs; for some cost elements the data quality is high, while for others it is much less so.
40 5.1.3 Waterborne Freight Fewer sources are available for waterborne freight-specific data compared to trucking and railroads. The U.S. Coast Guard and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) are the two major data sources, and the annual 10-K financial statements filed by public waterway shipping companies are another source. These 10-K reports contain aggregated finan- cial data, but may still be useful for a cost analysis done for a smaller waterway shipper. Table 5.7 lists the available data sources for the water- borne freight cost data elements, and Table 5.8 assesses their suitability. Table 5.9 summarizes the number of cost data elements and the level of detail found in the waterborne freight sources, based on the rankings in in Appendix B. The complete list of the cost data elements found in sources for waterborne freight is presented in Appendix B. In terms of data contents, data accuracy, and industry cov- erage, most of the waterborne freight data sources perform very well. The cost for the data sources is minimal or free, and the data is easily accessed. In terms of data contents, accuracy, and industry cover- age, most waterborne data sources perform very well. Access- ing the data is generally simple, and can be done for free or at low cost. Table 5.1. Summary of data sourcesâtrucking. Data Source / Agency- Organization Description / Observations Key Data Geographical Scope / # of Data Points Frequency URL An Analysis of the Operational Costs of Trucking / ATRI Characteristics of operational costs in trucking are described Operational costs National / 55,700 trucks Yearly http://www.atri- online.org/research/results/ec onomicanalysis/Operational_ Costs_OnePager.pdf An Analysis of the Operational Costs of Trucking. A 2011 update / ATRI Updated version of 2008 report. It describes the characteristics of operational costs in trucking. Operational costs National Yearly http://www.atri- online.org/index.php?option =com_wrapper&view=wrapp er&Itemid=112 American Trucking Trends / ATA Profile of the dynamics shaping the trucking industry. Various trucking trends National Yearly http://www.atabusinesssoluti ons.com/ Black Book / Official Medium and Heavy Duty Truck and Trailer Guide Wholesale values and specific configurations for various classes of trucks and trailers. Fee based, $129 per year. Truck and trailer resale values National / over 3,800 trucks Monthly http://www.blackbookusa.co m Covered Employment & Wages Programs / BLS Number of employers, monthly and average employment and wages. Tables by industry categories. Employment, wages State, MSAs, Counties Quarterly and Yearly http://www.labormarketinfo.c om/qcew/ Employment Statistics / BLS Statistics on occupational employment and wages, labor demand, and turnover. Statistics National, Regional, Urban Monthly http://www.bls.gov/bls/employment.htm Highway Taxes and Fees / DOT Data on fuel taxes and motor vehicles including registration costs by state. Fuel taxes and registrations National, State Yearly http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ohi m/hwytaxes/2008/index.cfm Motor Carrier Annual Report / ATA Tonnage, mileage, employees, and transportation equipment. Operational costs National Yearly http://www.atabusinesssoluti ons.com/ Official Commercial Truck Guide / NADA Guides Resale values of various types of trucks and trailers. Fee based, $120 per year. Truck and trailer resale values National Monthly http://www.nadaappraisalguides.com/ Pay and Benefits / BLS Wages, earnings and benefits of workers. Wages National Yearly http://www.bls.gov/bls/wages .htm
41 Table 5.1. (Continued). Data Source / Agency- Organization Description / Observations Key Data Geographical Scope / # of Data Points Frequency URL Producer Price Index / BLS Average change over time in the selling prices received by domestic producers. Prices index National Quarterly http://www.bls.gov/pPI/ Productivity Statistics / BLS Output per hour of labor and multifactor productivity output per unit of combined inputs. Unit labor costs National Yearly http://www.bls.gov/bls/produ ctivity.htm The U.S. Truck Driver Shortage / ATA * Documentation on long-term issue of driver shortage and low retention rates. Truck drivers National Once (2005) http://www.truckline.com/Sta teIndustry/Documents/ATA DriverShortageStudy05.pdf Transportation Energy Data Book / DOE Statistics and other information that characterize transportation activity and energy use. Fuel mileage National Yearly http://cta.ornl.gov/data/index. shtml Truck Drivers, Heavy & Tractor- Trailer/ DOL Estimates of mean national average pay for truck drivers. Wages National, State, MSAs Yearly http://www.bls.gov/oes/curre nt/oes533032.htm Truck Paper List of new and used trucks of various types, conditions, and ages for sale. Truck & trailer costs National Weekly http://www.truckpaper.com/ Weekly On- Highway Diesel Prices / DOE Retail on-highway diesel prices, including truck stops and service stations. Diesel prices National Weekly http://www.eia.doe.gov/oog/i nfo/wohdp/diesel.asp Notes: BLS: Bureau of Labor Statistics; DOE: Department of Energy; DOL: Department of Labor; ATA: American Trucking Associations; ATRI: American Transportation Research Institute; * One-time report Data source: D at a co nt en ts Sp at ia l c ov er ag e In du str y co v er ag e D at a co lle ct io n fre qu en cy D at a ac cu ra cy Co st D at a ac ce ss An Analysis of the Operational Costs of Trucking An Analysis of the Operational Costs of Trucking Update American Trucking Trends: 2009-2010 Black Book Covered Employment and Wages Employment Statistics Highway Taxes and Fees Motor Carrier Annual Report Summary Tables Official Commercial Truck Guide Pay and Benefits Producer Price Index Productivity Statistics The US Truck Driver Shortage * Transportation Energy Data Book Truck Drivers, Heavy and Tractor-Trailer Truck Paper Weekly On-Highway Diesel Prices Evaluation criteria: Notes: Excellent Medium Minimal * One-time report Table 5.2. Assessment of suitability of data sourcesâtrucking.
42 For waterborne freight, 68% of the cost data elements could be found in the available data sources, though no one source provided a comprehensive set, and the quality of the data was highly uneven. Only 47% of the cost data elements for ancillary inputs were found in at least one source, though greater than 80% of the labor-related and equipment-related inputs cost data elements were found in the sources examined. 5.1.4 Air Cargo Air cargo operations are complex. Cargo can be transported in aircraft ranging from small propeller planes to huge spe- cialty planes, in the bellies of passenger planes, or as part of integrated freight carriers (such as FedEx and UPS). Analyz- ing the data cost elements for air freight was a major chal- lenge because cost data are not available, so the team decided to present a general list of air cargo cost categories based on their knowledge of air cargo and interviews with two lead- ing air cargo managers. As with waterborne freight, air cargo moves using a mix of privately and publicly owned infra- structure. Accordingly, the cost elements include fees and costs for other governmental services, in addition to those associated with equipment and cargo facilities. An initial list of the cost categories is provided in Table 5.10. This research indicates that: â¢ Costs vary by type of aircraft and whether the cargo is being moved in an all-cargo aircraft or as belly cargo. â¢ Costs are calculated by carriers on various bases, such as cost per mile/kilometer, cost per pound/kilo, and cost per container. â¢ Airport fees can be based on either the take-off or landing weight of the aircraft, which can significantly affect the amounts collected. 5.1.5 Freight Terminals Analyzing the freight data cost elements for freight termi- nals was challenging because of the many different configu- rations used to handle the flow of cargo/containers, so the team decided to develop a general typology of the basic pro- cesses that take place at terminals. Regardless of the specifics of how the cargo is handled, or the equipment used, the flow of terminal activities can be delineated as: â¢ Administrative Process for Entry/Exit of Cargo/Vehicles (Entry/Exit Processing, or EP): These are routinely per- formed activities to ensure that the cargo and vehicles entering the terminal have the proper permissions to do so. In the case of marine terminals, for example, there are two sets of processes: one for the land modes (e.g., rail, trucks) and another for the marine side. Intermodal rail terminals also have two sets of processes: one for rail and another for the trucks entering and exiting the ter- minal. In trucking terminals, only one set of processes is used for entry and exit. â¢ Internal Movements (IM): These activities take into account the physical movement of the cargo inside the terminal. Depending on how the yard is set up, the inter- nal movement might be performed with a road tractor, a yard tractor, with straddle carriers, or with other han- dling equipment. However, in all cases, equipment is used to transport the cargo from a gate (or other form of ter- minal entrance) to a storage location, and from there to another location or to the freight mode that will take the cargo out of the terminal. â¢ Loading/Unloading of the Cargo (L/U): This group of activities captures the physical transfer of the cargo when it is loaded/unloaded from one vehicle/mode to another, or to a storage location. Again, there could be many possibili- ties in terms of technologies, such as yard cranes, straddle carriers, and so on. â¢ Sorting/Organization of Storage Areas (S/O): At some point, both short-term and long-term storage areas have to be sorted and reorganized so that cargo can be retrieved and stored efficiently. Depending on the yard technology available at the terminal, yard cranes, straddle carriers, top loaders, or other equipment could be used. â¢ Ancillary Functions (AF): This set of activities repre- sents all of the functions that are needed to ensure proper functioning of the freight terminal, including: security, insurance, administration, electricity, and administrative costs, among others. Excellent Medium Minimal Operational inputs 12 6 50% 5 0 1 Ancillary related inputs 21 10 48% 17 2 Labor related inputs 12 8 67% 14 2 Equipment related inputs 49 35 71% 32 17 23 Total 94 59 63% 68 21 30 Level Number of Cost Data Elements Cost Data Elements Found in Sources % Data Quality 0 6 Table 5.3. Summary of cost data elements found in sourcesâtrucking.
Data Source / Agency- Organization Description / Observations Key Data Geographical Scope / # of Data Points Frequency URL Class I Railroad Annual Report (R1) / STB Railroad industry growth, financial stability, traffic, and operations. Financial data National Yearly http://www.stb.dot.gov/econdata.nsf/f0395 26076cc0f8e8525660b006870c9?OpenVi ew Covered Employment & Wages Programs / BLS Number of employers, monthly and average employment, and wages. Tables by industry categories. Employment, wages State, MSAs, Counties Quarterly and Yearly http://www.labormarketinfo.com/qcew/ National, Regional, Urban Employment Statistics / BLS Statistics on occupational employment and wages, labor demand, and turnover. Statistics Monthly http://www.bls.gov/bls/employment.htm Pay and Benefits / BLS Wages, earnings, and benefits of workers. Wages National Yearly http://www.bls.gov/bls/wages.htm Producer Price Index / BLS Average change over time in the selling prices received by domestic producers. Prices index National Quarterly http://www.bls.gov/pPI/ Productivity Statistics / BLS Output per hour of labor and multifactor productivity output per unit of combined inputs. Unit labor costs National Yearly http://www.bls.gov/bls/productivity.htm Railway Age Articles and advertisements on current railroad practices, labor, and equipment. Railroad costs National Monthly http://www.railwayage.com/ Railway Track and Structures Information up to date from engineering and maintenance-of-way. Track and structures National Monthly http://www.rtands.com/ Transportation Energy Data Book / DOE Statistics and other information that characterize transportation activity and energy use. Fuel mileage National Yearly http://cta.ornl.gov/data/index.shtml Railroad Ten-Year Trends / AARR Economic overview of the US freight railroad industry. Cost data National Yearly http://www.aar.org/NewsAndEvents/Press- Releases/2011/04/27-Trends.aspx Wage Statistics / STB Wage statistics of Class I railroads in the United States. Employees stats National Yearly http://www.stb.dot.gov/econdata.nsf/Wage Statistics?OpenView Railroad Employment / STB Current employment data trends for Class I line-haul railroads. Number of employees National Monthly http://www.stb.dot.gov/econdata.nsf/Empl oymentData?OpenView Study of Railroad Rates: 1985-2007 Latest findings on trends in freight railroad rates. Rail Rates National Once (2009) http://www.stb.dot.gov/stb/industry/1985- 2007RailroadRateStudy.pdf Notes: BLS: Bureau of Labor Statistics; DOE: Department of Energy; STB: Surface Transportation Board; AARR: Association of American Railroads Table 5.4. Summary of data sourcesârail.
44 Figure 5.1 depicts the basic processes and types of technologies/vehicles most typically used in terminals. The basic processes depicted in Figure 5.1 could be tailored to the particular operations of any terminal. They are further illustrated with the following examples. Example 1: An export container arrives at a marine termi- nal to be loaded onto a ship. Assume that, in this particular marine terminal, the container follows this sequence of events: 1. A truck with the container arrives at the gate, where the container is processed for entry. 2. The container is moved by truck to the storage yard, where a yard crane unloads and stacks it. 3. Later, a yard crane retrieves the container from the stack, and places it on top of a yard truck that moves it to the gantry (ship) crane. 4. The gantry crane picks the container from the yard truck and loads it onto the ship. 5. After all containers have been loaded, the ship leaves the port, after the paperwork has been completed and the applicable fees and taxes have been paid. In this example, the various activities performed could be delineated as: 1. EP (entry/exit processing at the gate). 2. IM (internal movement by truck from the gate to the yard). 3. L/U (loading/unloading of the container at the storage yard by a yard crane to the storage yard). 4. L/U (loading/unloading of the container by a yard crane to a yard truck). 5. IM (internal movement of the container by the yard truck from storage yard to the gantry crane. 6. L/U (loading/unloading of the container by the gantry crane to the ship). 7. EP (entry/exit processing of the ship. Data source: D at a co nt en ts Sp at ia l co v er ag e In du str y co v er ag e D at a co lle ct io n fre qu en cy D at a ac cu ra cy Co st D at a ac ce ss Class I Railroad Annual Report (R1) Covered Employment and Wages Employment Statistics Pay and Benefits Producer Price Index Productivity Statistics Railway Age Railway Track and Structures Surface Transportation Board Economic Data Transportation Energy Data Book Study of Railroad Rates: 1985-2007 * Evaluation criteria: Notes: Excellent Medium Minimal * One-time report Railroad Ten-Year Trends Table 5.5. Assessment of suitability of data sourcesârail. Excellent Medium Minimal General 7 7 100% 3 3 9 Operational inputs 26 23 88% 8 19 Ancillary related inputs 35 27 77% 13 28 15 Labor related inputs 10 10 100% 12 12 8 Equipment related inputs 21 19 90% 5 20 12 Total 99 86 87% 41 82 44 Level Number of Cost Data Elements Cost Data Elements Found in Sources % Data Quality 0 Table 5.6. Summary of cost data elements found in sourcesârail.
Data Source / Agency- Organization Description / Observations Key Data Geographical Scope / # of Data Points Frequency URL Covered Employment & Wages Programs / BLS Number of employers, monthly and average employment and wages. Tables by industry categories. Employment, wages State, MSAs, Counties Quarterly and Yearly http://www.labormarketinfo. com/qcew/ National, Regional, Urban Employment Statistics / BLS Statistics on occupational employment and wages, labor demand and turnover. Statistics Monthly http://www.bls.gov/bls/empl oyment.htm Major Marine Shippers 10-K Financial Statements Aggregated cost data for major marine shippers. Financial data National Yearly n/a Pay and Benefits / BLS Wages, earnings, and benefits of workers. Wages National Yearly http://www.bls.gov/bls/wages.htm Producer Price Index / BLS Average change over time in the selling prices received by domestic producers. Prices index National Quarterly http://www.bls.gov/pPI/ Shallow Draft Vessel Operating Costs / USACE Inland vessel operating cost information based on annual surveys from the waterway freight community. Vessel costs National Yearly n/a Waterborne Transportation Lines (Vol. 1) / USACE Summary of the vessel data detailed in the waterborne transportation lines of the United States. General vessel characteristics National Yearly http://www.ndc.iwr.usace.ar my.mil/veslchar/veslchar.ht m Waterborne Transportation Lines (Vol. 3) / USACE Lists the vessel companies and describes each vessel surveyed by different characteristics. Detailed vessel characteristics National Yearly http://www.ndc.iwr.usace.ar my.mil/veslchar/veslchar.ht m Waterways Journal News and actions of organizations that support waterways interests in the United States. Waterborne data National Weekly http://www.waterwaysjourna l.net/index.html WorkBoat Magazine Articles and advertisements on current waterway practices, labor, and equipment. Waterborne data National Monthly http://www.workboat.com/ Notes: BLS: Bureau of Labor Statistics; USACE: US Army Corps of Engineers Table 5.7. Summary of data sourcesâwaterborne.
46 Throughout the entire movement of the containers, over- head costs associated with the ancillary functions (AF) would be accrued. Example 2: A container is unloaded from ship to rail using yard trucks to transfer the containers. In this case, the sequence of moves is: 1. The ship arrives at the port. 2. The gantry crane picks the container from the hatch and loads it onto the yard truck. 3. A yard crane retrieves the container from the yard truck and loads it onto the train. 4. The yard truck comes back to the berth to pick up the next container. 5. The gantry crane picks up the container from the yard truck and loads it onto the ship. 6. After all containers have been loaded onto the train, the ship and train leave the port after the paperwork has been completed and the applicable fees and taxes have been paid. In this example, the various activities performed in this chain of events could be delineated as: 1. EP (entry/exit processing at the port, to make sure the shipâs paperwork is in order). 2. L/U (loading/unloading of the container by the gantry crane from the ship to the yard truck[s]). 3. IM (internal movement by the truck from the berth to the rail track). 4. L/U (loading/unloading of the container at the rail track by a yard crane from yard truck to train). 5. IM (internal movement of the yard truck from the rail track yard to the gantry crane). 6. EP (entry/exit processing of the ship). Throughout the entire movement of the containers, over- head costs associated with the ancillary functions (AF) would be accrued. Other freight terminal configurations could be easily accom- modated within this framework by properly combining the appropriate processes. Using this general classification of basic processes and the cost data sources available for the different types of technolo- gies, an assessment could be performed for the different data sources on intermodal terminals based on the processes that Table 5.8. Assessment of suitability of data sourcesâwaterborne. Data source: D at a co nt en ts Sp at ia l co ve ra ge In du st ry co ve ra ge D at a co lle ct io n fr eq ue nc y D at a ac cu ra cy C os t D at a ac ce ss Covered Employment and Wages Employment Statistics Major Marine Shippers 10-K Financial Statements Pay and Benefits Producer Price Index Shallow Draft Vessel Operating Costs Waterborne Transportation Lines (Volume 1) Waterborne Transportation Lines (Volume 3) Waterways Journal WorkBoat Magazine Evaluation criteria: Notes: Excellent Medium Minimal * One-time report Table 5.9. Summary of cost data elements found in sourcesâwaterborne. Excellent Medium Minimal Operational inputs 5 0 0% 0 0 0 Ancillary related inputs 19 9 47% 8 0 9 Labor related inputs 11 11 100% 7 11 14 Equipment related inputs 24 20 83% 14 17 38 Total 59 40 68% 29 28 61 Level Number of Cost Data Elements Cost Data Elements Found in Sources % Data Quality
47 apply in each case. Unfortunately, the research team found that all of the terminal cost data is proprietary and found no terminal-specific cost data publicly available. It was not pos- sible to conduct an assessment of data sources, as none could be obtained. However, a detailed list of the cost data elements for each of the terminal functions is provided in Appendix B. It should be noted that the mode-specific cost data element assessments could be used for some of the general cost data elements, such as labor, fuel costs, and some equipment. 5.2 Gaps and Limitations in Freight Cost Data Gaps and limitations clearly exist in the freight cost data available to practitioners. By prioritizing the importance of specific data, public agencies can determine which of those gaps and limitations are most critical to address. An ideal data set contains the needed content, collected in a timely manner, so in considering gaps and limitations two main aspects were considered: data content and timeliness. The former refers to the data cost elements included in a given data set, while the latter considers how timely the data are. The individual cost data elements and available data sources evaluated in Section 5.1 were again used as the basis to evaluate data needs and gaps. The tables in the sub- sections below provide the summary results for each freight mode, while Appendix B contains more detailed tables for each mode. The summary tables provide an overview of the data gaps for each freight mode by level of importance and the percentages for each level of importance with and without data gaps. Cost elements identified as âanalyst providedâ are unlikely to be found in any source, as they are company- or sector-specific; so if needed, they should be provided by Le ve l Cost Data Element Observations Crew Fuel Depends on aircraft, length of flight, taxi times Aircraft Leasing Maintenance/Downtime of Frame Maintenance/Downtime of Engines Insurance Container Fees For use of the container Landing Fees On-Airport Drayage Only for belly cargo Loading/Unloading Fees Depends on aircraft and turnaround time Parking Fees Storage/Demurrage Fees On-Airport Building Lease Interplane Fueling Fee Charged by airport Security Cargo Inspection Cargo Handling Data/Transaction Processing Customs/Other Government Fees Depends on origin/destination; type of cargo Cargo Handling Off-Airport Building Lease Cargo Inspection Data/Transaction Processing Freight Forwarder/3PL O ff- A ir po rt Off-Airport: A ir cr a ft Aircraft: C ar go Cargo: A ir po rt Airport: Notes: 1. Costs may be considered on a per mile/kilometer, per kilo basis, or a per revenue ton/kilometer, per container basis. 2. The loading/unloading fee can include a parking fee. 3. Data charges can include documentation and import service charges. 4. On-airport leases can include office space. 5. Fees vary based on whether take-off or landing weight is used as the basis. Table 5.10. Air cargo cost categories.
48 In the evaluation of current and future levels of impor- tance, most cost components are expected to remain the same, except those listed previously, in Table 4.4. Cost data elements that are currently labeled as essential are expected to remain essential in the future; there were no downgrades in level of importance from current to future. Within each table in this section (and in Appendix B), the following symbols have been used to evaluate the current and future levels of importance: â¢ Essential (signified by a black circle î¤): Cost data elements of highest importance. â¢ Important (signified by a half-black circle î¦): Cost data elements that are significant. â¢ Useful (signified by a white circle î³): Cost data elements that would be helpful to have, but not necessary. The following symbols have been used to evaluate data gaps: â¢ Data Gap Exists (Signified by an âXâ): These are cost data elements for which no easily accessible data are available, or the available data sources are out-of-date. â¢ Sufficient Data Available (Signified by a â â): These are cost data elements that can reliably be found in one or more of the identified data sources, and the data is expected to be relatively current. â¢ To Be Provided by Analyst (Signified by a â-â): These are cost data elements in which specifics are based on the ana- lystâs needs, and should be provided on a case-by-case basis. 5.2.1 Truck Freight The trucking category contains 83 unique cost elements, 73.1% of which have data gaps, and 13.4% of these are con- sidered essential (Table 5.11). BASIC PROCESSES 1. Entry/Exit Processing (EP) 2. Internal Movements (IM) 3. Sorting/Organizing (S/O) 4. Loading/Unloading (L/U) Truck Train Ship Truck Train Containers Rail Cars 5. Ancillary Functions (AF) Yard Crane Gantry Crane Top Loader Insurance, land lease, electricity, security, etc. Forklifts Conveyors Trailers Forklift Figure 5.1. Basic processes (terminals). Data Gap (X) No Data Gap ( ) Analyst Provided 9 11 11 31 13.4% 16.4% - 29.9% 18 4 5 27 26.9% 6.0% - 32.8% 22 3 0 25 32.8% 4.5% - 37.3% 49 18 16 83 73.1% 26.9% - 100.0% Total Data Gap Total Le v el o f I m po rt an ce Essential ( ) Important Useful ( ( ) ) Table 5.11. Summary of data gapsâtrucking. the person conducting the analysis. The analyst provided fields are assumed to be available; therefore, they were not included in calculating the data gap percentages. It is also important to note that not all cost analyses will require all of the cost component inputs. For example, in trucking, if the cost analysis is for a single-unit truck using only local roads, then costs associated with tolls and trailers would not be necessary. Also, some of the items that have data gaps, such as permits and tolls, are normally easily accessed if the vehicle configuration and route are known in advance. Appendix B includes tables that show both the current and future levels of importance for the cost elements, data gaps if any, and a remarks section. In Appendix B, the assessment of data gaps is based solely on current availability, because it is impossible to know what data sources will be available in the future, or how reliable they will be. The remarks column explains why the level of importance remains the same or changes between the current and future needs.
49 items that have no data gaps, are shown in Table 5.14. Again, not all cost analyses will need every one of these inputs. The rail freight-related cost data elements that are expected to increase in level of importance in the future include: ancil- lary costs, such as infrastructure costs and maintenance; administrative expenses; and crew safety training. 5.2.3 Waterborne Freight The waterborne freight category contains 59 identified unique cost elements, 72.7% of which have data gaps, with 12.7% of these considered essential components (Table 5.15). The essential and important cost data elements that make up the 12.7% and 21.8% of cost data elements with gaps, as well as the 23.6% of essential items and 0% of impor- tant items that have no data gaps, respectively, are shown in Table 5.16. The waterborne freight-related cost data elements expected to increase in level of importance in the future include: ancil- lary costs related to the companiesâ overhead; crew wages; operational expenses such as wharf, dockage, and terminal charges; safety and training of operators and crew mem- bers; equipment depreciation; and tracking and monitoring equipment. 5.2.4 Air Cargo The research and discussions indicated that, with the pos- sible exception of public-sector fees, air cargo cost informa- tion is not available. This information is considered highly confidential and appears to not be collected, or to be available only through industry associations. As a result, one of the research teamâs recommendations is to: (1) identify what air Permits (trip specific) Driver wages Tolls (trip specific) Purchase costs for power units and trailers Parking costs (including fines) Purchase costs for specialized equipment Driver benefits and bonuses Salvage value of power units and trailers Salvage value of specialized equipment Average service life for power units and trailers Maintenance costs for power units and trailers Fuel and oil costs ($/gallon) Insurance for both power units and trailers Fuel consumption (MPH) Crew benefits and bonuses Crew ($/hour or $/mile) Special aftermarket equipment Specialized equipment (hours of service) Power unit, trailer, and specialized equipment Tires (miles) Sales and Highway use tax Power unit and trailer tires (# of tires) Cellular phone expenses (per month) Vehicle tracking expenses (per month) Level of Importance DATA GAPS NO DATA GAPS Es se nt ia l Im po rt an t Table 5.12. Essential and important cost data elementsâtrucking. Data Gap (X) No Data Gap ( ) Analyst Provided 6 12 32 50 10.0% 20.0% - 30.0% 4 8 6 18 6.7% 13.3% - 20.0% 22 8 0 30 36.7% 13.3% - 50.0% 32 28 38 98 53.3% 46.7% - 100.0% Total Data Gap Total Le v el o f I m po rt an ce Essential () () () Important Useful Table 5.13. Summary of data gapsârail. The 13.4% of essential and 26.9% of important cost data elements that have data gaps, as well as the 16.4% of essen- tial and 6% of important items that have no data gaps, are shown in Table 5.12. The truck freight-related cost data elements that are expected to increase in level of importance in the future include: ancillary-related costs that could be considered overhead costs; driver and crew training and safety costs; taxes, in particular fuel costs; tire costs; and oil consumption. 5.2.2 Rail Freight The rail freight category contains 98 uniquely identified cost elements, of which 53.3% have data gaps, with 10% of these considered essential elements (Table 5.13). The essential and important cost data elements that make up the 10.0% and 6.7% of cost elements with data gaps, respec- tively, as well as the 20.0% of essential and 13.3% of important
50 cargo cost information is most needed by agencies and trans- portation professionals; and (2) investigate mechanisms for obtaining the most critical information, while maintaining the confidentiality of individual company data. 5.2.5 Freight Terminals Another finding from this research was that there are no regularly published data sources that provide sufficient data on freight terminal costs. One possible source that could be used to give an idea of upper bound costs are the tariffs pub- lished by specific ports and terminals. Depending on volume, a terminal may offer discounts on its tariffs. Because each Table 5.15. Summary of data gapsâwaterborne. Data Gap (X) No Data Gap ( ) Analyst Provided 7 13 2 22 12.7% 23.6% - 36.4% 12 0 2 14 21.8% 0.0% - 21.8% 21 2 0 23 38.2% 3.6% - 41.8% 40 15 4 59 72.7% 27.3% - 100.0% Total Data Gap Total Le v el o f I m po rt an ce Essential () () () Important Useful Table 5.16. Essential and important cost data elementsâwaterborne. Wages for operators and crew Number of operators and crew per vessel Benefits for operators and crew Number of towing vessels and barges Average maintenance costs for towing vessels Average purchase cost for towing vessels and barges Average maintenance costs for towing barges Estimated salvage value for towing vessels and barges Insurance for equipment Average service life for towing vessels and barges Lock charges Fuel and oil cost ($/gallon) Licenses for operation of equipment Fuel consumption (miles/gallon) Wharf / dockage and steam ship charges Terminal charges Crew ($/hour) Crew benefits and bonuses Overhead Towing vessels and barges purchase payment Towing vessels and barges (hours) Towing vessels and barges depreciation Equipment tracking expenses (per month) Level of Importance DATA GAPS NO DATA GAPS E ss en tia l Im po rt an t Average maintenance costs of locomotives Wages for engineers and crew Average maintenance costs of rolling stock Benefits and bonuses for engineers and crew Estimated salvage value of locomotives Average service life of locomotives Estimated salvage value of rolling stock Average service life of rolling stock Insurance costs for locomotives Average purchase costs for locomotives Insurance costs for rolling stock Average purchase costs for rolling stock Fuel and oil costs ($/gallon) Fuel consumption (gallons) Communication costs Locomotive lease/payment Administration staff and other workers Rolling stock lease/payment Administration staff ($/hour) Oil (gallons) Other workers ($/hour) Administration staff benefits and bonuses Other workers benefits and bonuses Locomotive and rolling stock depreciation Level of Importance DATA GAPS NO DATA GAPS Es se nt ia l Im po rt an t Table 5.14. Essential and important cost data elementsârail.
51 Table 5.17. Summary of data gapsâterminals. Data Gap (X) No Data Gap ( ) Analyst Provided 13 8 39 60 17.6% 10.8% - 28.4% 35 3 6 44 47.3% 4.1% - 51.4% 15 0 0 15 20.3% 0.0% - 20.3% 63 11 45 119 85.1% 14.9% - 100.0% Total Data Gap Total Le v el o f I m po rt an ce Essential () () () Important Useful terminal has its own tariffs, these data were not included in the evaluation of the cost data sources; however, they can normally be found on the terminalâs website or by a simple Internet search. Given that most terminals have unique characteristics, it is no surprise that this area has the most cost data elements that must be provided by the analyst. Of the categoryâs 119 unique cost elements, 85.1% have data gaps, and 17.6% of these are considered essential elements (see Table 5.17). As with air cargo, detailed cost data for terminals is rare. This lack of published data is unsurprising, given that most terminals are privately owned and operated; however, future studies should be undertaken to bridge this data gap.