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Suggested Citation:"Glossary ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Airport Emergency Post-Event Recovery Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22151.
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Suggested Citation:"Glossary ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Airport Emergency Post-Event Recovery Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22151.
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Suggested Citation:"Glossary ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Airport Emergency Post-Event Recovery Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22151.
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Suggested Citation:"Glossary ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Airport Emergency Post-Event Recovery Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22151.
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Suggested Citation:"Glossary ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Airport Emergency Post-Event Recovery Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22151.
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51 Advisory Circular—Instructions from the FAA on how to comply with federal aviation laws and regulations. After-action review—A review, usually internal, conducted after response and recovery from an incident are complete, for the purpose of evaluating performance and fine-tuning plans and pro- cedures for future incidents. Air operations area—Any area of the airport used or intended to be used for the landing, takeoff, or surface maneuvering of aircraft. Air traffic control—The process by which aircraft are safely separated in the sky as they fly and at the airports where they land and take off. Air traffic control tower—A tower at an airfield from which air traffic is controlled by radio and observed physically and by radar. Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting—Specialized fire fighters, rescuers, procedures, and equipment to deal with aircraft accidents at an airport. Airport Community Emergency Response Team—A Community Emergency Response Team (see entry below) that is specially trained to assist in defined functions at the airport to which it is attached. Airport emergency plan—A comprehensive plan for dealing with all hazards reasonably expected to affect a given airport, required for all Part 139 airports and recommended for all other airports. Airport-to-airport mutual aid—A voluntary program that coordinates airports to provide assistance in the form of skilled airport workers, equipment, and supplies to an airport that has been impacted by a natural disaster and that requests aid. All-hazards—An adjective describing the full range of potential threats—natural and man-made disasters, pandemics, industrial accidents, etc. Bench depth—Extent to which trained and qualified persons are available for shift rotations, as in a command post or emergency operations center; may include external partners as well as own staff. Business continuity planning—Process of developing advance arrangements and procedures that enable an organization to respond to an event in such a manner that critical business functions continue with planned levels of interruption or essential change. Catastrophe—A disaster that creates needs that exceed all ability to respond. Colorado Aviation Response Support Team—A voluntary airport-to-airport mutual aid group in Colorado where airport managers who have experienced crashes and recovery assist airports or communities impacted by a crash. Command and control—The exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of the mission through an arrangement of personnel, equipment, communications, facilities, and procedures employed by a commander in planning, directing, coordinating, and controlling forces and operations in the accomplishment of goals and objectives. GLOSSARY

52 Common operating picture—A common operating picture is an online graphic representation of an event, scene, location, or situation that can enhance coordination and collaboration and increase efficiency among all stakeholders during emergency responses and recovery operations as well as day-to-day operations. Geographic information systems, sensors, cameras, and wireless devices can be integrated into it. Community Emergency Response Team—A key component of Citizen Corps, this program trains citizens to be better prepared to respond to emergency situations in their communities. When emergencies occur, team members can provide critical support to first responders, provide imme- diate assistance to victims, and organize volunteers at a disaster site. Continuity of business practices—Practices that provide focus and guidance for the decisions and actions necessary for a business to prevent, mitigate, prepare for, respond to, resume, recover, restore, and transition from a disruptive event in a manner consistent with its strategic objectives. Continuity of operations—An effort within an organization to ensure that its primary mission-essential functions continue during a wide range of emergencies, including localized acts of nature, accidents, and technological or attack-related emergencies. Critical Incident Stress Debriefing—A specific, seven-phase, small group, supportive crisis interven- tion process that is one of the many crisis intervention techniques included under the umbrella of a Critical Incident Stress Management program. Critical Incident Stress Management—An integrated program to anticipate, prevent, reduce, and otherwise address mental and emotional consequences from a traumatic incident. Departmental operations center—The operations center that supervises normal operations, emergency operations, or both for a department of a larger organization. Disaster—An occurrence of a natural catastrophe, technological accident, or human-caused event that has resulted in severe property damage, multiple injuries, and/or deaths. Disaster operations group—A voluntary group of airports that provide coordinated assistance in the form of skilled airport workers, equipment, and supplies to an airport that has been impacted by a natural disaster and that requests aid. SEADOG and WESTDOG are the two disaster operations. groups formed thus far in the U.S. Drill—A coordinated, supervised activity usually used to test a single specific operation or function in a single agency. Emergency—Any occasion or instance that warrants action to save lives and protect property, public health, and safety. Emergency management—The coordination and integration of all activities necessary to build, sus- tain, and improve the capabilities to prepare for, respond to, recover from, or mitigate threatened or actual disasters or emergencies, regardless of cause. Emergency operations center (EOC)—A protected site from which emergency officials coordinate, monitor, and direct response activities during an emergency. Exercise—A planned, staged implementation of the critical incident plan to evaluate processes that work and identify those needing improvement. Full recovery—The stage at which the prescribed safety and security standards have been regained and the airport’s capacity for aircraft operations has been restored to the level that existed before the incident.

53 General aviation airport—An airport that does not meet the criteria for classification as a commercial service airport may be included in the NPIAS as a general aviation airport if it accounts for enough activity (having usually at least 10 locally-based aircraft) and is at least 20 miles from the nearest NPIAS airport. Human resources—The personnel of a business or organization, especially when regarded as a significant asset; also the department of a business or organization that deals with the hiring, administration, and training of personnel. Incident—An occurrence or event, natural or manmade, that requires a response to protect life or property. Incident action plan—An organized course of events that addresses all phases of incident control within a specified time. An incident action plan is necessary to effect successful outcomes in any situation, especially emergency operations, in a timely manner. Incident command post—The physical location of the Incident Commander. Incident Command System—A standardized organizational structure used to command, con- trol, and coordinate the use of resources and personnel that have responded to the scene of an emergency. Incident Commander—The individual responsible for all incident activities, including development of strategies and tactics and the ordering and release of resources. Incident Management Team—An Incident Commander and the appropriate command and general staff personnel assigned to an incident; the level of training and experience of team members, coupled with the identified formal response requirements and responsibilities of the team, are factors in determining its “type,” or level. Interoperability—The ability of systems, personnel, and equipment to provide and receive functionality, data, information, and/or services to and from other systems, personnel, and equipment, between both public and private agencies, departments, and other organizations, in a manner enabling them to operate effectively together. Irregular operations—Those actions taken to adjust for and recover from the impacts of disrupted airline schedules such as aircraft accidents, security incidents, crew absences, mechanical failures, and severe weather. Large hub airport—An airport with at least 1% of total U.S. passenger enplanements. Mass care—Actions taken to protect evacuees and other disaster victims from the effects of a disaster. Medium-hub airport—An airport with between 0.25 percent and 1% of total U.S. passenger enplanements. Mutual aid—Reciprocal assistance by emergency services under a predetermined plan. Mutual aid agreement—A voluntary, non-contractual arrangement to provide emergency or disaster assistance between two or more entities. It typically does not involve payment, reimbursement, liability, or mandatory responses. National Incident Management System (NIMS)—A systematic, proactive approach guiding govern- ment agencies at all levels, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations to prepare for, prevent, respond to, recover from, and mitigate the effects of incidents, regardless of cause, size, location, or complexity, in order to reduce the loss of life and property and reduce harm to the environment.

54 National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems (NPIAS)—A national airport plan prepared by the FAA in accordance with Section 47103 of Title 49 of the United States Code; NPIAS includes primary and commercial service airports and selected general aviation airports as well as all general avia- tion airports designated as reliever airports by the FAA. Navigation aid—Any visual or electronic device airborne or on the surface which provides point-to- point guidance information or position data to aircraft in flight. Non-hub primary airport—An airport that enplanes less than 0.05% of all commercial passenger enplanements but has more than 10,000 annual enplanements. Notice to Airmen—A notice or advisory distributed by means of telecommunication containing information concerning the establishment, conditions, or change in any aeronautical facility, ser- vice, procedure, or hazard, the timely knowledge of which is essential to personnel and systems concerned with flight operations. Operations and maintenance—All the services required to assure that the built environment will perform the functions for which a facility was designed and constructed. Part 139 airport—An airport that serves scheduled and unscheduled air carrier aircraft with more than 30 seats, serves scheduled air carrier operations in aircraft with more than nine seats but less than 31 seats, and is required by the FAA Administrator to have a certificate for operation. Phased recovery—Recovery that involves resuming some types of operations or operations at part of a facility. Primary airport—Public airports receiving scheduled passenger service and having more than 10,000 annual passenger enplanements. Public information officer—The person responsible for communicating with the public, media, and/ or coordinating with other agencies, as necessary, with incident-related information requirements. Reliever airports—A high-capacity general aviation airport in a major metropolitan area; such airports must have 100 or more based aircraft or 25,000 annual itinerant operations; the FAA officially designates reliever airports. Risk analysis—The systematic objective examination or reexamination of the risks and hazards that may affect a facility, program, operation, or procedure. Safety management system—The formal, top-down business approach to managing safety risk, which includes a systemic approach to managing safety, including the necessary organizational structures, accountabilities, policies, and procedures. Small hub airport—An airport with 0.05% to 0.25% of total U.S. passenger enplanements. Southeast Airports Disaster Operations Group (SEADOG)—The airport-to-airport mutual aid group made up of airports generally in the area from Washington, D.C., to Texas. It sends qualified volunteers to fill needs as requested by airports impacted by natural disasters. Stafford Act—The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (Public Law 93-288) as amended is the statutory authority for most federal disaster response activities, including reimbursement, as they pertain to FEMA and FEMA programs. Tabletop exercise—An activity that involves key personnel discussing simulated scenarios in an informal setting. This type of exercise can be used to assess plans, policies, and procedures; or to assess the systems needed to guide the prevention of, response to, and recovery from a defined

55 incident. Tabletop exercises are typically aimed at facilitating understanding of concepts, identify- ing strengths and shortfalls, and generating positive changes in attitude. Participants are encour- aged to discuss issues in depth and develop solutions through slow-paced problem solving as opposed to the rapid, spontaneous decision-making that occurs under actual or simulated emer- gency conditions. Terminal incident response plan—A detailed plan to guide the evacuation or sheltering-in-place of customers, other responses, and repopulation in an airport terminal consequent to a disruptive incident. Unified Command—The Unified Command organization operating within NIMS consists of the Incident Commanders from the various jurisdictions or organizations operating together to form a single command structure. Warm start—Planning and preparation for the next phase (e.g., recovery) that begins while the pre- ceding phase (e.g., response) is still underway. Western Airports Disaster Operations Group (WESTDOG)—The airport-to-airport mutual aid group made up of airports generally in the area from Denver west to the Pacific. It sends qualified volunteers to fill needs as requested by airports impacted by natural disasters. Whole Community Approach—A means by which residents, emergency management practitioners, organizational and community leaders, and government officials can collectively understand and assess the needs of their respective communities and determine the most effective ways to organize and strengthen their assets, capacities, and interests. By doing so, a more effective path to societal security and resilience is built. In a sense, “whole community” is a philosophical approach to thinking about conducting emergency management.

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 60: Airport Emergency Post-Event Recovery Practices explores approaches to improving the overall resiliency of airports through planning for the recovery phase of emergency response.

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