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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2015 www.TRB.org The Second S T R A T E G I C H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M REPORT S2-S06-RW-1 Naturalistic Driving Study: Technical Coordination and Quality Control Thomas a. Dingus JonaThan m. hankey JonaThan F. anTin suzanne e. Lee Lisa eicheLberger keLLy e. sTuLce Doug mcgraw migueL Perez Loren sTowe Virginia Tech Transportation Institute Blacksburg, Virginia
Subject Areas Data and Information Technology Highways Operations and Traffic Management Safety and Human Factors Vehicles and Equipment
SHRP 2 Reports Available by subscription and through the TRB online bookstore: www.TRB.org/bookstore Contact the TRB Business Office: 202-334-3213 More information about SHRP 2: www.TRB.org/SHRP2 SHRP 2 Report S2-S06-RW-1 ISBN: 978-0-309-27401-2 Â© 2015 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Copyright Information Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copy- right to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. The second Strategic Highway Research Program grants permission to repro- duce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, or FHWA endorsement of a particular prod- uct, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing material in this document for educational and not-for-profit purposes will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from SHRP 2. Note: SHRP 2 report numbers convey the program, focus area, project number, and publication format. Report numbers ending in âwâ are published as web documents only. Notice The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the second Strategic Highway Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical committee and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the second Strategic Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. The Second Strategic Highway Research Program Americaâs highway system is critical to meeting the mobility and economic needs of local communities, regions, and the nation. Developments in research and technologyâsuch as advanced materials, communications technology, new data collection tech- nologies, and human factors scienceâoffer a new opportunity to improve the safety and reliability of this important national resource. Breakthrough resolution of significant transportation problems, however, requires concentrated resources over a short time frame. Reflecting this need, the second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2) has an intense, large-scale focus, integrates multiple fields of research and technology, and is fundamentally different from the broad, mission-oriented, discipline-based research programs that have been the mainstay of the highway research industry for half a century. The need for SHRP 2 was identified in TRB Special Report 260: Strategic Highway Research: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life, published in 2001 and based on a study sponsored by Congress through the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21). SHRP 2, modeled after the first Strategic Highway Research Program, is a focused, time- constrained, management-driven program designed to com- plement existing highway research programs. SHRP 2 focuses on applied research in four areas: Safety, to prevent or reduce the severity of highway crashes by understanding driver behavior; Renewal, to address the aging infrastructure through rapid design and construction methods that cause minimal disruptions and produce lasting facilities; Reliability, to reduce congestion through incident reduction, management, response, and mitigation; and Capacity, to integrate mobility, economic, environmental, and community needs in the planning and designing of new trans- portation capacity. SHRP 2 was authorized in August 2005 as part of the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU). The program is managed by the Transportation Research Board (TRB) on behalf of the National Research Council (NRC). SHRP 2 is conducted under a memo- randum of understanding among the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), and the National Academy of Sciences, parent organization of TRB and NRC. The program provides for competitive, merit-based selection of research contractors; independent research project oversight; and dissemination of research results.
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. C. D. (Dan) Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academyâs purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. (Dan) Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisci- plinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transporta- tion, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org
SHRP 2 STAFF Ann M. Brach, Director Stephen J. Andrle, Deputy Director Cynthia Allen, Editor Kenneth Campbell, Chief Program Officer, Safety Jared Cazel, Editorial Assistant JoAnn Coleman, Senior Program Assistant, Capacity and Reliability Eduardo Cusicanqui, Financial Officer Richard Deering, Special Consultant, Safety Data Phase 1 Planning Shantia Douglas, Senior Financial Assistant Charles Fay, Senior Program Officer, Safety Carol Ford, Senior Program Assistant, Renewal and Safety James Hedlund, Special Consultant, Safety Coordination Alyssa Hernandez, Reports Coordinator Ralph Hessian, Special Consultant, Capacity and Reliability Andy Horosko, Special Consultant, Safety Field Data Collection William Hyman, Senior Program Officer, Reliability Linda Mason, Communications Officer David Plazak, Senior Program Officer, Capacity and Reliability Rachel Taylor, Senior Editorial Assistant Dean Trackman, Managing Editor Connie Woldu, Administrative Coordinator ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration in co- operation with the American Association of State Highway and Trans- portation Officials. It was conducted in the second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2), which is administered by the Transporta- tion Research Board of the National Academies. The project was man- aged by Kenneth L. Campbell, SHRP 2 Chief Program Officer, Safety. The research reported in this document was performed under SHRP 2 Project S06: Technical Coordination and Quality Control, by the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI) at Virginia Poly- technic Institute and State University. VTTI was the prime contractor for this study. Thomas Dingus, Director of VTTI, served as principal investiga- tor for this study. Jonathan M. Hankey, Senior Associate Director for Research and Development at VTTI, served as associate princi- pal investigator and as VTTIâs chief liaison with project sponsors and advisory boards. Jon Antin, Director of VTTIâs Center for Vulner- able Road User Safety, served as the studyâs co-principal investigator and coordinator of VTTIâs day-to-day study operations. Suzanne Lee, Director of Research Compliance and Data Access at VTTI, guided the study activities in support of the protection of human subjects and actively maintained the privacy of the data generated. SHRP 2 staff provided invaluable leadership and guidance. VTTI appreciates and acknowledges the following: Ann M. Brach, Direc- tor, SHRP 2; Kenneth L. Campbell, Chief Program Officer for Safety Research; James H. Hedlund, Special Consultant for Safety Coordi- nation; Andrew T. Horosko, Special Consultant for Safety Research; Walter J. Diewald, Senior Program Officer for Safety Research; and Charles R. Fay, Senior Program Officer for Safety Research. Collec- tively, their leadership has contributed to a stronger, more balanced research project, the results of which will yield invaluable information to the transportation research community for years to come. Several others at VTTI contributed throughout the course of the SHRP 2 Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) and with the preparation of this report. Special acknowledgment is extended to Elizabeth G. Eichelberger, Project Coordinator for the SHRP 2 NDS; Kelly E. Stulce, Project Assistant; Loren Stowe, Senior Research Associate; Doug McGraw, Senior Database Administrator; Clark Gaylord, Chief Information Officer; and Miguel Perez, Director of the Center for Data Reduction and Analysis Support. Additional Virginia Tech and Coordination Contractor staff pro- vided valuable contributions to support the NDS study. The technical expertise of the following individuals provided a strong foundation for accomplishing a naturalistic study of this magnitude. While this is not an exhaustive list of the individuals responsible for supporting the study, the key contributors listed here each played a significant role: Andrew Petersen, Craig Bucher, Brian Leeson, Carl Cospel, M. Jared Bryson, Julie Jermeland, Fang Huang, David Mellichamp, Jeff Taylor, Scott Aust, Hardware Electronics Laboratory staff; Jeff Baxter, Chad Graham, Robert Schnitz, Phil Lambert, Sally Waldon, Brian Daily, Tracy McElroy, Jonathan Barry, Ryan Johnson, Richard Zimmerman, Dean Iverson, Sondra Iverson, Zeb Bowden, Julie McClafferty, Brunilda Swannell, Data Reduction and Quality Assessment staff; Deborah Boles, Mary W. Hodge, Mikki Huff, Jennifer Coe, Jessamine Kane-Wisely, April Gray, Michael Buckley, Vikki Fitchett, Brian Wotring, Whitney Atkins, Tyler Lewis, Nelson Gunter, John Paul Plummer, Nicholas Britten, Julie Cook, Melissa Hulse, Jeremy Sudweeks, Kim Shelton, Shane McLaughlin, Kitty Boone, Randall Madison, Devi Mishra, Joel Kady, Michael Mollenhauer, Tammy Russell, Carri Behal, Scott Stone,
Alex Bier, Jon Lillestolen, Jean Paul Talledo-Villela, Steve Bears, Matthew Moeller, Matt Perez, Reginald Bryson, Andrew Karpa, Kenny Smith, Travis Graham, Travis Doerzaph, Greg Brown, Pascha Gerni, Catherine Strickland, David Moore, Kathy C. Smith, Terry Grubb, and Susan Willis-Walton. Site contractor liaisons, assessment personnel, and installation staff also warrant special recognition. Their cooperation and com- mitment to following the NDS study protocols contributed greatly to the successful data collection effort. This listing is in no way exhaus- tive but recognizes those individuals whose daily efforts served to preserve the integrity of the data collection activities: â¢ From CUBRC: Alan Blatt, John Pierowicz, Maile Miller, Robert Bilz, Jason Pelz, and the remaining intake, assessment, and installation staff; â¢ From University of South Florida: Pei-Sung Lin, Achilleas Kourtellis, Chanyoung Lee, Matthew Wafford, Matthew Wills, and the remain- ing intake, assessment, and installation staff; â¢ From Battelle Memorial Institute: Christian Richard, Jim Brown, Monica Lichty, David Gold, and the remaining intake, assessment, and installation staff; â¢ From Westat: James Jenness, Martha Wilaby, Melanie Moore, Rick Huey, Brian Clark, Jon Hinrichs, and the remaining intake, assessment, and installation staff; â¢ From Indiana University: David Good, Nora Czar, Michelle Hoover, Alex Alexeev, and the remaining intake, assessment, and installation staff; and â¢ From Pennsylvania State University: Paul Jovanis, Phil Garvey, Betsy Jeschke, Robin Tallon, Zolton Rado, Billy Johns, and the remaining intake, assessment, and installation staff.
This report describes the technical coordination and quality control carried out by the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI) for the SHRP 2 Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS). This project encompassed procurement of the data acquisition system (DAS) and all associated installation and driver assessment equipment; coordination of human subjects protections; participant recruitment; training and coordination of the six site contractors that carried out participant enrollment, instrumentation, and data retrieval; data management; data process- ing; and quality control. From October 2010 through November 2013, the study collected continuous driving information on more than 3,000 light-vehicle drivers, covering about 50 million miles of driving in the six study sites. In this report, potential users of the SHRP 2 NDS data or findings will find a summary of data collection methods and procedures, instrumentation, quality control, and project management. The objective of the SHRP 2 NDS is to reduce traffic injuries and fatalities by preventing colli- sions or reducing the severity of them. The SHRP 2 NDS is the first large-scale study focused on collision prevention (as opposed to injury prevention once a collision occurs) since the Indiana Tri-Level Study (Tri-Level Study of the Causes of Traffic Accidents: Final Report, DOT HS-805 085, U.S. Department of Transportation, May 1979). Vehicle use was recorded con- tinuously during the SHRP 2 NDS. Information on vehicle travel, or exposure, can be extracted at the same level of detail as for safety-related events, such as crashes and near crashes. Hence, the SHRP 2 NDS is the first large-scale study to support detailed estimates of collision risk. Moreover, crashes are a leading cause of nonrecurring congestion, so collision prevention has added benefits in terms of reduced delay, fuel consumption, and emissions. The NDS provides objective information on the role of driver behavior and performance in traffic collisions and on the interrelationship of the driver with vehicle, roadway, and environmental factors. The SHRP 2 Safety research program was carried out under the guidance of the Safety Tech- nical Coordinating Committee (TCC), which was composed of volunteer experts. The Safety TCC developed and approved all project descriptions and budgets and met semiannually to review progress and approve any program modifications. The Oversight Committee approved all budget allocations and contract awards. Assistance was provided by expert task groups, which developed requests for proposals, evaluated proposals and recommended contractors, and provided guidance on many issues, such as data access policies and procedures. The deci- sions and recommendations of the governing committees were implemented by SHRP 2 staff as they carried out day-to-day management of the research projects. F O R EWO R D Kenneth L. Campbell, SHRP 2 Chief Program Officer, Safety
C O N T E N T S 1 Executive Summary 1 Introduction 4 Data Collection Site Facilitation 6 Reports 7 Data Ingestion and Protections 10 Study Metrics by Site 11 Participant-Related Outcomes 11 Vehicle-Related Outcomes 12 Crashes 13 Cell Phone Records Study 14 Conclusions 15 Lessons Learned 16 CHAPTER 1 Background and Objectives 16 Background 16 Objectives of the Technical Coordination and Quality Control Project 21 Visualization of Project and Report Layout 22 CHAPTER 2 Study Preparations 22 Human Subjects Protections 24 DAS Design and Procurement 27 Data Collection Site Facilitation 38 Administrative Tools and Processes 40 CHAPTER 3 Data Collection Phase 40 Human Subjects Protections 41 DAS Design Updates and Procurement 42 Coordination Contractor Facilitation of Site Contractor Activities 45 Recruiting Processes 50 Administrative Tools and Processes 60 CHAPTER 4 Data Management and Processing 60 Data Collection/Ingestion Process 60 Data Protections 62 Data Quality Processes 68 CHAPTER 5 Cell Phone Records Integration Study 70 CHAPTER 6 Outcomes 70 Human Subjects Protections 70 DAS Design and Procurement 71 Study Metrics by Site 72 Participant-Related Outcomes 73 Vehicle-Related Outcomes
74 Vehicle-Years and Primary Participants by Site 74 Request Tracker Summary Statistics 76 Clock Drawing Outcomes 78 Crashes 79 CHAPTER 7 Lessons Learned 79 Human Subjects Protections 81 Equipment Issues 83 Site-Based Facilitation 84 Participant Management 87 CHAPTER 8 Study Summary and Future Research Implications 87 Summary 88 Future Research Implications 89 References 90 Appendix A. Assessment Protocols 107 Appendix B. Sleep Questionnaire 135 Appendix C. Perception of Risk and Frequency of Risky Behavior Questionnaires 146 Appendix D. Barkleyâs ADHD Quick Screen Questionnaire 147 Appendix E. Sensation Seeking Scale Questionnaire 151 Appendix F. Driving Knowledge Questionnaire 154 Appendix G. Medical Conditions and Medications Survey and Medical Conditions and Medications Exit Survey 198 Appendix H. Modified Manchester Driver Behavior Questionnaire 200 Appendix I. Crash Interview 293 Appendix J. Primary Driver Consent Form 303 Appendix K. Secondary Driver Consent Form 310 Appendix L. Participant Information Sheet 311 Appendix M. Minor (Teen) Participant Information Sheet 313 Appendix N. Minor Assent Form 323 Appendix O. Parental Consent Form 333 Appendix P. Site Readiness Checklist 337 Appendix Q. Original Eligible Vehicle List 339 Appendix R. Final Eligible Vehicle List 346 Appendix S. Summary of Amendments 347 Appendix T. SHRP 2 Vehicle Fleet by Original Equipment Manufacturer 348 Appendix U. Description of RT Queues 350 Appendix V. Driver Demographics Questionnaire 357 Appendix W. Driving History Questionnaire 364 Appendix X. Exit Survey