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Training of Traffic Incident Responders (2012)

Chapter: Chapter 2 - Research Approach

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Research Approach." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Training of Traffic Incident Responders. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22810.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Research Approach." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Training of Traffic Incident Responders. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22810.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Research Approach." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Training of Traffic Incident Responders. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22810.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Research Approach." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Training of Traffic Incident Responders. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22810.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Research Approach." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Training of Traffic Incident Responders. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22810.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Research Approach." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Training of Traffic Incident Responders. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22810.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Research Approach." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Training of Traffic Incident Responders. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22810.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Research Approach." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Training of Traffic Incident Responders. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22810.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Research Approach." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Training of Traffic Incident Responders. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22810.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Research Approach." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Training of Traffic Incident Responders. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22810.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Research Approach." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Training of Traffic Incident Responders. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22810.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Research Approach." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Training of Traffic Incident Responders. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22810.
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4Research Approach The research approach designed for the development and testing of the SHRP 2 L12 traffic incident responder training was predicated on one primary objective: the involvement of field practitioners representing all traffic incident response stakeholder groups. The rationale for stakeholder group involvement was to ensure that • Course materials and content are relevant and beneficial to field practitioners; • The viewpoints and needs of multiple stakeholder groups are identified and incorporated into course materials; and • Stakeholders are involved in the development, testing, and verification of course materials on an iterative basis. An overview of the research approach, which demonstrates how this objective was achieved, is shown in Figure 2.1. The research approach used to develop the core competen- cies and the training curriculum and materials employed more than 100 subject-matter experts (SMEs) across six TIM discipline areas: • Law enforcement; • Fire and rescue; • EMS; • Towing and recovery; • Transportation and service patrol; and • Notification and dispatch: 44 Public safety answering point; 44 Traffic management center; and 44 Traffic operations center. Nearly 40 TIM SMEs across each of the six disciplines (six to eight SMEs from each discipline) collaboratively identified a list of responder actions in each of the major TIM phases (e.g., notification and arrival). These SMEs, who were nomi- nated by FHWA and NTIMC, then identified which of these actions other on-scene responders from other TIM disci- plines should either know how to perform or be aware of to facilitate safe, quick clearance. A smaller multidisciplinary group of these TIM SMEs exam- ined the responder actions nominated by each discipline- specific group of SMEs and identified which of these should be core competencies—competencies that all responders should know how to perform on-scene (primary) or with which they should at least be familiar (secondary) to facilitate safe, quick clearance on-scene. The draft training design document, list of core competencies, curriculum, and training materials incor- porated the identified primary and secondary competencies. These materials were distributed for the full group of TIM SMEs to review. An additional group of TIM SMEs nominated by FHWA to serve as independent evaluators (not affiliated with the 40 SMEs who developed the responder actions and core competencies) further reviewed the materials. The inde- pendent evaluation panel included TIM experts from FHWA, law enforcement (Indiana and New York), and transportation agencies (Maryland, Georgia, and North Carolina). More than 80 TIM SMEs then reviewed the competencies, curriculum, and training materials through the delivery of two pilot training sessions; they provided comments, further strengthened the materials, and further refined the proposed national core competencies. The independent evaluation panel also observed the two pilot training sessions and participated in two post-training workshops to provide comments, review training materials, and suggest revisions to the training materials and course structure in a synthesis review session. These changes were incorporated into the draft final materials. Responder Actions and Core Competencies As the starting point for identifying responder actions, a preliminary list of responder actions for representative incident scenarios was developed through a comprehensive C h A p t e R 2 Research Approach

5Figure 2.1. Overview of research approach for project.

6for a disabled vehicle may be dramatically different from how this action may be implemented for an incident involving fatalities. • A number of on-scene responder actions are unique to a specific incident type. For example, providing medical care will be required at an injury crash but may not be required at a disabled vehicle incident scene. Primary core competencies were defined as those shared or similar actions typically taken at each incident type by at least three on-scene responder groups. Every incident responder active in that incident management phase—regardless of responder type—should know how to implement these core competencies. For example, using emergency responder vehi- cles to create a safe work area at the incident scene and wear- ing appropriate high-visibility protective apparel are primary core competencies for all incident responders. Secondary core competencies for each incident type were defined as those actions that a specific responder group per- forms that all other responder groups should understand and be aware of. Every incident responder active in that phase of response should be aware of these competencies because they are interdependent. However, individual responders may not need to know how to actually implement them. Examples of primary and secondary core competencies are listed in Table 2.1. In addition to primary and secondary competencies, certain core discipline-specific competencies were included. Discipline-specific competencies are those that only one responder group performs but are of such a critical nature that it is necessary for all disciplines to be aware of their exis- tence and performance, such as hazardous materials (hazmat) cleanup. The proposed core competencies were vetted with the same process used to vet the responder actions with SMEs. Each discipline-specific SME group was provided with the list of proposed core competencies and the proposed criteria for identification of primary and secondary core competencies and asked to provide input and feedback. They were invited to identify additional core competencies that should be included and identify any that they felt did not qualify as a core TIM competency. Their feedback was incorporated into the final list of proposed core TIM competencies that would form the foundation for the forthcoming national multidisciplinary TIM training. Robust SME input in every aspect of the devel- opment of a robust list of proposed national TIM core competencies was critical to the eventual acceptance of these competencies and training as credible by TIM practi- tioners and as a foundation for any forthcoming national certification and accreditation initiative. Follow-up focus groups were tentatively scheduled to discuss the proposed core competencies, but SME consensus on the proposed core competencies resulted in these discussions not being held. literature review and input from nearly 40 SMEs across six TIM discipline areas as described in the research approach. To facilitate this process, representative incident scenarios were identified into which responder actions could be sequen- tially bundled. Initially, nine scenarios were developed, but based on stakeholder input from the first focus group, the representative incident scenarios were consolidated into four incident types. This consolidation enabled the identification of core TIM competencies that could support more consistent implementation of TIM and the NUG by multidisciplinary responders across the country: • Incident Type 1: Noncrash (debris or disabled or aban- doned vehicle). Roadway debris with lane obstructed or all lanes clear (debris on shoulder), or disabled or abandoned vehicle with lane obstructed or all lanes clear (vehicle on shoulder). • Incident Type 2: Noninjury crash, fuel or liquid spill. Non- injury crash with lanes obstructed or all lanes clear (vehi- cles on shoulder), or noncargo liquid discharge from vehicle. • Incident Type 3: Injury crash (injuries, extrication, or fatality). Traffic incident involving injury with no fatali- ties, extrication or rescue of injured parties, or one or more fatalities. • Incident Type 4: Commercial vehicles, cargo spill (non- hazmat or hazmat). Traffic incident involving commercial vehicles with spilled cargo (nonhazardous) or spilled cargo (hazardous). After the four incident types were identified, facilitated focus groups were conducted with each of the six discipline- specific groups of SMEs using Group Systems’ Think Tank, an online collaborative tool. The lists of responder activities were then consolidated and reviewed, and SMEs validated them through individual review. The lists of responder actions were analyzed to identify core competencies—that is, multidisciplinary, crosscutting actions shared by responders at the scene of an incident regardless of a responder’s specific discipline. As defined in the curriculum, core competencies are those actions respond- ers should be able to practice (primary) or, at a minimum, understand and be aware of the value or role of (secondary), at an incident scene. This analysis yielded several observations: • A significant number of on-scene actions are common to, and may be taken by, more than one responder group under certain circumstances. • Although many similar actions occur for all incident types, the scope and complexity of these actions vary substan- tially. For example, how establishing or adjusting traffic control devices is accomplished and what this action entails

7secondary core competencies would enable incident respond- ers to reduce secondary incidents and improve the safety and effectiveness of incident response by reducing both the time required to clear an incident and overall congestion. Content incorporated in lessons prompts students to consider ques- tions such as the following: • How frequently do secondary incidents occur? • If lanes must be closed, can they be progressively reopened? • Does the shoulder count as a lane? • Can some tasks, such as extrication and investigation, be conducted simultaneously? • When can crash vehicles be moved off the roadway imme- diately and the incident worked in a secondary location? • What are the quick clearance laws in specific jurisdictions? • Does fluid used to power a vehicle require a hazmat response? • Does a placard always mean a hazmat response? • Why does the towing company need accurate information regarding the types of vehicles to be towed? • When should the towing company be called in? Table 2.2 lists core competencies and associated TLOs and ELOs for the incident responder component of the course. TLOs and ELOs were also developed for the train-the-trainer component. Although not directly linked to core competen- cies, these objectives were designed to ensure that potential trainers receive the necessary instruction to deliver the course to participants. These objectives are shown in Table 2.3. When the design documents were finalized, the course materials were developed (for a discussion of this develop- ment, see the section below on course materials) and the for- mative evaluation process, namely the course pilots, began. During the pilot implementation, materials were further refined based on input garnered from observation and feed- back from instructors, students, and the independent evalu- ation team. The TIM course consists of a 15.5-hour incident Curriculum Design Adult learning principles state that adults learn more effec- tively when they can understand the intrinsic value of the materials being covered and are motivated to learn to the extent that they perceive that learning will help them perform tasks or is relevant in dealing with real-life situations (7). Adult students gain new knowledge, understanding, skills, values, and attitudes most effectively when offered real-life or experience-oriented learning. These basic principles guided the curriculum development. When the competencies had been thoroughly reviewed and mapped by incident stage, the content was divided into lesson areas, and terminal and enabling learning objectives were developed to support each lesson. Terminal learning objec- tives (TLOs) represent what each student is expected to learn from a particular lesson. Enabling learning objectives (ELOs) represent concise statements of the specific steps a course participant should take to achieve the TLO. Once the learn- ing objectives were established, learning activities and class resources were identified, and test questions were developed. To ensure that learner attention was adequately engaged from the outset and learners were motivated and ready to learn, introductory and terminology and statistics lessons were developed covering topics such as the impact of conges- tion, line-of-duty deaths, and struck-by incidents. These les- sons included real-life scenarios, national efforts at addressing the issues surrounding TIM, and the importance of common terminology. The final list of core competencies provided the foundational material for the development of the other 10 lessons in the traffic incident response course, including two that focused on providing experiential learning opportuni- ties. Identifying the competencies associated with incident response enabled the curriculum design team to identify areas in which increased coordination and awareness among incident responders could reduce incident response dura- tions. The goal was that a shared awareness of primary and Table 2.1. Examples of Primary and Secondary Core Competencies TIM Phase Incident Type Competency Responder Type Competency Type Detection All Identify type and level of incident. All Primary Response Injury crash Ensure injured and ambulatory patients are contained. All Primary Clearance Injury crash, commercial vehicles, cargo spill Participate as on-scene flagger, if necessary. All Primary Response Injury crash, commercial vehicles, cargo spill Close road, if necessary. Law enforcement, fire and rescue Secondary Response Noninjury crash, injury crash, commercial vehicles, cargo spill Change variable message signs for lane closures, traffic diversions, expected delays, etc. Notification and dispatch, DOT Secondary (text continues on page 11)

8Table 2.2. Incident Responder Terminal and Enabling Learning Objectives by Lesson Lesson Title Terminal Learning Objective Enabling Learning Objectives Course introduction Restate the consequences of congestion and list some of the organizations and strategies that aim to alleviate congestion and improve reliability. List the safety, social, and economic impacts of congestion. Recognize the goal of the NTIMC. Restate the main NUG objectives. Statistics, terminology, and standards Enumerate the statistical impacts that line-of-duty deaths and near misses have on incident respond- ers and recognize the common strategies and terminology that can aid in quick clearance. Know and understand incident statistics. Restate national incident management system–compliant core industry terminology used during incident response. Recall the terminology used to describe roadways. Identify the principles discussed in the Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD). Arrange the phases of incident response or duties in chronological order as taught in the course. Notification and response Describe the necessary notifi- cation and response actions required during incident response. List the sequence of events that occur up to the point when responders first arrive at the incident scene. Recognize the importance of the role that dispatchers or traffic control center operators play in the notification process. Recall when it is appropriate to use emergency lighting. Arrival Recall the appropriate arrival safety procedures and communication protocols. Restate the correct approach methods when arriving at a scene, including the use of emergency lighting and safely parking the responder vehicle. Summarize communications that may occur during the arrival phase of incident response. Differentiate between move-it and work-it incidents. Restate how to achieve vehicle positioning that complies with MUTCD standards. Identify the characteristics of the three classes of American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Standard 107 highway safety vests. Initial size-up Outline the key points of a thorough and safe initial size-up. Enumerate the ways in which responders can retain situational awareness when exiting their vehicles and approaching the incident. Describe the core factors to review when performing an initial size-up of the scene. Recall the importance of determining if hazmat responder involvement is required. Command responsibili- ties Summarize how to use the incident command system to establish an organized incident scene with effective scene communications. Recall the importance of establishing and participating in the incident command system. Summarize the importance of prioritizing incident objectives. Discuss how to plan for physical organization of the scene and describe the need for diversion routes or staging areas. Describe how to develop a plan for safe, quick clearance. Describe how to designate the staging area location for additional resources or responders, or both. Discuss the communications that should occur with command, public information officer, and dispatch regarding the staging area; additional services; contact with trucking companies; incident updates and revised duration; traffic control devices; and lane closings and openings. Recount when to proceed to the staging area. (continued on next page)

9Lesson Title Terminal Learning Objective Enabling Learning Objectives Safety, patient care, and investigation Recount the key safety- related tasks for law enforcement, fire and rescue, EMS, DOT, and towing and recovery as they pertain to general safety, fire prevention or suppression, patient care, and crash scene investigation. List the types of high-visibility markings on responder vehicles. Recount best practices for working with hazmat and nonhazmat spills at an inci- dent scene. Identify the concerns of responding to an incident that involves vehicular fire. List the concerns of responding to incidents involving hybrid vehicles. Restate responsibilities of responders not involved in extrication while extrication tasks are being performed. Summarize how to ensure appropriate patient care, including the correct proce- dures for handling medical supplies. Describe how to approach an incident that has the potential of an injured motorist. Recall the differences between ensuring appropriate care for ambulatory versus nonambulatory patients. Restate the protocols that should be followed before and during a medical heli- copter on-scene arrival. Identify the primary investigation goal at an accident scene. Traffic management Recount the equipment, procedures, and communications for safe, effective TIM. Describe the proper use and monitoring of traffic control devices at an incident scene. Recognize the components of traffic control zones during an incident. Recognize circumstances at an incident scene that would require the advanced warning area to be extended. List best practices of light management on scene arrival and during the course of the incident. Recall the traffic management elements that need to be communicated and moni- tored during an incident. Clearance Identify the best clearance practices during incident response. List the principles of the laws that relate to quick clearance. Identify the procedures for removing cargo and cleaning up spilled liquid or debris from the accident scene. Describe the best practices for ensuring that the appropriate towing vehicle for the damaged vehicle is dispatched. Recount the necessary communications for a successful scene clearance egress and wrap-up. Termination State the termination proce- dures that ensure the scene returns to preinci- dent conditions in the time frame appropriate for the incident type. Name the cleanup procedures necessary for proper scene termination. Explain the procedure for reopening traffic lanes. Summarize the procedure for communicating traffic restoration. Restate the procedures involved in safe and timely incident egress. (continued on next page) Table 2.2. Incident Responder Terminal and Enabling Learning Objectives by Lesson (continued)

10 Table 2.2. Incident Responder Terminal and Enabling Learning Objectives by Lesson (continued) Lesson Title Terminal Learning Objective Enabling Learning Objectives Hands-on activity Demonstrate an ability to appropriately clear all given incident types in the provided set of scenarios. Demonstrate comprehension of appropriate responder actions for a noncrash inci- dent with debris or a disabled vehicle, specifically, tasks related to traffic man- agement and having the vehicle(s) towed for a freeway, ramp, service road, high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane, city intersection, and rural road scenario. Demonstrate comprehension of appropriate responder actions for an incident involving a noninjury crash with a fuel or liquid spill, specifically, tasks related to having the vehicle(s) towed and cleaning up the debris or liquid for a free- way, ramp, service road, HOV lane, city intersection, and rural road scenario. Demonstrate comprehension of appropriate responder actions for an incident involving an injury crash, specifically, positioning responder vehicles to pro- vide a protected area for patient care, ambulance egress, and anticipating the need for a medical helicopter for a freeway, ramp, service road, HOV lane, city intersection, and rural road scenario. Demonstrate the use of responder vehicles and the roadway in the appropriate setup for a commercial vehicle cargo spill, including making provisions for hazmat response participation and removing debris for a freeway, ramp, service road, HOV lane, city intersection, and rural road scenario. Situational awareness Visualize reinforcement of selected competencies involved in incident response, arrival, initial size-up, and traffic man- agement to increase responder situational awareness. Paraphrase the correct method for placing a responder vehicle in a blocking position. Summarize the correct step-by-step procedures for emergency vehicle drivers and passengers when exiting a responder vehicle at an incident scene. Describe the correct procedure for correct placement of traffic control devices such as cones, flares, and deployable signs. Table 2.3. Train-the-Trainer Terminal and Enabling Learning Objectives by Lesson Lesson Title Terminal Learning Objective Enabling Learning Objectives Legal guidelines and considerations Identify and locate the legal guidelines and consider- ations that pertain to TIM. Identify major national and international organizations that directly affect the laws, standards, and policies first responders must adhere to in the line of duty. Recall the importance of being up to date on responder statistics and case studies. Recount how real-life incidents affect laws and how responders view their actions at an incident scene. Best practices and real-world scenarios Recall how to locate and identify TIM resources and best practices and utilize real-world scenarios. Locate and explain documented incident best practices. Locate relevant resources to aid in keeping the course up to date. Summarize the teaching points in the real-world scenarios presented. Hands-on activity setup Demonstrate the ability to set up and administer the hands-on tabletop activities. Assemble each of the tabletop setups for the identified incidents. Arrange incident instructions for the appropriate incident types. Formulate answers to common student questions. Evaluate the exercise solutions developed by the student teams. Situational awareness activity setup Recount how to conduct the situational awareness activity. Restate the best practices for exiting a vehicle at an incident scene. Restate the best practices for traffic cone placement at an incident scene. Course logistics and orientation Restate the logistical details that need to be addressed when conducting the course. Restate tasks that need to be performed before the training to secure and set up the training classroom. Describe the supporting materials required to conduct the training. Locate the list of props and resources necessary to conduct the training.

11 and kinesthetic. Individuals vary in their orientation toward each category, meaning that some individuals use only one method, and some use a combination of two or three. Visual learners need to see something to know it, so their preference is for diagrams, pictures, and other visuals. Auditory learners need to hear something to know it, so they prefer to have verbal instruction and may struggle if information is only provided visually. Kinesthetic learners must do something to know it, so they prefer hands-on types of activities and learn best when involved in an activity. A well-designed course caters to all of these needs by providing a variety of instruc- tional strategies so that all types of learning preferences are engaged. The TIM course combines a rich multimedia pre- sentation, including photographs from actual incident scenes, diagrams that depict incidents, video footage, and textual definitions that an instructor uses to underscore learning points when reviewing each lesson. An example of such a presentation is shown in Figure 2.2. The incident responder portion of the training culminates in two practical, hands-on exercises: the situational aware- ness lesson and the tabletop hands-on incident scene activity. The situational awareness lesson enables students to see what maintaining situational awareness looks like when practiced on the job. Model responder vehicles from different disci- plines are used, and students participate in strategies that can be used when parking and exiting vehicles and setting up traf- fic control devices. Figure 2.3 shows an example of part of the situational awareness lesson in which an instructor, with the assistance of a volunteer, walks students step-by-step through best practices when exiting a response vehicle at an incident scene. The topic is covered in the lecture portion of the course, but the demonstration provides students with an opportunity to see what this looks like when practiced on the job and to understand what they need to do to achieve this result. During the hands-on tabletop activity, students role play and apply what they have learned to practice and demon- strate competency in the content. Using a variety of incident scenes—city surface street, rural road, limited-access high- way, HOV lane, and an overpass ramp—the participants simulate incidents using model vehicles. Students then work together in multidisciplinary groups to clear the incident using the principles learned in the course. Figure 2.4 shows students from one of the pilot courses working through a tabletop activity. In the first several exercises, students assume roles different from their real-life profession. This exercise is usually very uncomfortable for students at first. Only after playing a range of other incident responder roles are the stu- dents finally permitted to role play their real-life roles. The research team observed that students see their own roles differently after the experience of playing other roles. They are much more sensitive to the interdependencies responder training segment with 12 lessons; the train-the- trainer segment covers five lessons in 3 hours. Instructional Methods The TIM course was designed to facilitate learning by getting students involved and helping them assume responsibility for their own learning. Competencies are divided into manage- able, modular lessons and learning objectives, and expected outcomes are clearly laid out for students. To underscore the multidisciplinary nature of this course, it was decided that instructors from two different responder disciplines should deliver it. This approach delivered the subliminal message that regardless of discipline, responders must work together as a team. More importantly, it adds credibility to the content being taught because it shows that the principles and best practices addressed in the training relate to all responders, not just one particular discipline. The course begins with an icebreaker during which stu- dents introduce themselves and identify from a precreated list their biggest complaint about what they see at incident scenes. This exercise not only acts as an icebreaker to make students feel more comfortable, but it also piques their atten- tion because it is immediately apparent that the course con- tains content that is relevant to their real-life roles and the tasks they perform on a daily basis. Throughout the course, different techniques and presentation methods are used to convey the content being taught. The course is designed to encourage a high level of participation among students. Strategies used include real-life scenarios, case studies, small- and large-group activities, questioning techniques, solicita- tion of ideas, brainstorming, and hands-on activities. Using such varied instructional techniques serves multiple pur- poses. First, it places students on the scene and encourages them to be active participants in their own learning. Second, these activities enable the instructor to impart cognitive (knowledge), psychomotor (skills), and affective (attitude) concepts. For example, analysis of a best-practice case study demonstrates to students, step by step, how traffic cones should be placed at an incident scene (cognitive); the outside demonstration segment enables students to practice placing the cones using these methods (psychomotor); and attitude changes are influenced not only by the validity of the case study but also by the instructor’s explanation of why this is the best practice and the advantages it confers (affective). Peer acceptance of the concept from the student group also influences affective changes. The third advantage of using a variety of instructional methods takes into account that people learn in different ways. Studies in neurolinguistic programming have found that learning centers around three areas: visual, auditory, (continued from page 7)

12 content. When a course is intended to be delivered by mul- tiple instructors in multiple locations, this approach ensures that all instructors can follow a cohesive course outline and that students receive a consistent course delivery and set of training materials, regardless of where they receive the train- ing. Table 2.4 shows course materials by instructor, student, and classroom. Instructor Materials • Classroom roster. This tool enables the instructor to track classroom attendance easily. • Instructor guide. This guide is designed to assist the instruc- tor in setting up the classroom and provide practical tips to make the learning process more engaging. It includes the course lessons and exercises with step-by-step instructions that enable the instructor to deliver the material appropri- ately. It also includes answer keys for all classroom activities to ensure consistency of delivery across all training sites. A place for instructor notes is included. The guide is designed between their roles and those of others in the context of the shared goals embodied in the NUG—responder safety; safe, quick clearance; and prompt, reliable, interoperable commu- nications. Through interaction in the exercises, students gain a dramatically different and improved understanding of each other’s roles, priorities, and concerns in incident response. They gain visibility into what others are thinking and doing during incident response, thus leading to affective changes in behavior. The activity also effectively ties together the knowl- edge garnered from the course and allows direct application of these skills in a safe environment that mirrors an incident scene. Figures 2.2 through 2.4 show the pilot delivery of the course in Georgia and Indiana. Course Materials As part of the course development process, a full suite of classroom instructional materials was created for both instructors and students. Having such a suite available was deemed critical to ensure consistent delivery of core training Figure 2.2. Samples of instructional materials and activities contained in the incident responder course.

13 text, video, and graphic elements, such as images, charts, and diagrams. The presentation is designed in Microsoft PowerPoint 2007 with associated video files and could be distributed on a CD. • Train-the-trainer instructor guide. This guide is designed to assist the instructor in setting up the classroom and provides practical tips to make the learning process more engaging. It includes the course lessons, with step-by- step instructions, to enable the instructor to deliver the material appropriately. It also includes answer keys for all classroom activities to ensure consistency of delivery across all training sites. A place for instructor notes is included. The guide is designed to be produced in an 8.5 × 11-in. spiral-bound booklet or on a CD. • Train-the-trainer PowerPoint presentation. This presenta- tion is designed to aid, enhance, and guide the instructor’s presentation to the classroom. It focuses the students on the key objectives of the training by using a combination of text, video, and graphic elements, such as images, charts, and diagrams. The presentation is designed in Microsoft PowerPoint 2007 with associated video files and could be distributed on a CD. Figure 2.3. Field demonstration of exiting a response vehicle at an incident scene. Figure 2.4. Hands-on tabletop activity. to be produced in an 8.5 × 11-in. spiral-bound booklet or on a CD. • Student PowerPoint presentation. This presentation is designed to aid, enhance, and guide the instructor’s pre- sentation to the classroom. It focuses the students on the key objectives of the training by using a combination of

14 • Model vehicles. These aids, often Matchbox cars, represent civilian and responder vehicles and are used to simulate accidents and response steps during the hands-on tabletop activity. • Best-practice sheets. These sheets contain best-practice tips to assist students when clearing incidents during the hands-on tabletop activity. • Classroom poster. This is a visual aid used in the classroom that helps provide a reference point for students regarding where they are in the course and how that stage relates to the response phases. pilot Course Deliveries A key component of the project was to conduct pilot deliveries of course materials to traffic incident responders in two loca- tions. In identifying candidate locations, a determination was made that the pilot deliveries address three key objectives: • The effectiveness of course materials should be tested on a relatively new audience from a location that has an emerging multidisciplinary TIM program. The focus of this pilot delivery was to assess the extent to which the training enhanced traffic incident responder capabilities and enabled the responder to complete the end-of-course test successfully, thus meeting the criteria for certification. • The course materials should be vetted among responders in a location with a well-established multidisciplinary TIM program. The focus of this pilot delivery was to assess the technical accuracy and completeness of the course materi- als and to identify particular aspects of TIM operations that were not adequately addressed in the course. • Both pilot deliveries should test the effectiveness of the train-the-trainer component of the course. Locations in Indianapolis, Indiana, and Atlanta, Georgia, were identified as ideal candidates for hosting the course pilots. In 2007, with support from FHWA, Indiana established the Quick Clearance Working Group with representatives from • Assessment answer key. This aid includes the answers to the student assessment questions and is used to grade student performance. Student Materials • Student workbook. This workbook contains all the student- related lesson content, including exercises, case studies, and scenarios. It also contains a full bibliography of refer- ence materials used in the creation of the content, as well as copies of peripheral third-party items, such as brochures and reference cards. The guide is designed to be produced in an 8.5 × 11-in. spiral-bound booklet or on a CD. A place for student notes is included. • Train-the-trainer student workbook. This workbook con- tains all the student-related lesson content, including exer- cises, case studies, and scenarios. It also contains a full bibliography of reference materials used in the creation of the content, as well as copies of peripheral third-party items, such as brochures and reference cards. The guide is designed to be produced in an 8.5 × 11-in. spiral-bound booklet or on a CD. A place for student notes is included. • Assessment. This aid is a Kirkpatrick Level 2 (learning) assessment consisting of a bank of questions that tie directly into the course objectives and measure learner knowledge at the end of instruction (8). • Evaluation. This aid is a Kirkpatrick Level 1 (reaction) evalu- ation that students complete at the end of the course. It mea- sures how the learner feels about or reacts to the training (8). Classroom Materials • Tabletop roadway scenes. These aids consist of five roadway scenes—city surface street, rural road, limited-access high- way, HOV lanes, and an overpass ramp—used to create the incident scenes during the hands-on tabletop activity. • Staging pads. These aids are used as a holding area for responder model vehicles during the hands-on tabletop activity. Table 2.4. Course Materials Instructor Student Classroom Classroom roster Student workbook Tabletop roadways Instructor guide Train-the-trainer student workbook Staging pads Student PowerPoint Assessment Best-practice sheets Train-the-trainer instructor guide Evaluation Model vehicles Train-the-trainer PowerPoint Classroom poster Assessment answer key

15 Trucking Association, Towing and Recovery Association of Georgia, and traffic engineering and transportation consult- ing firms). In addition, the Georgia DOT operates Highway Emergency Response Operators in the Atlanta region. This program, which is a nationally recognized safety service patrol, responds to between 55,000 and 60,000 incidents and calls annually. It is primarily responsible for reducing traffic con- gestion and delays, as well as providing support to law enforce- ment, first responders, and other emergency agencies during incident response activities. Both locations agreed to partici- pate in the pilot deliveries of the training course. The first pilot training was delivered in Indianapolis from March 30 to April 1, 2010, and the second pilot training was delivered in Atlanta from May 11 to 13, 2010. Table 2.5 summarizes the number of attendees from each discipline at each location. the Indiana DOT and the Indiana State Police. The working group was reconfigured as the Indiana Traffic Incident Man- agement Effort (In TIME) in January 2009 and established as a statewide TIM organization. The state’s strong commit- ment to improving TIM and the fact that In TIME is a rela- tively new organization made Indiana an excellent candidate for the delivery of the emerging multidisciplinary TIM pro- gram pilot course. The inclusion of Atlanta was based on its extensive experi- ence with multidisciplinary TIM programs. It currently has a TIM Enhancement Task Force, a public–private, multiagency organization. The task force is designed to improve region- wide incident management and interagency coordination and includes representatives from state, county, and municipal governments; FHWA; and the private sector (Georgia Motor Table 2.5. Number of Pilot Course Attendees by Discipline Discipline Represented Indiana Pilot Course Georgia Pilot Course Total Law enforcement 7 8 15 Fire and EMS 15 4 19 Towing and recovery 2 5 7 Hazmat and environment 4 1 5 Notification and dispatch 1 3 4 DOT 11 8 19 Coroner’s office 1 0 1 Other 0 7 7 Total participants 41 36 77

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TRB’s second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2) Report S2-L12-RW-1: Training of Traffic Incident Responders presents the results of a project that developed a training program for traffic incident responders and managers.

The training program described in the report contains two components: training of trainers and incident responder training.

This report is available only in electronic format.

For more information on traffic incident responder training, contact your state's FHWA division office.

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