National Academies Press: OpenBook
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Developing, Enhancing, and Sustaining Tribal Transit Services: A Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22818.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Developing, Enhancing, and Sustaining Tribal Transit Services: A Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22818.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Developing, Enhancing, and Sustaining Tribal Transit Services: A Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22818.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Developing, Enhancing, and Sustaining Tribal Transit Services: A Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22818.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Developing, Enhancing, and Sustaining Tribal Transit Services: A Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22818.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Developing, Enhancing, and Sustaining Tribal Transit Services: A Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22818.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Developing, Enhancing, and Sustaining Tribal Transit Services: A Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22818.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Developing, Enhancing, and Sustaining Tribal Transit Services: A Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22818.
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T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M TCRP REPORT 154 TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2012 www.TRB.org Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation Subscriber Categories Public Transportation • Planning and Forecasting • Society Developing, Enhancing, and Sustaining Tribal Transit Services: A Guidebook Albert T. Stoddard III LSC TranSporTaTion ConSuLTanTS, inC. Colorado Springs, CO I n a s s o c I a t I o n w I t h David Sampson Jill Cahoon aECoM uSa, inC. Southport, CT Ronald Hall TribaL TEChniCaL aSSiSTanCE prograM CoLorado STaTE univErSiTy Fort Collins, CO Peter Schauer pETEr SChauEr aSSoCiaTES Boonville, MO Valerie J. Southern vaLEriE J. SouThErn—TranSporTaTion ConSuLTanT, LLC Fairfax, VA Tangerine Almeida LSC TranSporTaTion ConSuLTanTS, inC. Colorado Springs, CO

TCRP REPORT 154 Project H-38 ISSN 1073-4872 ISBN 978-0-309-25817-3 Library of Congress Control Number 2012939341 © 2012 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nation’s growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to intro- duce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213—Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration—now the Federal Transit Admin istration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- solving research. TCRP, modeled after the longstanding and success- ful National Cooperative Highway Research Program, undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of tran- sit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Pro- posed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was autho- rized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement out- lining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooper- ating organizations: FTA, the National Academies, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research orga- nization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the Transportation Research Board. The panels prepare project state- ments (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide techni- cal guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research pro- grams since 1962. As in other TRB activ ities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without com pensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on dissemi- nating TCRP results to the intended end users of the research: tran- sit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other support- ing material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. The TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Published reports of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This project represents a collective effort by LSC Transportation Consultants, Inc., along with AECOM USA, Inc., Colorado State University, Peter Schauer Associates, and Valerie J. Southern–Transportation Consultant, LLC. The authors want to express their appreciation and acknowledge the support and assis- tance of the tribes that participated in each phase of the research. The tribes which participated are men- tioned in Chapter 2 of the Research Report. Without their participation, the research would not have been possible and the guidebook would not have contained the detailed information that was provided. The research team also would like to thank the TCRP Project H-38 panel for their contributions to the content of the guidebook. CRP STAFF FOR TCRP REPORT 154 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Stephan A. Parker, Senior Program Officer Megha Khadka, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Sharon Lamberton, Assistant Editor TCRP PROJECT H-38 PANEL Field of Public Transportation—Areas of Planning and Forecasting and Society Emma Featherman-Sam, Oglala Sioux Transit, Pine Ridge, SD (Chair) Frederick J. “Fred” Cowie, Helena, MT Michael Ford, Ann Arbor Transportation Authority, Ann Arbor, MI Cynthia Gomez, Shingle Springs Tribal Court, Sacramento, CA C. John Healy, Fort Belknap Indian Community, Harlem, MT Mark R. Hoffman, Arizona DOT, Phoenix, AZ Shawn Klemens, M.I.T.W., Department of Transit Services, Keshena, WI John P. Smith, Shoshone & Arapaho Tribes, Fort Washakie, WY Arlene Templer, Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes, Pablo, MT Cathy Monroe, FTA Liaison Lorna R. Wilson, FTA Liaison Bernard Alkire, Michigan Technological University, Michigan TTAP Liaison Byron Bluehorse, Alaska TTAP Liaison Andy Coyle, National Rural Transit Assistance Program (National RTAP) Liaison Pam DiGiovanni, National Rural Transit Assistance Program (National RTAP) Liaison Edward H. Hall, III, Bureau of Indian Affairs Liaison Joseph Myers, National Indian Justice Center, California/Nevada TTAP Liaison Raquelle Myers, National Indian Justice Center, California/Nevada TTAP Liaison Vivian A. Philbin, Federal Highway Administration Liaison Richard Rolland, Eastern Washington University, Northwest TTAP Liaison Charles A. Rutkowski, Community Transportation Association of America Liaison Gwen Salt, National Congress of American Indians Liaison Dennis Trusty, United Tribes Technical College, Northern Plains TTAP Liaison Martine A. Micozzi, TRB Liaison

TCRP Report 154: Developing, Enhancing, and Sustaining Tribal Transit Services: A Guide- book provides an overview of the tribal transit planning process and detailed guidance about the various steps for planning and implementing a tribal transit system. The steps that are described may be used for planning a new transit system, enhancing an existing service, or taking action to sustain services. While the guidebook is primarily aimed at tribal transit planners, it will also be of interest to tribal transportation planners and liaisons at all levels of government. In the research effort led by LSC Transportation Consultants, Inc., data were collected from 67 tribes during Phase 1 and more detailed information was collected from 48 tribes during Phase 2. Fifteen tribes were visited for the development of case studies. Data were collected regarding the type of transit services, the size and scope of the transit programs, and funding approaches. Characteristics of successful tribal transit programs were identi- fied and explored in more detail. Tribes that have not been successful in establishing a transit program were sought out to determine reasons for lack of success. Five common characteristics for sustainability of tribal transit programs were identified: planning, local leadership, cooperation and coordination, trained key staff, and multiple funding sources. The case studies provide examples of these characteristics for success and sustainability. The guidebook describes the challenges and opportunities faced by tribes when establishing transit programs and examples of how tribes have used these opportunities and overcome the challenges. Options are provided to help tribes develop or enhance their transit services for long-term sustainability. This project created four products that are available on the TRB website at http://www. trb.org/main/blurbs/166797.aspx: (1) the guidebook, described above; (2) the research report, which documents the development of the guidebook and includes detailed infor- mation on the surveys, published separately as TCRP Web Document 54; (3) a 16-page full-color brochure, published in 2011 as Native Americans on the Move: Challenges and Successes, with an accompanying PowerPoint presentation; and (4) a PowerPoint presenta- tion describing the entire project. F O R E W O R D By Stephan A. Parker Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

1 About This Guide 1 Organization of the Guidebook 3 Technical Planning Tools 4 Keys to Sustainability 7 Chapter 1 Planning Considerations 7 Introduction 7 Tribal Sovereignty 9 Role of Governing Bodies 10 Turnover in Governing Body or Staff 10 Effective Tribal Government Support 11 Relationship with State and Local Governments 12 Funding 13 Qualified Employees 13 Adequate Facilities 14 For More Information 15 Chapter 2 Overview of Planning Process 15 Introduction 15 Inventory of Existing Services 17 Transportation Needs Assessment 19 Developing Strategic Goals and Objectives 20 Transit Service Planning 21 Implementation 22 Working with Consultants 23 For More Information 25 Chapter 3 Inventory of Transportation Resources 25 Introduction 25 Types of Transportation Programs 27 Information to Gather 28 Existing Funding Programs 29 For More Information 30 Chapter 4 Transportation Needs Assessment 30 Introduction 30 Demographic Analysis 33 Transit Demand Methodologies 38 For More Information 40 Chapter 5 Developing a Transit Vision, Goals, and Objectives 40 Introduction 40 Determining a Vision for Transit Service 41 Mission Statement C O N T E N T S

42 Goals 42 Objectives 44 Sample Mission, Goals, and Objectives 45 Performance Measures 52 For More Information 53 Chapter 6 Environmental Issues 53 Introduction 53 Air Quality 54 Environmental Mitigation 54 NEPA Requirements 58 For More Information 59 Chapter 7 Transit Service Planning 59 Introduction 59 Types of Transit Service 63 Performance Standards 63 Challenges for Tribal Transit Systems 65 Selecting the Appropriate Service Type 66 Coordination of Transportation Programs 71 Facilities 71 Hazards and Security 79 Maintenance and Safety Plan 91 Insurance and Licensing 91 For More Information 92 Chapter 8 Funding Tribal Transit Programs 92 Introduction 94 Potential Local Funding Sources 100 Compliance and Reporting Requirements 110 Tribal Transit Program Master Agreement 112 FTA Master Agreement 113 State Program Reporting Requirements 116 For More Information 118 Chapter 9 Elements of Transit Program Implementation 118 Introduction 118 Operations Plan 119 Organization and Administration 121 Monitoring and Reporting 124 Planning for Hazards and Safety 125 Marketing Plan 137 Financial Plan and Budget 153 Alternative Fuels 156 Vehicle Disposal 158 Legal Issues 159 Insurance 159 Barriers and Obstacles 160 Implementation Process 161 For More Information

162 Chapter 10 Tribal Transit Program Case Studies 162 Introduction 162 Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians 164 Coeur d’Alene Tribe 166 Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community 167 Lac du Flambeau Indian Tribe 168 Menominee Indian Tribe 170 Navajo Nation 172 Oglala Sioux Tribe 174 Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes 176 Seneca Nation of Indians 177 Sitka Tribe of Alaska 179 Southern Ute Indian Tribe 181 Standing Rock Sioux Tribe 182 Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians 184 Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians 186 Yakama Indian Nation 188 Appendix A Glossary 191 Appendix B Resources 195 Appendix C Potential Funding Sources Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions. Cover image reprinted with permission of the Billings Gazette.

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TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 154: Developing, Enhancing, and Sustaining Tribal Transit Services: A Guidebook offers guidance about the various steps for planning and implementing a tribal transit system. The steps that are described may be used for planning a new transit system, enhancing an existing service, or taking action to sustain services.

The report also provides an overview of the tribal transit planning process.

The project that developed TCRP Report 154 also produced TCRP Web Document 54: Developing, Enhancing, and Sustaining Tribal Transit Services: Final Research Report, which documents the development of the TCRP Report 154.

In addition, the project also produced a 16-page full-color brochure, published in 2011 as "Native Americans on the Move: Challenges and Successes", with an accompanying PowerPoint presentation; and a PowerPoint presentation describing the entire project.

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