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188 A p p e n d i x A Some of the definitions used in this glossary have been obtained from the following sources, with acknowledgment to the contributing individuals, organizations, and boards or committees: the Federal Transit Administration website, http://www.fta.dot.gov/; APTA Glossary of Transit Terminology (July 1994); and the glossary from TCRP Report 100: Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 2d ed. ADA Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. This is a federal civil rights law passed by the U.S. Congress in 1990 with changes effective on January 1, 2009. This law ensures that individuals with disabilities have equal oppor- tunity to participate in society, live independently, and be economically sufficient. The law defines the responsibilities and requirements that transportation providers need to meet to make transportation acces- sible to individuals with disabilities. ADA Paratransit The ADA requires transportation providers to provide a compa- rable transportation service within Â¾ mile of a fixed-route service to accommodate individuals with disabilities who are unable to use the fixed route. AIAN American Indian and Alaska Native AoA Administration on Aging Apportionment This refers to distribution of funds available. It is based on statutory formulas set in the law. The Federal Register contains a list of annual apportionments and allocations for the various Federal Transit Admin- istration programs. BIA Bureau of Indian Affairs Carpool An arrangement in which two or more people share the use and cost of privately owned automobiles between prearranged fixed points on a regular basis. CE Categorical Exclusion. This is an action/project that does not have a significant effect on the human environment. Hence, neither an envi- ronmental assessment (EA) nor an environmental impact statement (EIS) is required. CEDS Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy CFR Code of Federal Regulations Glossary
Glossary 189 CMAQ Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement. These are fed- eral funds available for transit or highway projects that contribute to air quality improvements and provide congestion relief. Commuter A person who travels regularly between home and work (or school). CTAA Community Transportation Association of America Demand-Response In this type of service, vehicles operate based on service requests received. This is sometimes referred to as âdial-a-ride.â Deviated Fixed Route In this type of service, vehicles operate along an established path, arrive and depart at set times during the day, but can deviate from the estab- lished path for pick-ups and drop-offs according to service requests. DOT Department of Transportation. The U.S. DOT oversees federal high- way, air, railroad, maritime, and other transportation. Each state has its own department of transportation. DUI Driving under the influence EA Environmental Assessment. This is a public document created to deter- mine the significance of impacts of a transportation project. This docu- ment helps to determine if an environmental impact statement (EIS) or a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) is needed. EDA Economic Development Administration EIS Environmental Impact Statement. This is a comprehensive study required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) which describes pos- sible positive or negative environmental impacts resulting from a pro- posed federally funded project. FHWA Federal Highway Administration Fixed Route In this type of service, vehicles travel along designated routes. Service is provided at stops at set times during the day. FLH Federal Lands Highway FONSI Finding of No Significant Impact. This is issued during the Environ- ment Assessment (EA) process when an action or project is found not to have significant impact on the human environment. FTA Federal Transit Administration. This is a department of the US Department of Transportation that administers the federal programs to public transportation. Guaranteed Ride Home (GRH) This is a program that ensures that you will have a ride if you need to work unexpected hours, have a family issue, or if unexpected emer- gencies arise. Intercity Bus Service Bus service between cities usually provided on a fixed route and a fixed schedule. IRR Indian Reservation Roads ITA Intertribal Transportation Association JARC Job Access and Reverse Commute
190 developing, enhancing, and Sustaining Tribal Transit Services: A Guidebook MPO Metropolitan Planning Organization NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards NEPA National Environmental Policy Act. This is a federal law that requires federal agencies to consider environmental impacts of their proposed actions in their decision-making processes and have reasonable alter- natives to those actions. To meet NEPA requirements, federal agencies are required to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for actions/projects that significantly affect the quality of the human environment. NPS National Park Service OSERS Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services Point-Deviation or Checkpoint Service This type of service operates at fixed stops, but deviates between stops without having a designated route. Ridership The number of riders making one-way trips on a public transportation service in a given time period. ROD Record of Decision Route Deviation See Deviated Fixed Route RTAP Rural Transit Assistance Program SF Summary File. This is a census summary file. There are four summary files. Each summary file provides statistics at different levels of detail. SIP State Implementation Plan STAA Surface Transportation Assistance Act STIP Statewide Transportation Improvement Program STP Surface Transportation Program SWOT Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. This is a strategic planning method. It involves identifying the internal factors such as Strengths (S) and Weaknesses (W) and external factors such as Opportunities (O) and Threats (T). TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program TCSP Transportation Community and System Preservation Program TTIP Tribal Transportation Improvement Program U.S. DOT United States Department of Transportation USDA United States Department of Agriculture Vanpool An arrangement where a group of people (7â25 persons) share the use and cost of a van between prearranged fixed points on a regular basis.