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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
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Page 307

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CHAPTER 2

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CHAPTER 3

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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
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CHAPTER 4

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Memory and the memory-monitoring process.  Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 6:685-691.

Hasher, L., M.S. Attig, and J.W. Alba
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Heider, F.
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Higgins, E.T.
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Jacoby, L.L., and M. Dallas
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On the relationship between autobiographical memory and perceptual learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 3:306-340.

Jacoby, L.L., and C.M. Kelley
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An illusion of memory:  False recognition influenced by unconscious perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 118:126-135.

Jacoby, L.L., L.G. Allan, J.C. Collins, and L.K. Larwill
1988  
Memory influences subjective experience:  Noise judgments.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition 14:240-247.

James, K.
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Priming and social categorization factors: Impact on awareness of emergency situations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 12:462-467.

Johnson, M.K.
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Johnson, M.K., M.A. Foley, A.G. Suengas, and C.L. Raye
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Phenomenal characteristics of memories for perceived and imagined autobiographical events. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 117:371-376.

Johnston, W.A., V.J. Dark, and L.L. Jacoby
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Perceptual fluency and recognition judgments.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition 11:3-11.

Jones, E.E., L. Rock, K.G. Shaver, G.R. Goethals, and L.M. Ward
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Pattern of performance and ability attribution: An unexpected primacy effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 10:317-340.

Kelley, C.M., and D.S. Lindsay
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Remembering mistaken for knowing:  Ease of retrieval as a basis for confidence in answers to general knowledge questions. Journal of Memory and Language 32:1-24.

Kerr, R., and B. Booth
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Laurence, J.R., and C. Perry
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Nelson, T.O.
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Nelson, T.O., and J. Dunlosky
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Olson, D.R.
1986  
The cognitive consequences of literacy. Canadian Psychology 27:109-121.

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Strategy selection in question answering. Cognitive Psychology 19:90-138. 1988 Strategic control of retrieval strategies. Pp. 227-259 in G. Bower, ed., The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, Vol. 22. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press.

Reder, L.M., and F.E. Ritter
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Reed, G.
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Richardson-Klavehn, A., and R.A. Bjork
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Measures of memory. Annual Review of Psychology 39:475-543.

Roediger, H.L., and K.B. McDermott
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Implicit memory in normal human subjects.  In F. Boller and J. Gruffman, eds., Handbook of Neuropsychology, Vol. 8. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Ross, L.
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The intuitive psychologist and his shortcomings:  Distortions in the attribution process. Pp. 173-220 in L. Berkowitz, ed., Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 10. New York: Academic Press.

Ross, L., D. Greene, and A. House
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The "false consensus effect": An egocentric bias in social perception and attribution processes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 13:279-301.

Schmidt, R.A., and R.A. Bjork
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New conceptualizations of practice: Common principles in three paradigms suggest new concepts for training. Psychological Sciences 3:207-217.

Schmidt, R.A., D.E. Young, S. Swinnen, and D.C. Shapiro
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Summary knowledge of results for skill acquisition:  Support for the guidance hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition 15:352-359.

Schwartz, B.L., and J. Metcalfe 1992   Cue familiarity but not target retrievability enhances feeling-of-knowing judgments. Journal of Experimental Psychology:  Learning, Memory and Cognition 18:10741083.

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Contextual interference effects on the acquisition, retention, and transfer of a motor skill. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 5:179187.

Smith, E.R., and M.A. Zarate
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When predictions create reality:  Judgments of learning may alter what they are intended to assess. Psychological Science 3:315-316.

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The role of category accessibility in the interpretation of information about persons: Some determinants and implications. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37:1660-1672.

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The effect of prior learning on subsequent retention in amnesic patients. Neuropsychologia 12:419-428.

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Constraining factors in calibration of comprehension. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition 16:214-222.

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Illusions of familiarity.  Journal of Experimental Psychology:  Learning, Memory and Cognition 19:1235-1253.

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Illusions of immediate memory:  Evidence of an attributional basis for feelings of familiarity and perceptual quality. Journal of Memory and Language 29:716-732.

Wilson, T.D., and J.W. Schooler
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Thinking too much:  Introspection can reduce the quality of preferences and decisions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 60:181-192.

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Effects of analyzing reasons on attitude-behavior consistency. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 47:5-16.

Witherspoon, D., and L.G. Allan
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The effects of a prior presentation on temporal judgments in a perceptual identification task. Memory and Cognition 13:101-111.

CHAPTER 5

Aronson, E.
1978  
The Jigsaw Classroom. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage.

Astin, A.W.
1985  
Achieving Educational Excellence. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Baker, L., and A.L. Brown
1984  
Metacognitive skills and reading. Pp. 353-394 in P.D. Pearson, eds., Handbook of Reading Research. New York: Longman.

Bandura, A.
1971  
Psychological Modeling: Conflicting Theories. Chicago: Aldine-Atherton.

Bansangue, M.
1991  
Achievement Effects of Collaborative Learning in Introductory Statistics: A Time Series Residual Analysis. Presentation at the joint annual meeting of the Mathematical Association of America and the American Mathematical Society, San Francisco.

Barnes, C.P.
1980  
Questions: The Untapped Resource. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Boston.

Berlyne, D.E.
1960
Conflict, Arousal, and Curiosity. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Bloom, B.S.
1956  
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Handbook I. Cognitive Domain. New York: Longmans, Green.

Bossert, S.T.
1988  
Cooperative activities in the classroom. Review of Research in Education 15:225252.

Brooks, J.E.
1987  
An Instructor's Guide for Implementing Cooperative Learning in the Equipment

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Brooks, J.E., S.M. Cormier, J.D. Dressel, M. Glaser, B.W. Knerr, and R. Thoreson
1987  
Cooperative Learning: A New Approach for Training Equipment Records and Parts Specialists.  Technical Report No. 760.  Alexandria, Va.:  U.S. Army Research Institute.

Broome, B.J., and M. Chen
1992  
Guidelines for computer-assisted group problem solving: Meeting the challenges of complex issues. Small Group Research 23(2):216-236.

Brown, A.L., and A.S. Palinscsar
1989  
Guided cooperative learning and individual knowledge acquisition. Pp. 173-223 in L. Resnick, ed., Knowing, Learning, and Instruction: Essays in Honor of Robert Glaser. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Carpenter, J.L.
1986  
The Effects of Competitive and Cooperative Learning Environments on Student Achievement and Attitudes in College Fencing Classes. Doctoral dissertation, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley.

Cooper, J., and R. Mueck
1990  
Student involvement in learning: Cooperative learning and college instruction. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching 1:68-76.

Cooper, J., S. Prescott, L. Cook, L. Smith, R. Mueck, and J. Cuseo
1990  
Cooperative Learning and College Instruction:  Effective Use of Student Learning Teams. Long Beach: California State University Foundation.

Damon, W.
1984  
Peer education:  The untapped potential. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 5:331-343.

Dansereau, D.F.
1983  
Cooperative Learning: Impact on Acquisition of Knowledge and Skills. Technical Report No. 586.  Alexandria, Va.:  U.S. Army Institute for Behavioral and Social Sciences.
1985  
Learning strategy research. Pp. 209-239 in J.W. Segal, S. Chipman, and R. Glaser, eds., Thinking and Learning Skills. Vol. 1: Relating Instruction to Research. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.
1987  
Transfer from cooperative to individual studying. Journal of Reading  30(7):614619. 1988   Cooperative learning strategies.  Pp. 103-120 in C.E. Weinstein, E.T. Goetz, and P.A. Alexander, eds., Learning and Study Strategies: Issues in Assessment, Instruction, and Evaluation. New York: Academic Press.

Davidson, N., ed.
1990  
Cooperative Learning in Mathematics: Handbookfor Teachers. New York: AddisonWesley Publishing Co.

Deutsch, M.
1949
A theory of cooperation and competition. Human Relations 2:159-152. 1962 Cooperation and trust: Some theoretical notes. In M.R. Jones, ed., Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

DeVries, D., and K. Edwards
1974  
Student teams and learning games: Their effects on cross-race and cross-sex interaction. Journal of Educational Psychology 66(5):741-749.

Dimant, R.J., and D.J. Bearison
1991  
Development of formal reasoning during successive peer interactions. Developmental Psychology 27(2):277-284.

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Duin, A.H.
1991  
Computer-supported collaborative writing:  The workplace and the writing classroom. Journal of Business and Technical Communication (5)2:123-150.

Fantuzzo, J.W., R.E. Riggio, S. Connelly, and L.A. Dimeff
1989a 
Effects of reciprocal peer tutoring on academic achievement and psychological adjustment: A component analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology 81:173-177.

Fantuzzo, J.W., L.A. Dimeff, and S.L. Fox
1989b 
Reciprocal peer tutoring: A multimodal assessment of effectiveness with college students. Teaching of Psychology 16:133-135.

Fantuzzo, J.W., K. Polite, and N. Grayson
1990  
An evaluation of school-based reciprocal peer-tutoring across elementary school settings. Journal of School Psychology 28:309-324.

Fraser, S.C., A.L. Beaman, E. Diener, and R.T. Kelem
1977  
Two, three, or four heads are better than one: Modification of college performance by peer monitoring. Journal of Educational Psychology 69(2):101-108.

Frierson, H.T.
1986  
Two intervention methods:  Effects on groups of predominantly black nursing students' board scores. Journal of Research and Development in Education 19(3): 18-23.

Hagman, J.D., and J.F. Hayes
1986  
Cooperative Learning:  Effects of Task, Reward, and Group Size on Individual Achievement.   Army Research Institute Technical Report 704.  Alexandria, Va.: U.S. Army Research Institute.

Hall, R.H., T.R. Rocklin, D.F. Dansereau, L.P. Skaggs, A.M. O'Donnell, J.G. Lambiotte, and M.D. Young
1988  
The role of individual differences in the cooperative learning of technical material. Journal of Educational Psychology 80(2):172-178.

Hall, J., and M. Williams
1966  
A comparison of decision-making performance in established and ad hoc groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 3:214-222. 1970   Group dynamics training and improved decision-making. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 6:39-68.

Heller, P., R. Keith, and S. Anderson
1992  
Teaching problem solving through cooperative grouping.  Part 1:  group versus individual problem solving. American Journal of Physics 60(7):627-636.

Holubec, E., D.W. Johnson, and R.T. Johnson
1993 
Impact of cooperative learning on naval air-traffic controller training. Journal of Social Psychology 133:337-346.

Hungerland, J.E., J.E. Taylor, and M.F. Brennan
1976  
Utilization of Peer Instruction in Air Force Technical Training. Final Report 76-12, HumRRO, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Bolling Air Force Base, Washington, D.C.

Hwong, N., A. Caswell, D.W. Johnson, and R. Johnson
1993  
Effects of cooperative and individualistic learning structures on prospective elementary teachers' music achievement and attitudes. Journal of Social Psychology 133: 53-64.

Hythecker, V.I., T.R. Rocklin, D.F. Dansereau, J.G. Lambiotte, C.O. Larson, and A.M. O'Donnell
1985  
A computer-based learning strategy training module: Development and evaluation. Journal of Educational Computing Research 1(3):275-283.

Hythecker, V.I., D.F. Dansereau, and T.R. Rocklin
1988  
An analysis of the processes influencing the structured dyadic learning environment. Educational Psychologist 23(1):23-37.

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Jacobs, G., and L.M. Icola
1990  
Disagreement Can Be Inviting: A Cooperative Learning Approach. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Boston.

Johnson, D.W., and R.T. Johnson 
1975
Learning Together and Alone:  Cooperation, Competition and Individualization. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. 
1979
Conflict in the classroom:  Controversy and learning.  Review of Educational Research 49:51-70.  
1983
Social interdependence and perceived academic and personal support in the classroom. Journal of Social Psychology 120:77-82. 
1985a
Classroom conflict: Controversy vs. debate in learning groups. American Educational Research Journal 22:237-256. 
1985b
The internal dynamics of cooperative learning groups. Pp. 103-124 in R. Slavin, S. Sharan, S. Kagan, R.H. Lazarowitz, C. Webb, and R. Schmuck, eds., Learning to Cooperate, Cooperating to Learn. New York: Plenum. 
1987
Research shows the benefits of adult cooperation. Educational Research 45:27-30. 
1989
Cooperation and Competition:  Theory and Research.  Edina, Minn.:  Interaction Book Company. 
1992a
Creative Controversy:  Intellectual Challenge in the Classroom.  Edina, Minn.: Interaction Book Company.
1992b
Positive interdependence:  Key to effective cooperation.  In R. Hertz-Lazarowitz and N. Miller, eds., Interaction in Cooperative Groups: The Theoretical Anatomy of Group Learning. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Johnson, D.W., R.T. Johnson, L.A. Buckman, and T.S. Richards
1985  
The effects of prolonged implementation of cooperative learning on social support within the classroom. Journal of Psychology 119(5):405-411.

Johnson, D.W., R.T. Johnson, and E. Holubec
1990  
Circles of Learning:  Cooperation in the Classroom.  Edina, Minn.:  Interaction Book Company.

Johnson, D.W., R.T. Johnson, W. Pierson, and V. Lyons
1985  
Controversy versus concurrence seeking in multi-grade and single-grade learning groups. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 22(9):835-848.

Johnson, D.W., R.T. Johnson, and K.A. Smith 
1986
Academic conflict among students: controversy and learning. In R. Feldman, ed., Social Psychological Applications to Education. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. 
1991a
Active Learning: Cooperation in the College Classroom. Edina, Minn.: Interaction Book Company. 
1991b
Cooperative Learning: Increasing College Faculty Instructional Productivity. ASHEERIC Higher Education Report No. 4. School of Education and Human Development, George Washington University.
Johnson, D.W., R.T. Johnson, A. Ortiz, and M. Stanne
1991  
Impact of positive goal and resource interdependence on achievement, interaction, and attitutes. Journal of General Psychology 118:341-347.

Johnson, R.T., R. Bjorkland, and M. Krotee
1983  
The effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic student interaction patterns on achievement and attitudes on the golf skill of putting. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 55:129-139.

Johnson, R.T., D.W. Johnson, and M.B. Stanne
1986  
Comparison of computer-assisted cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning. American Educational Research Journal 23(3):382-392.

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Johnson, R.T., D.W. Johnson, M.B. Stanne, A. Garibaldi
1990  
The impact of leader and member group processing on achievement in cooperative groups. Journal of Social Psychology 130:507-516.

Karp, D., and W. Yoels
1987  
The college classroom: Some observations on the meanings of student participation. Sociology and Social Research 60:421-439.

King, A.
1990  
Enhancing peer interaction and learning in the classroom through reciprocal questioning. American Educational Research Journal 27(4):664-687.

Knight, G.P., and E.M. Bohlmeyer
1990  
Cooperative learning and achievement:  Methods for assessing causal mechanisms. Pp. 1-22 in S. Sharan, ed., Cooperative Learning: Theory and Research. New York: Praeger.

Kohn, A.
1991  
Group grading grubbing versus cooperative learning. Educational Leadership 5:83-87.

Lambiotte, J.G., D.F. Dansereau, A.M. O'Donnell, M.D. Young, L.P. Skaggs, R.H. Hall, and T.R. Rocklin
1987  
Manipulating cooperative scripts for teaching and learning. Journal of Educational Psychology 79:424-430.

Larson, C.O., and D.F. Dansereau
1986  
Cooperative learning in dyads. Journal of Reading 29(6):516-520.

Larson, C.O., D.F. Dansereau, E. Goetz, and M.D. Young
1985a
Cognitive Style and Cooperative Learning: Transfer of Effects. Paper presented at the annual meeting, Southwest Educational Research Association, Austin, Texas.

Larson, C.O., D.F. Dansereau, V.I. Hythecker, A.M. O'Donnell, M. Young, J.G. Lambiotte, and T.R. Rocklin
1986 
Technical training:  An application of a strategy for learning structural and functional information. Contemporary Educational Psychology 11(3):217-228.

Larson, C.O., D.F. Dansereau, A.M. O'Donnell, V.I. Hythecker, J.G. Lambiotte, and T.R. Rocklin
1984  
Verbal ability and cooperative learning:  Transfer of effects. Journal of Reading Behavior 16(4):289-295. 1985b  Effects of metacognitive and elaborative activity on cooperative learning and transfer. Contemporary Educational Psychology 10(4):342-348.

Lewin, K.
1935
A Dynamic Theory of Personality. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1948 Resolving Social Conflicts. New York: Harper.

Lewis, R.B.
1991  
Creative teaching and learning in a statics class. Engineering Education JanuaryFebruary: 15-18.

Lowry, N., and D.W. Johnson
1981  
Effects of controversy on epistemic curiosity, achievement, and attitudes. Journal of Social Psychology 115:31-43.

Maier, N., and L. Hoffman
1964  
Financial incentives and group decision in motivating change.  Journal of Social Psychology 64:369-378.

Marks, M.
1991 
Cooperative Learning in Chemistry. College Park, Md.:  Center for Teaching Excellence.

McDonald, B.A., C.O. Larson, D.F. Dansereau, and J.E. Spurlin
1985  
Cooperative learning: Impact on knowledge acquisitions and skills. Contemporary Educational Psychology 10:369-377.

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McDonnell, T.M.
1990 
Joining hands and smarts:  Teaching manual legal research through collaborative learning groups. Journal of Legal Education 40(3):363-374.

Meloth, M.S., and P.D. Deering
1992 
Effects of two cooperative conditions on peer-group discussions, reading comprehension, and metacognition. Contemporary Educational Psychology 17:175-193.

Mesch, D., M. Lew, D.W. Johnson, and R.T. Johnson
1986 
Isolated teenagers, cooperative learning and the training of social skills. Journal of Psychology 120:323-334.

Mesch, D., D.W. Johnson, and R.T. Johnson
1988  
Impact of positive interdependence and academic group contingencies on achievement. Journal of Social Psychology 128(3):345-352.

Murray, F.B.
1982  
Teaching through social conflict.  Contemporary Educational Psychology 7:257271.

Nastasi, B.K., and D.H. Clements
1991  
Research on cooperative learning:  Implications for practice.  School Psychology Review 20(1):110-131.

Nemeth, C., and J. Wachtler
1983  
Creative problem solving as a result of majority vs. minority influence. European Journal of Social Psychology 13(1):45-55.

O'Donnell, A.M.
1992  
Scripted Cooperation:  Cognitive and Affective Consequences of Explicit Incentives. Paper presented at the International Association for the Study of Cooperation in Education, Utrecht, Holland.

O'Donnell, A.M., and D.F. Dansereau
1992  
Scripted cooperation in student dyads:  A method for analyzing and enhancing academic learning and performance. In N. Miller and R. Hertz-Lazarowitz, eds., Interaction in Cooperative Groups: The Theoretical Anatomy of Group Learning. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

O'Donnell, A.M., D.F. Dansereau, R.H. Hall, and T.R. Rocklin
1987  
Cognitive, social/affective, and metacognitive outcomes of scripted cooperative learning. Journal of Educational Psychology 79(4):421-437.

O'Malley, C., and E. Scanlon
1990  
Computer-supported collaborative learning:  Problem solving and distance education. Computers and Education 15(1-3):127-136.

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Palinscsar, A.S., and A.L. Brown
1989  
Classroom dialogue to promote self-regulated comprehension. Pp. 35-71 in J. Brophy, ed., Teaching for Understanding and Self-Regulated Learning. Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press.

Palmer, J., and J.T. Johnson
1989  
Jigsaw in a college classroom: Effect on student achievement and impact on student evaluations of teacher performance. Journal of Social Studies Research 13(1): 34-37.

Patterson, M.E., D.F. Dansereau, and D. Newbern
1992  
Effects of communication aids and strategies on cooperative teaching. Journal of Educational Psychology 84(4):453-461.

Patterson, M.E., D.F. Dansereau, and D.A. Wiegmann
1993  
Receiving information during a cooperative episode: Effects of communication aids and verbal ability. Learning and Individual Differences 5(1):1-11.

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1926  
Language and Thought of the Child. New York: Harcourt Brace.

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1988  
Elaborative interrogation facilitates acquisition on confusing facts. Journal of Educational Psychology 80(3):268-278.

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1980  
The role of elaboration in the comprehension and retention of prose:  A critical review. Review of Educational Research 49:5-53.

Rewey, K.L., D.F. Dansereau, S.M. Dees, L.P. Skaggs, and U. Pitre
1992  
Scripted cooperation and knowledge map supplements:  Effects on the recall of biological and statistical information. Journal of Experimental Education 60(2):3107.

Riggio, R.E., J.W. Fantuzzo, S. Connelly, and L.A. Dimeff
1991  
Reciprocal peer tutoring: A classroom strategy for promoting academic and social integration in undergraduate students. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 6:387-396.

Rocklin, T.R., A.M. O'Donnell, D.F. Dansereau, J.G. Lambiotte, V.I. Hythecker, and C.O. Larson
1985  
Training learning strategies with computer-aided cooperative learning. Computers and Education 9(I):67-74.

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1991  
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1976  
Oral summary as a review strategy for enhancing recall of textual material. Journal of Educational Psychology 68:689-695.

Ross J., and D. Raphael
1990  
Communication and problem-solving achievement in cooperative learning groups. Journal of Curriculum Studies 22(2): 149-164.

Salomon, G., and T. Globerson
1989  
When teams do not function the way they ought to. International Journal of Educational Research 13(1):89-98.

Segal, J.W., S. Chipman, and R. Glaser
1985  
Thinking and Learning Skills, Vol. 1: Relating Instruction to Research. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Sharan, S.
1990  
Cooperative Learning: Theory and Research. New York: Praeger.

Sharan, S., and C. Shachar
1988  
Language and Learning in the Cooperative Classroom. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Sherman, L.W.
1986  
Cooperative versus competitive educational psychology classrooms: A comparative study. Teaching and Teacher Education 2:283-295.

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CHAPTER 7

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Goldman, S.
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Personal manuscript. These papers are now part of the Smithsonian Collection and are quoted by C. Simons in "Supermarkets: How they grew." The Smithsonian 1980:112.

Grossack, M.
1953  
Some effects of cooperation and competition upon small group behavior. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 49:341-348.

Hagman, J., and J. Hayes
1986  
Cooperative learning: Effects of Task, Reward, and Group Size on Individual Achievement. Technical Report 704. Scientific Coordination Office, U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, Boise, Idaho (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 278 720).

Hamill, R., T. Wilson, and R. Nisbett
1980  
Insensitivity to sample bias: Generalizing from a typical case. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 39:578-589.

Harkins, S., and R. Petty
1982  
The effects of task difficulty and task uniqueness on social loafing.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 43:1214-1229.

Haynes, R.
1986  
The Relationship Between Adolescents' Body Image, Self-Esteem, Instrumental and Expressive Attitudes and Disturbed Eating Attitudes and Behaviors. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Department of Psychology, New York University.

Hedges, L.V., and I. Olkin
1985  
Statistical Methods for Meta-Analysis. Orlando, Fla.: Academic Press.

Helmreich, R., and J. Wilhelm
1989  
When training boomerangs:  Negative outcomes associated with cockpit resource management programs. Pp. 692-697 in R. Jenson, ed., Proceedings of the Fifth Symposium on Aviation Psychology. Columbus: Ohio State University.

Helmreich, R., J. Wilhelm, S. Gregorich, and T. Chidester
1990  
Preliminary results from the evaluation of cockpit resource management training: Performance ratings of flight crews. Aviation, Space, Environmental Medicine 61:576579.

Hicks, W., and R. Klimoski
1987  
Entry into training programs and its effects on training outcomes: A field experiment. Academy of Management Journal 30:542-552.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
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Holubec, E., D.W. Johnson, and R.T. Johnson
in press
Impact of cooperative learning on naval air-traffic controller training.  Journal of Social Psychology.

Hulten, B., and D. DeVries
1976
Team Competition and Group Practice:  Effects on Student Achievement and Attitudes. Report #212 Center for Social Organization of Schools, Johns Hopkins University.

Hwong, N., A. Caswell, D.W. Johnson, and R.T. Johnson
in press
Effects of cooperative and individualistic learning on prospective elementary teachers' music achievement and attitudes. Journal of Social Psychology.

Ingham, A., G. Levinger, J. Graves, and V. Peckham
1974  
The Ringelmann effect:  Studies of group size and group performance.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 10:371-384.

James, N., and D.W. Johnson
1983  
The relationship between attitudes toward social interdependence and psychological health within three criminal populations. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 121:131-143.

James, S., and D.W. Johnson
1988  
Social interdependence, psychological adjustment, orientation toward negative life stress, and quality of second marriage. Journal of Social Psychology 128(3):287304.

Johnson, D.W.
1974  
Communication and the inducement of cooperative behavior in conflicts: A critical review. Speech Monographs 41:64-78. 
1981  
Student-student interaction:  The neglected variable in education. Educational Researcher 10:5-10.

Johnson, D.W., and R.T. Johnson 
1974
Instructional goal structure: Cooperative, competitive, or individualistic. Review of Educational Research 44:213-240. 
1976
Students' perceptions of and preferences for cooperative and competitive learning experiences. Perceptual and Motor Skills 42:989-990. 
1979
Conflict in the classroom:  Controversy and learning.  Review of Educational Research 49:51-70. 
1981
Effects of cooperative and individualistic learning experiences on interethnic interaction. Journal of Educational Psychology 73:454-459. 
1989
Cooperation and Competition:  Theory and Research.  Edina, Minn.: Interaction Book Company. 
1994
Team Versus Individual Training for Adults. Unpublished report, Cooperative Learning Center, University of Minnesota.

Johnson, D.W., and F. Johnson
1994  
Joining Together: Group Theory and Group Skills, 5th ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Johnson, D.W., and A. Norem-Hebeisen
1977  
Attitudes toward interdependence among persons and psychological health. Psychological Reports 40:43-50.

Johnson, D.W., R.T. Johnson, J. Johnson, and D. Anderson
1976  
Effects of cooperative versus individualized instruction on student prosocial behavior, attitudes toward learning, and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology 68:446-452.

Johnson, D.W., L. Skon, and R.T. Johnson
1980  
Effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic conditions on children's problemsolving performance. American Educational Research Journal 17(1):83-93.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
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Page 337

Johnson, D.W., G. Maruyama, R.T. Johnson, D. Nelson, and L. Skon
1981  
Effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic goal structures on achievement: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin 89:47-62.

Johnson, D.W., A. Norem-Hebeisen, D. Anderson, and R.T. Johnson
1984  
Predictors and concomitants of changes in drug use patterns among teenagers. Journal of Social Psychology 124:43-50.

Johnson, D.W., R.T. Johnson, L. Buckman, and P. Richards
1986a
The effect of prolonged implementation of cooperative learning on social support within the classroom. Journal of Psychology 119:405-411.

Johnson, D.W., R.T. Johnson, and M. Krotee
1986b
The relationship between social interdependence and psychological health within the 1980 United States Olympic ice hockey team. Journal of Psychology 120:279292.

Johnson, D.W., R.T. Johnson, M. Stanne, and A. Garibaldi 
1989  
Impact of goal and resource interdependence on problem-solving success. Journal of Social Psychology 129:621-629. 
1990  
The impact of leader and member group processing on achievement in cooperative groups. The Journal of Social Psychology 130(4):507-516.

Johnson, D.W., R.T. Johnson, and E. Holubec
1991  
Cooperation in the Classroom. Edina, Minn.: Interaction Book Company.

Johnson, R.T.
1976  
The relationship between cooperation and inquiry in science classrooms. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 10:55-63.

Johnson, R.T., D.W. Johnson, and B. Bryant
1973  
Cooperation and competition in the classroom. Elementary School Journal 74:172181.

Johnson, R.T., F. Ryan, and H. Schroeder
1974 
Inquiry and the development of positive attitudes. Science Education 58:51-56.

Johnson, R.T., R. Bjorkland, and M. Krotee
1983  
The effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic student interaction patterns on achievement and attitudes on the golf skill of putting. Research Quarterly 55(2): 129-134.

Johnson, R.T., D.W. Johnson, and M. Stanne 
1985
The effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic goal structures on computer-assisted instruction. Journal of Educational Psychology 77:668-677. 
1986
A comparison of computer-assisted cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning. American Educational Research Journal 23:382-392.

Katz, D., and R. Kahn
1978  
The Social Psychology of Organizations, 2nd ed. New York: Wiley.

Kerr, N., and S. Bruun
1981  
Ringelmann revisited: Alternative explanations for the social loafing effect. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 7:224-231.

Kessler, R., and J. McLeod
1985  
Social support and mental health in community samples.  Pp. 219-240 in S. Cohen and S. Syme, eds., Social Support and Health. New York: Academic Press.

Kessler, R., R. Price, and C. Wortman
1985  
Social facts in psychopathology:  Stress, social support and coping processes. Annual Review of Psychology 36:531-572. Palo Alto, Calif.: Annual Reviews, Inc.

Kieras, D.
1988  
What mental model should be taught: Choosing instructional content for complex engineering systems. Pp. 85-111 in J. Psotka, L. Massey, and S. Mutter, eds., Intelligent Tutoring Systems: Lessons Learned. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
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Kieras, D., and S. Bovair
1984  
The role of a mental model in learning to operate a device. Cognitive Science 8:255273.

Kiesler, S., J. Siegel, and T. McGuire
1984  
Social psychological aspects of computer-mediated communication. American Psychologist 39(10):1123-1134.

Krauss, R. M., and M. Deutsch
1966  
Communication in interpersonal bargaining. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 4:572-577.

LaRocco, J., S. House, and J. French
1980  
Social support, occupational stress, and health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 21:202-218.

Lassiter, D., J. Vaughn, V. Smaltz, B. Morgan, and E. Salas
1990  
A Comparison of Two Types of Training Interventions on Team Communication Performance. Paper presented at the meeting of the Human Factors Society, Orlando, Fla.

Latane, B., K. Williams, and S. Harkins
1979  
Many hands make light the work: The causes and consequences of social loafing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37:822-832.

Lew, M., D. Mesch, D.W. Johnson, and R.T. Johnson 
1986a
Components of cooperative learning: Effects of collaborative skills and academic group contingencies on achievement and mainstreaming. Contemporary Educational Psychology 11:229-239. 
1986b
Positive interdependence, academic and collaborative-skills group contingencies and isolated students. American Educational Research Journal 23:476-488.

Lewin, K.
1943  
Forces Behind Food Habits and Methods of Change.  The Problem of Changing Food Habits. NRC Bulletin No. 108. Committee on Food Habits. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council.

Lockhead, J.
1983  
Beyond Emile:  Misconceptions of Education in the Twenty-First Century. Paper presented at American Educational Research Association annual meeting, Montreal, Quebec.

Lorge, I., and H. Solomon
1955  
Two models of group behavior in the solution of eureka type problems. Psychometrika 20:139-148.

Marquart, D.J.
1955  
Group problem-solving. Journal of Social Psychology 41:103-113.

Martino, L., and D.W. Johnson
1979 
Cooperative and individualistic experiences among disabled and normal children. Journal of Social Psychology 107:177-183.

Marx, R., and R. Karren
1990  
The Effects of Relapse Prevention and Post-Training Followup on Time Management Behavior. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academic Management, San Francisco.

Mathieu, J., S. Tannenbaum, and E. Salas
1990  
A Casual Model of Individual and Situational Influences on Training Effectiveness Measures. Paper presented at the 5th annual conference on Social, Industrial, and Organizational Psychology, Miami.

McGrath, J., and D. Kravitz
1982  
Group research. In L. Porter and M. Rosenzweig, eds., Annual Review of Psychology 33:195-230. Palo Alto, Calif.: Annual Reviews, Inc.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
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McGuire, T., S. Kiesler, and J. Siegel
1987  
Group and computer-mediated discussion effects in risk decision making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52:917-930.

Mehrabian, A.
1971  
Silent Messages.  Belmont, Calif.:  Wadsworth.

Mesch, D., M. Lew, D.W. Johnson, and R.T. Johnson
1986  
Isolated teenagers, cooperative learning and the training of social skills. Journal of Psychology 120:323-334.

Mesch, D., D.W. Johnson, and R.T. Johnson
1988 
Impact of positive interdependence and academic group contingencies on achievement. Journal of Social Psychology 128:345- 352.

Messick, D., and M. Brewer
1983  
Solving social dilemmas: A review. In L. Wheeler and P. Shaver, eds., Review of Personality and Social Psychology 4:11-44. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Miller, L., and L. Hamblin
1963  
Interdependence, differential rewarding, and productivity.  American Sociological Review 28:768-778.

Miller, N., and H. Harrington
1990  
A situational identity perspective on cultural diversity and teamwork in the classroom. Pp. 39-75 in S. Sharon, ed., Cooperative Learning: Theory and Application. New York: Praeger.

Modrick, J.
1986  
Team performance and training. Pp. 130-166 in J. Zeidner, ed., Training and Human Factors in Systems Design Vol. 1: Human Productivity Enhancement. New York: Praeger.

Moede, W.
1927  
Die richtlinien der leistungs-psychologie. Industrielle Psychotechnik 4:193-207.

Morgan, B., and E. Salas
1988  
A research agenda for team training and performance:  Issues, alternatives, and solutions. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industrial Training Systems Conference 10:560-565.

Morse, K., M. Kysilka, and O. Davis
1970  
Effects of Different Types of Supervisory Feedback on Teacher Candidates' Development of Refocusing Behaviors. Report Series No. 48, Austin Research and Development Center for Teacher Education, University of Texas.

Murray, F.
1983  
Cognitive Benefits of Teaching on the Teacher. Paper presented at American Educational Research Association annual meeting, Montreal, Quebec.

Nel, E., R. Helmreich, and E. Aronson
1969  
Opinion change in the advocate as a function of the persuasibility of its audience: A clarification of the meaning of dissonance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 12:117-124.

Nisbett, R.E., E. Borgida, R. Crandell, and H. Reed
1976  
Popular induction:  Information is not always informative.  In J. Carrol and J. Payne, eds., Cognition and Social Behavior. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Norem-Hebeisen, A., and D.W. Johnson
1981  
Relationships between cooperative, competitive, and individualistic attitudes and differentiated aspects of self-esteem. Journal of Personality 49:415-425.

O'Neil, H., E. Baker, and E. Kazlauskas
1992  
Assessment of team performance.  In R. Swezey and E. Salas, eds., Teams:  Their Training and Performance. Norwood, N.J.: Ablex.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
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Orasanu, J., and E. Salas
1993  
Team decision making in complex environments.  In G. Klein, J. Orasanu, and R. Calderwood, eds., Decision Making in Action: Models and Methods. Norwood, N.J.: Ablex.

Orbell, J., R. Dawes, and A. van de Kragt
1988  
Explaining discussion induced cooperation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54:811-819.

Pentland, B.
1989 
The Learning Curve and the Forgetting Curve: The Importance of Time and Timing in the Implementation of Technological Innovations. Paper presented at the 49th annual meeting of Academic Management, Washington, D.C.

Perry, P., and S. Downs
1985  
Skills, strategies, and ways of learning. Programmed Learning and Education Technology 22:177-181.

Petty, R.
1977  
A Cognitive Response Analysis of the Temporal Persistence of Attitude Changes Induced by Persuasive Communications. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Department of Psychology, Ohio State University, Columbus.

Petty, R., S. Harkins, K. Williams, and B. Latane
1977  
The effects of group size on cognitive effort and evaluation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 3:575-578.

Putnam, J., J. Rynders, R.T. Johnson, and D.W. Johnson
1989  
Collaborative skills instruction for promoting positive interactions between mentally handicapped and nonhandicapped children. Exceptional Children 55:550-557.

Qin, A.
1992  
A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Achieving Higher Order Learning Tasks in Cooperative Learning Compared with Competitive Learning. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Educational Psychology, University of Minnesota.

Radke, M., and E. Caso
1948  
Lecture and discussion-decision as methods of influencing food habits. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 24:23-41.

Radke, M., and D. Klisurich
1947  
Experiments in changing food habits. Reported in K. Lewin, Group decision and social change. In E. Maccoby, T. Newcomb, and E. Hartley, eds., Readings in Social Psychology. New York: Henry Holt and Company.

Rogers, E., and F. Shoemaker
1977  
Communication of Innovations:  A Cross-Cultural Approach.  New York:  Free Press.

Rouillier, J., and I. Goldstein
1991  
Determinants of the Climate for Transfer of Training. Paper presented at the Meetings of the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, St. Louis, Mo.

Rowe, M.
1974  
Wait-time and rewards as instructional variables. Journal of Research on Science Teaching 11:81-94.

Ruffell-Smith, H.
1979  
A Simulator Study of the Interaction of Pilot Workload with Errors, Vigilance, and Decisions. NASA technical memorandum-78482. NASA-Ames Research Center: Moffett Field, Calif.

Sanna, L.
1992  
Self-efficacy theory: Implication for social facilitation and social loafing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 62:774-786.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
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Sarason, I., and E. Potter
1983  
Self-Monitoring:  Cognitive Processes and Performance.  Seattle:  University of Washington.

Sarason, I., H. Levine, R. Basham, and B. Sarason
1983  
Assessing social support: The social support questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 44:127-139.

Schachter, S.
1959  
The Psychology of Affiliation. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.

Seers, A., G. McGee, T. Serey, and G. Graen
1983  
The interaction of job stress and social support. Academy of Management Journal 26:273-284.

Short, J., E. Williams, and B. Christie
1976
The Social Psychology of Telecommunications. London: Wiley.

Siegel, J., V. Dubrovsky, S. Kiesler, and T. McGuire
1986  
Group processes in computer-mediated communication.  Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 37:157-187.

Skon, L., D.W. Johnson, and R.T. Johnson
1981  
Cooperative peer interaction versus individual competition and individualistic efforts: Effects on the acquisition of cognitive reasoning strategies. Journal of Educational Psychology 73(1):83-92.

Smoke, W.H., and R.B. Zajonc
1962  
On the reliability of group judgments and decisions. In H. Criswell, H. Solomon, and P. Suppes, eds., Mathematical Methods in Small Group Processes. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.

Spurlin, J., D. Dansereau, C. Larson, and L. Brooks
1984  
Cooperative learning strategies in processing descriptive text: Effects of role and activity level of the learner. Cognition and Instruction 1(4):451-463.

Steiner, J.
1967  
Observing responses and uncertainty reduction. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 19:18-29.

Taylor, D.W.
1954  
Problem solving by groups.  In Proceedings XIV, International Congress of Psychology. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: North Holland Publishing.

Taylor, S., and S. Thompson
1982  
Stalking the elusive ''vividness" effect. Psychological Review 89:155-181.

Tjosvold, D. 
1990a
Cooperation and competition in restructuring an organization. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences 7:48-54. 
1990b 
Cooperation and Competition Theory: Antecedents, Interactions, and Consequences in 1,000 Incidents. Burnaby, British Columbia: Simon Fraser University. 
1990c 
Flight crew coordination to manage safety risks. Group and Organizational Studies 15:177-191. 
1990d
Making a technological innovation work: Collaboration to solve problems. Human Relations 43:1117-1131. 
1991  
Team Organization. New York: John Wiley.

Tjosvold, D., and L. McNeely
1988  
Innovation through communication in an educational bureaucracy. Communication Research 15:568-581.

Trevino, L., R.H. Lengel, and R.L. Daft
1987  
Media symbolism, media richness, and media choice in organizations: A symbolic interactionist perspective. Communication Research 14:553-574.

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Tuckman, B., K. McCall, and R. Hyman
1969  
The modification of teacher behavior:  Effects of dissonance and coded feedback. American Educational Research Journal 6:607-619.

Turk, S., and I. Sarason
1983  
Test Anxiety and Causal Attributions. Seattle: University of Washington.

Vasquez, B., D.W. Johnson, and R.T. Johnson
1993  
Impact of cooperative learning on performance and retention of navy air-traffic controller trainees. Journal of Social Psychology 133:769-783.

Warring, D., D.W. Johnson, G. Maruyama, and R.T. Johnson
1985  
Impact of different types of cooperative learning on cross-ethnic and cross-sex relationships. Journal of Educational Psychology 77:53-59.

Watson, G., and D.W. Johnson
1972 
Social Psychology: Issues and Insights. Philadelphia: Lippincott.

Webb, N.
1982  
Student interaction and learning in small groups. Review of Educational Research 52:421-445.

Wheeler, R., and F. Ryan
1973  
Effects of cooperative and competitive classroom environments on the attitudes and achievement of elementary school students engaged in social studies inquiry activities. Journal of Educational Psychology 65(3):402-407.

Williams, K.
1981  
The Effects of Group Cohesiveness on Social Loafing.  Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association, Detroit.

Williams, K., S. Harkins, and B. Latane
1981 
Identifiability as a deterrent to social loafing: Two cheering experiments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 40:303-311.

Yager, S., D.W. Johnson, and R.T. Johnson
1985  
Oral discussion, group-to-individual transfer, and achievement in cooperative learning groups. Journal of Educational Psychology 77:60-66.

CHAPTER 8

Abramson, L.Y., M.E.P. Seligman, and J.D. Teasdale
1978  
Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 87:49-74.

Ames, C. 
1981  
Competitive, cooperative and individualistic goal structures: The influence of individual and group performance factors on achievement attributions and affect. American Educational Research Journal 18:273-287. 
1984  
Competitive, cooperative, and individualistic goal structures: A cognitive-motivational analysis. Pp. 177-208 in R. Ames and C. Ames, eds., Research on Motivation in Education: Vol 1. Student Motivation. New York: Academic Press. 
1992 
Achievement goals, motivational climate, and motivational processer. Pp. 161-176 in G.C. Roberts, ed., Motivation in Sport and Exercise. Champaign, III.: Human Kinetics.

Anderson, J.G., and F.B. Evans
1974  
Causal models in educational research:  Recursive models. American Educational Research Journal 11:29-39.

Bandura, A.
1977  
Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change.  Psychological Review 84:191-215.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
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Page 343

1982
Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist 37:122-147. 
1984
Recycling misconceptions of perceived self-efficacy.  Cognitive Therapy and Research 8:231-255. 
1986
Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. 
1988
Self-efficacy conception of anxiety. Anxiety Research 1:77-98. 
1989
Human agency in social cognitive theory. American Psychologist 44:1175-1184. 
1990
Perceived self-efficacy in the exercise of personal agency. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology 2:128-163.

Bandura, A., and N.E. Adams
1977  
Analysis of self-efficacy theory of behavioral change.  Cognitive Therapy and Research 1:287-308.

Bandura, A., and D. Cervone
1983  
Self-evaluative and self-efficacy mechanisms governing the motivational effects of goal systems. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 45:1017-1028.

Bandura, A., and D. Schunk
1981  
Cultivating competence, self-efficacy, and intrinsic interest through proximal selfmotivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 41:586-598.

Bandura, A., and K.M. Simon
1977  
The role of proximal intentions in self-regulation of refractory behavior. Cognitive Therapy and Research 1:177-193.

Bandura, A., N.E. Adams, and J. Beyer
1977  
Cognitive processes mediating behavioral change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 35:125-139.

Bandura, A., L. Reese, and N.E. Adams
1982  
Microanalysis of action and fear arousal as a function of differential levels of perceived self-efficacy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 43:5-21.

Baumeister, R.F.
1989 
The optimal margin of illusion. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 8:176189.

Betz, N.E., and G. Hackett
1981  
The relationship of career-related self-efficacy expectations to perceived career options in college women and men. Journal of Counseling Psychology 23:399-410.

Biglan, A.
1987  
A behavior-analytic critique of Bandura's self-efficacy theory. Behavior Analyst 10:1-15.

Biram, M., and G.T. Wilson
1981  
Treatment of phobic disorders using cognitive and exposure methods:  A self-efficacy analysis. Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology 49:886-899.

Bird, A.M., and J.M. Brame
1978  
Self versus team attributions: A test of the "I'm OK, but the team's so-so" phenomenon. Research Quarterly 49:260-268.

Brockner, J.
1988  
Self-Esteem at Work: Research, Theory, and Practice. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books.

Brody, E.B., B.D. Hatfield, and T.W. Spalding
1988  
Generalization of self-efficacy to a continuum of stressors upon mastery of a highrisk sport skill. Journal of Sport Psychology 10:32-44.

Brown, I., Jr., and D.K. Inouye
1978  
Learned helplessness through modeling: The role of perceived similarity in competence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 36:900-908.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
×

Page 344

Campbell, N.D., and G. Hackett
1986  
The effects of mathematics task performances on math self-efficacy and task interest. Journal of Vocational Behavior 28:149-162.

Carver, C.S., and M.F. Scheier 
1981  
Attention and Self-Regulation:  A Control Theory Approach to Human Behavior. New York: Springer-Verlag. 
1990  
Origins and functions of positive and negative affect:  A control-process view. Psychological Review 97:19-35.

Cervone, D., and P.K. Peake
1986  
Anchoring, efficacy, and action:  The influence of judgmental heuristics on selfefficacy judgments and behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 50:492-501.

Chase, M.A., C.D. Lirgg, and D.L. Feltz
1993  
Do Coaches Efficacy Expectations Predict Team Performance?  Paper presented at North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity meeting, Brainerd, Minn.

Collins, J.
1982  
Self-Efficacy and Ability in Achievement Behavior. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York.

Cook, T.D., and D.T. Campbell
1979  
Quasi-Experimentation:  Design and Analysis Issues for Field Settings.  Chicago: Rand McNally.

Corbin, C.B., D.R. Laurie, C. Gruger, and B. Smiley
1984  
Vicarious success experience as a factor influencing self-confidence, attitudes, and physical activity of adult women. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 4:17-23.

DiClemente, C.C.
1981  
Self-efficacy and smoking cessation maintenance: A preliminary report. Cognitive Therapy and Research 5:175-187.

Dowrick, P.W.
1983  
Self modelling.  Pp. 105-124 in P.W. Dowrick and S.J. Biggs, eds., Using Video: Psychological and Social Applications. London: Wiley.

Dubbert, P.M., and G.T. Wilson
1984  
Goal-setting and spouse involvement in the treatment of obesity.  Behavior Research and Therapy 22:227-242.

Duncan, O.D.
1975  
Introduction to Structural Equation Models. New York: Academic Press.

Dweck, C.S.
1986 
Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist 41:1040-1048.

Dweck, C.S., and E.L. Leggett
1988  
A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review 95:256-273.

Dzewaltowski, D.A.
1989  
Toward a model of exercise motivation. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 11:251-269.

Dzewaltowski, D.A., J.M. Noble, and J.M. Shaw
1990  
Physical activity participation:  Social cognitive versus the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 12:388405.

Earley, P.C.
1993  
East meets West meets Mideast: Further explorations of collectivistic and individualistic work groups. Academy of Management Journal 36:319-348.

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Earley, P.C., and T.R. Lituchy
1991  
Delineating goal and efficacy effects: A test of three models. Journal of Applied Psychology 76:81-98.

Eastman, C., and J.S. Marzillier
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Theoretical and methodological difficulties in Bandura's self-efficacy theory. Cognitive Therapy and Research 8:213-230.

Eden, D.
1990  
Pygmalion in Management. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books.

Eden, D., and G. Ravid
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Pygmalion versus self-expectancy:  Effects of instructor and self-expectancy on trainee performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 30:351364.

Eden, D., and A.B. Shani
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Pygmalion goes to boot camp:  Expectancy, leadership, and trainee performance. Journal of Applied Psychology 67:194-199.

Elliott, E.S., and C.S. Dweck
1988  
Goals:  An approach to motivation and achievement.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54:5-12.

Erez, M.
1977  
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Ericsson, K.A., R.T. Krampe, and C. Tesch-Romen
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Evans, M.G.
1974  
Extensions of a path-goal theory of motivation.  Journal of Applied Psychology 59:172-178.

Feltz, D.L. 
1982  
Path analysis of the causal elements in Bandura's theory of self-efficacy and an anxiety-based model of avoidance behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 42:764-781. 
1988a 
Gender differences in the causal elements of self-efficacy on a high-avoidance motor task. Journal of Sport Psychology 10:151-166. 
1988b
Self-confidence and sports performance. Pp. 423-456 in K.B. Pandolf, ed., Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews. New York: MacMillan.

Feltz, D.L., and D.A. Mugno
1983  
A replication of the path analysis of the causal elements in Bandura's theory of selfefficacy and the influence of autonomic perception. Journal of Sport Psychology 5:263-277.

Feltz, D.L., and C.A. Riessinger
1990  
Effects of in vivo emotive imagery and performance feedback on self-efficacy and muscular endurance. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 12:132-143.

Feltz, D.L., D.M. Landers, and U. Raeder
1979  
Enhancing self-efficacy in high-avoidance motor tasks: A comparison of modeling techniques. Journal of Sport Psychology 74:884-891.

Feltz, D.L., A. Bandura, and C.D. Lirgg
1989  
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Feltz, D.L., R. Neff, and M. Chase
1992  
Effects of Early Success on Self-Efficacy and Persistence. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Physical Education and Exercise Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
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Fennema, E.H., and J.A. Sherman
1978  
Sex-related differences in mathematics achievement and related factors: A further study. Journal of Research in Mathematics Education 9:189-203.

Festinger, L.
1942  
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Fishbein, M., and I. Ajzen
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Fitzsimmons, P.A., D.M. Landers, J.R. Thomas, and H. Vander Mars
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Frank, J.D. 
1935  
Individual differences in certain aspects of the level of aspiration. American Journal of Psychology 47:119-128. 
1941  
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Frese, M., and J. Sabini, eds.
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Goal Directed Behavior:  The Concept of Action in Psychology.  Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Fulk, J., and E.R. Wendler
1982  
Dimensionality of leader-subordinate interactions:  A path-goal investigation. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 30:241-264.

Garland, H.
1983  
Influence and ability assigned goals and normative information on personal goals and performance: A challenge to the goal attainability assumption. Journal of Applied Psychology 68:20-30.

Garland, H., R. Weinberg, L. Bruya, and A. Jackson
1988  
Self-efficacy and endurance performance:  A longitudinal field test of cognitive mediation theory. Applied Psychology: An International Review 37:381-394.

George, T.R., D.L. Feltz, and M.A. Chase
1992  
Effects of model similarity on self-efficacy and muscular endurance.  Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 14:237-248.

Girodo, M., and D. Wood
1979  
Talking yourself out of pain: The importance of believing that you can. Cognitive Therapy, and Research 3:23-33.

Gist, M.E. 
1989a
Effects of alternative training methods on self-efficacy and performance in computer software training. Journal of Applied Psychology 74:884-891. 
1989b
The influence of training method on self-efficacy and idea generation among managers. Personnel Psychology 42:787-805.

Gist, M.E., C. Schwoerer, and B. Rosen
1989  
Effects of alternative training methods on self-efficacy and performance in computer software training. Journal of Applied Psychology 74:884-891.

Gould, D., and M. Weiss
1981  
Effect of model similarity and model self-talk on self-efficacy in muscular endurance. Journal of Sport Psychology 3:17-29.

Griffin, N.S., and J.F. Keogh
1982  
A model for movement confidence. Pp. 213-236 in J.A.S. Kelso and J. Clark, eds., The Development of Movement Control and Coordination. New York: Wiley.

Hackett, G.
1985  
The role of mathematics self-efficacy in the choice of math-related majors of

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Hackett, T.P., and N.H. Cassem
1974  
Development of a quantitative rating scale to assess denial. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 18:93-100.

Halisch, F., and J. Kuhl, eds.
1987  
Motivation, Intention, and Volition. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Harter, S. 
1978 
Effectance motivation reconsidered: Toward a developmental model. Human Development 21:34-64. 
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The development of competence motivation in the master of cognitive and physical skills: Is there still a place for joy? Pp. 3-29 in G.C. Roberts and D.M. Landers, eds., Psychology of Motor Behavior and Sport, 1980.  Champaign, III.:  Human Kinetics.

Hattie, J.
1992  
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Horn, T.S.
1985  
Coaches' feedback and changes in children's perceptions of their physical competence. Journal of Educational Psychology 77:174-186.

House, R.J., and T.R. Mitchell
1974  
Path-goal theory of leadership. Contemporary Business (Fall), 3:81-98.

Jones, M.B.
1974  
Regressing group on individual effectiveness. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 11:426-451.

Jourden, F.J., A. Bandura, and J.T. Banfield
1991  
The impact of conceptions of ability on self-regulatory factors and motor skill acquisition. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 8:213-226.

Juneau, M., F. Rogers, A. Bandura, C.D. Taylor, and R.F. DeBusk
1986  
Cognitive Processing of Treadmill Experiences and Self-Appraisal of Cardiac Capabilities. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Psychology, Stanford University.

Kanfer, F.H. 
1990a 
Motivation and individual differences in learning: An integration of developmental differential, and cognitive perspectives. Learning and Individual Differences 2:219237. 
1990b
Motivation theory and industrial/organizational psychology.  Pp. 75-170 in M.S. Donnette and L. Hough, eds., Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2d ed., Vol. 1. Palo Alto, Calif.: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Kanfer, R., and P.L. Ackerman
1989  
Motivation and cognitive abilities: An integrative/aptitude-treatment interaction approach to skill acquisition [monograph]. Journal of Applied Psychology 74:657690.

Kaplan, R.M., C.J. Atkins, and S. Reinsch
1984  
Specific efficacy expectations mediate exercise compliance in patients with COPD. Health Psychology 3:223-242.

Kavanagh, D., and S. Hausfeld
1986  
Physical performance and self-efficacy under happy and sad moods.  Journal of Sport Psychology 8:112-123.

Keinan, G.
1988  
Training for dangerous task performance: The effects of expectations and feedback. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 18:255-273.

Kent, G.
1987  
Self-efficacious control over reported physiological, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms of dental anxiety. Behavior Research and Therapy 25:341-347.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
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Kent, G., and R. Gibbons
1987  
Self-efficacy and the control of anxious cognitions.  Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 18:33-40.

Kerr, N.L.
1989  
Illusions of efficacy:  The effects of group size on perceived efficacy in social dilemmas. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 25:287-313.

Kirsch, I.
1985  
Self-efficacy and expectancy:  Old wine with new labels. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 49:824-830.

Kirschenbaum, D.S.
1985  
Proximity and specificity of planning:  A position paper.  Cognitive Therapy and Research 9:489-506.

Kirschenbaum, D.S., L.L. Humphrey, and S.D. Malett
1981  
Specificity of planning in adult self-control:  An applied investigation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 40:941-950.

Kirschenbaum, D.S., S.D. Malett, L.L. Humphrey, and A.J. Tomarken
1982  
Specificity of planning and the maintenance of adult self-control: One-year followup of a study improvement program. Behavior Therapy 13:232-240.

Kuhl, J. 
1984  
Volitional aspects of achievement motivation and learned helplessness:  Toward a comprehensive theory of action control. Pp. 99-171 in B.A. Maher, ed., Progress in Experimental Personality Research, Vol. 13. New York: Academic Press. 
1992  
A theory of self-regulation: Action versus state orientation, self-discrimination, and some applications. Applied Psychology: An International Review 41:97-129.

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1979  
Many hands make light the work: The causes and consequences of social loafing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37:823-832.

Lazarus, R.S.
1979  
Positive denial: The case of not facing reality. Psychology Today June:44-60.

Lee, C.
1989  
Theoretical weaknesses lead to practical problems:  The example of self-efficacy theory. Journal of Behavioral Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 20:115-123.

Lent, R.W., and G. Hackett
1987  
Career self-efficacy: Empirical status and future directions. Journal of Vocational Behavior 30:347-382.

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1944  
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Lewis, S.
1974  
A comparison of behavior therapy techniques in the reduction of fearful avoidance behavior. Behavior Therapy 5:648-655.

Lirgg, C.D.
1991  
Gender differences in self-confidence in physical activity: A meta-analysis of recent studies. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 13:294-310.

Litt, M.D.
1988  
Self-efficacy and perceived control: Cognitive mediators of pain tolerance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54:149-160.

Locke, E.A., and G.P. Latham
1990
A Theory of Goal Setting and Task Performance. New York: Prentice-Hall.

Locke, E.A., E. Frederick, C. Lee, and P. Bobko
1984  
Effect of self-efficacy, goals, and task strategies on task performance.  Journal of Applied Psychology 69:241-251.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
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Manderlink, G., and J.M. Harackiewicz
1984  
Proximal versus distal goal setting and intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 47:918-928.

Manning, M.M., and T.L. Wright
1983  
Self-efficacy expectancies, outcome expectancies, and the persistence of pain control in childbirth. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 45:421-431.

Markus, H., and Z. Kunda
1986  
Stability and malleability of the self-concept.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 51:858-866.

Matsui, T.
1987  
Self-efficacy and perceived exerted effort as potential cues for success-failure attributions. Surugadi University Studies 1:89-98.

Matsui, T., and M.L. Onglatco
1991 
Instrumentality, expressiveness, and self-efficacy in career activities among Japanese working women. Journal of Vocational Behavior 39:241-250.

McAuley, E. 
1985  
Modeling and self-efficacy: A test of Bandura's model. Journal of Sport Psychology 7:283-295. 
1990  
Attributions, Affect, and Self-Efficacy: Predicting Exercise Behavior in Aging Adults. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Society, Dallas. 
1991  
Efficacy and attributional determinants of affective reactions to exercise participation. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 13:382-394. 
1992  
Understanding exercise behavior: A self-efficacy perspective. Pp. 107-127 in G.C. Roberts, ed., Motivation in Sport and Exercise. Champaign, Ill.: Human Kinetics.

McAuley, E., and L.B. Jacobson
1991  
Self-efficacy and exercise participation in sedentary female exercise patterns. American Journal of Health Promotion 5:185-191.

Meyer, W.
1982  
Indirect communications about perceived ability estimates. Journal of Educational Psychology 74:888-897.

Nicholls, J.G.
1984  
Achievement motivation: Conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice and performance. Psychological Review 91:328-346.

O'Leary, A.
1985  
Self-efficacy and health. Behavioral Research and Therapy 23:437-451.

Ozer, E.M., and A. Bandura
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Parker, L.E.
1992  
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Pervin, L.A.
1989  
Goal Concepts in Personality and Social Psychology.  Hillsdale, N.J.:  Lawrence Erlbaum.

Peterson, C., and L.M. Bossio
1991  
Health and Optimism: New Research on the Relationship Between Positive Thinking and Physical Well-Being. New York: The Free Press.

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1966  
Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs 80:(1, Whole No. 609).

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Sanna, L.J.
1992  
Self-efficacy theory: Implication for social facilitation and social loafing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 62:774-786.

Scheier, M.F., and C.S. Carver
1992  
Effects of optimism on psychological and physical well-being:  Theoretical overview and empirical update. Cognitive Therapy and Research 16:201-228.

Schunk, D.H. 
1981  
Modeling and attributional effects on children's achievement: A self-efficacy analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology 73:93-105. 
1983a 
Ability versus effort attributional feedback: Differential effects of self-efficacy and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology 75:848-856. 
1983b 
Goal difficulty and attainment information:  Effects on children's achievement behaviors. Human Learning 2:107-117. 
1983c 
Reward contingencies and the development of children's skills and self-efficacy. Journal of Educational Psychology 75:511-518. 
1984a 
Enhancing self-efficacy and achievement through rewards and goals:  Motivational and informational effects. Journal of Educational Research 78:29-34. 
1984b
Self-efficacy perspective on achievement behavior. Educational Psychologist 19:48-58. 1985 Self-efficacy and classroom learning. Psychology in the Schools 22:208-223.

Schunk, D.H., and P.D. Cox
1986  
Strategy training feedback with learning disabled students. Journal of Educational Psychology 78:201-209.

Schunk, D.H., and T.P. Gunn
1986  
Self-efficacy and skill development:  Influence of task strategies and attributions. Journal of Educational Research 79:238-244.

Schunk, D.H., and J.M. Rice
1986  
Extended attributional feedback: Sequence effects during remedial reading instruction. Journal of Early Adolescence 6:55-66.

Smith, R.E., F.L. Smoll, and B. Curtis
1979  
Coach effectiveness training:  A cognitive-behavioral approach to enhancing relationship skills in youth sport coaches. Journal of Sport Psychology 1:59-75.

Spink, K.S.
1990  
Group cohesion and collective efficacy of volleyball teams. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 12:301-311.

Strang, H.R., E.C. Lawrence, and P.C. Fowler
1978  
Effects of assigned goal level and knowledge of results on arithmetic computation: Laboratory study. Journal of Applied Psychology 63:446-450.

Stock, J., and D. Cervone
1990  
Proximal goal-setting and self-regulatory processes.  Cognitive Therapy and Research 14:483-498.

Taylor, C.B., A. Bandura, C.K. Ewart, N.H. Miller, and R.F. DeBusk
1985  
Raising spouse's and patient's perception of his cardiac capabilities after clinically uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction. American Journal of Cardiology 55:635638.

Taylor, S.E., and J.D. Brown
1988  
Illusion and well-being: A social psychological perspective on mental health. Psychological Bulletin 103:193-210.

Tubbs, M.E.
1986  
Goal setting:  A meta-analytic examination of the empirical evidence.  Journal of Applied Psychology 71:474-483.

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Vallerand, R.J.
1983  
The effects of differential amounts of positive verbal feedback on the intrinsic motivation of male hockey players. Journal of Sport Psychology 5:100-107.

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1986  
Conceptualization of sport-confidence and competitive orientation:  Preliminary investigation and instrument development. Journal of Sport Psychology 8:221-246.

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1985
Relationship between self-efficacy and cognitive strategies in enhancing endurance performance. International Journal of Sport Psychology 17:280-293. 
1992  
Goal-setting and motor performance:  A review and critique. Pp. 177-198 in G.C. Roberts, ed., Motivation in Sport and Exercise. Champaign, III.: Human Kinetics.

Weinberg, R., D. Gould, and A. Jackson
1979  
Expectations and performance: An empirical test of Bandura's self-efficacy theory. Journal of Sport Psychology 1:320-331.

Weinberg, R., M. Sinardi, and A. Jackson
1982  
Effect of bar height and modeling on anxiety, self-confidence and gymnastic performance. International Gymnast 2:11-13.

Wilkes, R.L., and J.J. Summers
1984  
Cognitions, mediating variables, and strength performance.  Journal of Sport Psychology 6:351-359.

Wood, R.E., and A. Bandura
1989  
Impact of conceptions of ability on self-regulatory mechanisms and complex decision-making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 56:407-415.

Wood, R.E., A.J. Mento, and E.A. Locke
1987  
Task complexity as a moderator of goal effects:  A meta-analysis.  Journal of Applied Psychology 72:416-425.

Wood, R.E., A. Bandura, and T. Bailey
1990  
Mechanisms governing performance in complex decision-making environments. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 46:181-201.

Yan Lan, L., and D.L. Gill
1984  
The relationships among self-efficacy, stress responses, and a cognitive feedback manipulation. Journal of Sport Psychology 6:227-238.

Yukl, G.A.
1989  
Leadership in Organizations, 2d ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Zander, A.
1971 
Motives and Goals in Groups. New York: Academic.

Zimmerman, B.J., and J. Ringle
1981  
Effects of model persistence and statements of confidence on children's self-efficacy and problem solving. Journal of Educational Psychology 73:485-493.

Zimmerman, B.J., A. Bandura, and M. Martinez-Pons
1992  
Self-motivation for academic attainment: The role of self-efficacy beliefs and personal goal setting. American Educational Research Journal 29:663-676.

CHAPTER 9

Aarons, L.
1977  
Sleep-assisted instruction. Psychological Bulletin 83:1-40.

Adams, H.B.
1990  
The incredible history of REST technology.  Pp. 11-28 in J.W. Turner and T.H. Fine, eds., Restricted Environmental Stimulation: Research and Commentary. Toledo: Medical College of Ohio Press.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
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Alexander, C.N., and E.J. Langer, eds.
1990
Higher Stages of Human Development: Perspectives on Adult Growth. New York: Oxford University Press.

Alexander, C.N., M.V. Rainforth, and P. Gelderloos
1991  
Transcendental Meditation, self-actualization, and psychological health: A conceptual overview and statistical meta-analysis. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 6:189-247.

American Medical Association 
1958
Medical use of hypnosis. Journal of the American Medical Association 168:186189. 1985 Scientific status of refreshing recollection by the use of hypnosis. Journal of the American Medical Association 253:1918-1923.

As, A.
1962  
The recovery of forgotten language knowledge through hypnotic age regression: A case report. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 5:24-29.

Ault, R.L.
1979  
FBI guidelines for use of hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 27:449-451.

Banyai, E.I., and E.R. Hilgard
1976  
A comparison of active-alert hypnotic induction with traditional relaxation induction. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 85:218-224.

Barabasz, A., M. Barabasz, and J. Bauman
1993  
Restricted environmental stimulation technique improves human marksmanship. Perceptual and Motor Skills 76:867-873.

Barabasz, M., and A. Barabasz
1987  
Controlling experimental and situational demand variables in restricted environmental stimulation research. Pp. 110-121 in J.W. Turner and T.H. Fine, eds., Second international Conference on Restricted Environmental Stimulation. Toledo, Ohio: Iris Publications.

Barber, J., and D. Mayer
1977  
Evaluation of the efficacy and neural mechanism of a hypnotic analgesia procedure in experimental and clinical dental pain. Pain 4:41-48.

Barber, T.X.
1969
Hypnosis: A Scientific Approach. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Barber, T.X., and D.S. Calverley 
1964a
Toward a theory of ''hypnotic" behavior: An experimental study of "hypnotic time distortion." Archives of General Psychiatry 10:209-216. 
1964b
Toward a theory of "hypnotic" behavior: Enhancement of strength and endurance. Canadian Journal of Psychology 18:156-167.

Bergson, H.
1886  
[Unconscious simulation in the hypnotic state.] Revue Philosophique 22:525-531.

Bowers, K.S.
1979  
Time distortion and hypnotic ability:  Underestimating the duration of hypnosis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 88:435-439.

Bowers, K.S., and H.A. Brenneman
1979  
Hypnosis and the perception of time. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 27:29-41.

Bowers, K.S., and T.M. Davidson
1992  
A neodissociative critique of Spanos's social-psychological model of hypnosis. Pp. 105-143 in S.J. Lynn and J.W. Rhue, eds., Theories of Hypnosis: Current Models and Perspectives. New York: Guilford.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
×

Page 353

Braid, J.
1843  
Neurypnology:  Or the Rationale of Nervous Sleep Considered in Relation to Animal Magnetism. London: Churchill.

Bramwell, J.M.
1903  
Hypnotism: Its History, Practice, and Theory. London: Rider.

Charcot, J.M.
1889  
Lectures on Diseases of the Nervous System. London: New Sydenham Society.

Chaves, J.F.
1989  
Hypnotic control of clinical pain. Pp. 242-272 in N.P. Spanos and J.F. Chaves, eds., Hypnosis: The Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective. Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus.

Cooper, G.D., H.B. Adams, and J.C. Scott
1988  
Studies in REST:  I.  Restricted environmental stimulation therapy (REST) and reduced alcohol consumption. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 5:61-68.

Cooper, L.F., and M.H. Erickson 
1950
Time distortion in hypnosis II.  Bulletin of the Georgetown University Medical Center 4:50-68. 
1954
Time Distortion in Hypnosis. Baltimore, Md.: Williams & Wilkins.

Cooper, L.F., and D.W. Rodgin
1952  
Time distortion in hypnosis and non-motor learning. Science 115:500-502.

Cooper, L.F., and C.E. Tuthill
1952  
Time distortion in hypnosis and motor learning. Journal of Psychology 34:67-76.

De Benedittis, G., A.A. Panerai, and M.A. Vallamira
1989 
Effects of hypnotic analgesia and hypnotizability on experimental ischemic pain. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 37:55-69.

D'Eon, J.L.
1989  
Hypnosis in the control of labor pain. Pp. 273-296 in N.P. Spanos and J.F. Chaves, eds., Hypnosis: The Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective. Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus.

Dillbeck, M.C., and D.W. Orme-Johnson
1987  
Physiological differences between Transcendental Meditation and rest. American Psychologist 42:879-881.

Domangue, B.B., C.G. Margolis, D. Lieberman, and H. Kaji
1985  
Biochemical correlates of hypnoanalgesia in arthritic pain patients. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 46:235-238.

Doob, L.W.
1971  
The Patterning of Time. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Druckman, D., and R.A. Bjork, eds.
1991  
In the Mind's Eye.  Committee on Techniques for the Enhancement of Human Performance, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Druckman, D., and J.A. Swets, eds.
1988  
Enhancing Human Performance. Committee on Techniques for the Enhancement of Human Performance, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Dywan, J.
1988  
The imagery factor in hypnotic hypermnesia. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 36:312-326.

Dywan, J., and K.S. Bowers
1983  
The use of hypnosis to enhance recall. Science 222:184-185.

Edmonston, W.E., and J.R. Erbeck
1967  
Hypnotic time distortion: A note. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 10:79-80.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
×

Page 354

Eich, E. 
1984
Memory for unattended events: Remembering with and without awareness. Memory and Cognition 12:105-111. 
1990
Learning during sleep. Pp. 88-108 in R.R. Bootzin, J.F. Kihlstrom, and D.L. Schacter, eds., Sleep and Cognition. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Elliotson, J.
1843  
Numerous Cases of Surgical Operations Without Pain in the Mesmeric State. London: Baliere.

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CHAPTER 10

Abelson, R.P.
1983  
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Facial efference and the experience of emotion.  Annual Review of Psychology 40:249-280.

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Craig, K.D., and H.J. Lowery
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Group cohesion and performance: A meta-analysis. Small Group Research 22:175186.

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Group psychology and the analysis of the ego. J. Strachey, trans. Pp. 169-209 in J./ Rickman, ed., A General Selection from the Works of Sigmund Freud. New York: Doubleday.

Gladstein, G.A. 
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Understanding empathy: Integrating counseling, developmental, and social psychological perspectives. Journal of Counseling Psychology 30:467-482. 
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The historical roots of contemporary empathy research. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 20:38-59.

Goethals, G.R., and E.R. Nelson
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Similarity in the influence process: The belief-value distinction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 25:117-122.

Goffman, E.
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Strategic Interaction. Philadelphia:  University of Pennsylvania Press.

Goldstein, A.P., and G.Y. Michaels
1985  
Empathy:  Development, Training, and  Consequences.  Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Gotlib, I.H., and L.A. Robinson
1982  
Responses to depressed individuals: Discrepancies between self-report and observerrated behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 91:231-240.

Green, G., and J.G. Osborne
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Does vicarious instigation provide support for observational learning theories? A critical review. Psychological Bulletin 97:3-17.

Greene, C.N.
1989  
Cohesion and productivity in work groups. Small Group Behavior 20:70-86.

Gurtman, M.B., K.M. Martin, and N.M. Hintzman
1990 
Interpersonal reactions to displays of depression and anxiety. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 9:256-267.

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Interpersonal consequences of depression: Responses to men and women enacting a depressed role. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 87:322-332.

Harary, F.
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Hatfield, E., J.T. Cacioppo, and R. Rapson
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Primitive emotional contagion. In M.S. Clark, ed., Review of Personality and Social Psychology. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Haviland, J.M., and M. Lelwica
1987  
The induced affect response:  10-week-old infants' responses to three emotional expressions. Developmental Psychology 23:97-104.

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Attitudes and cognitive organization. Journal of Psychology 21:107-112. 
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Hoffman, M.L.
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Empathy, its development and prosocial implications.  Nebraska Symposium on Motivation 25:169-217.
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Is altruism part of human nature? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 40:121-137.
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Empathy and justice motivation. Motivation and Emotion 14:151-172.

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The recall of interrupted groups tasks: An experimental study of individual motivation in relation to groups goals. Human Relations 7:3-38.

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Howes, M.J., and J.E. Hokanson
1979  
Conversational and social responses to depressive interpersonal behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 96:341-344.

Hsee, C.K., E. Hatfield, and J.G. Carlson
1990  
The effect of power on susceptibility to emotional contagion. Cognition and Emotion 4:327-340.

Hygge, S.
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The observer's acquaintance with the model's stimulus in vicarious classical conditioning. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 19:231-239.

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Conditioning of electrodermal responses through vicarious instigation and perceived threat to a performer. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 17:65-72. 
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The relation of vicarious to direct instigation and conditioning of electrodermal responses. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 17:217-222.

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Group interaction and business game performance.  Simulation & Gaming 21:133146.

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Janis, I.L., D. Kaye, and P. Kirschner
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Facilitating effects of eating while reading on responsiveness to persuasive communications. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1:181-186.

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Effects of the order of expressing warmth and anger on the actor and the listener. Journal of Counseling Psychology 18:571-578.
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Keyton, J., and J. Springston
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1984  
Depression and the response of others:  A re-evaluation.  Journal of Abnormal Psychology 93:477-480.

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Changes in leadership appraisal as a function of the stress of a simulated panic situation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 34:1143-1154.

Krebs, D.
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Empathy and altruism.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 32:11341146.

Kugihara, N., J. Misumi, and S. Sato
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Experimental study of escape behavior in a simulated panic situation: I. Japanese Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 20:55-67.

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1990  
Mood and persuasion: Evidence for the differential influence of positive and negative states. Psychology and Marketing 7:1-9.

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Thoughts on the relations between emotion and cognition. American Psychologist 37:1019-1024. 
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On the primacy of cognition. American Psychologist 39:124-129.

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Knowledge and appraisal in the cognition-emotion relationship. Cognition and Emotion 2:281-300.

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Le Bon, G. 
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The Crowd, A Study of the Popular Mind, 2nd ed. Atlanta, Georgia: Cherokee Publishing.

Lerner, M.J.
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The Belief in a Just World: A Fundamental Delusion. New York:  Plenum Press.

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Emotion and cognition in vicarious instigation research.  Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 18:85-91.

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Interpersonal mood induction: Situational and individual determinants. Motivation and Emotion 6:387-399.

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Empathetic embarrassment:  Situational and personal determinants of reactions to the embarrassment of another. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 53:10611069.

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CHAPTER 11

Anderson, M.C., and R.A. Bjork.
in press
Mechanisms of inhibition in long-term memory: A new taxonomy. In D. Dagenbach Press and T. Carr, eds., Processes in Attention, Memory, and Language.  New York: Academic Press.

Arrick, M.C., J.R. Voss, and D.C. Rimm
1981  
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Bargh, J.A., and M.E. Tota
1988  
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Barlow, D.
1988 
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Basden, B.H., D.R. Basden, and G.J. Gorgano
in press
Directed forgetting in implicit and explicit memory tests: A comparison of methods. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition.

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×

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Stimulating therapeutic change with interpretations:  A comparison of positive and negative connotation. Journal of Counseling Psychology 29:551-559.

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1990  
Direct and Indirect Measures of Inhibition in Directed Forgetting. Paper presented at the meeting of the Psychonomic Society, New Orleans.

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Bjork, R.A., and T.K. Landauer
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On keeping track of the present status of people and things.  Pp. 52-60 in M.M. Gruneberg, P.E. Morris, and R.N. Sykes, eds., Practical Aspects of Memory. London: Academic Press.

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Freud, S. 
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Repetition effects in directed forgetting: Evidence for retrieval inhibition. Memory and Cognition 13:57-62.

Geiselman, R.E., R.A. Bjork, and D. Fishman
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Disrupted retrieval in directed forgetting: A link with posthypnotic amnesia. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 112:58-72.

Gelfand, H., and R.A. Bjork
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On the Locus of Retrieval Inhibition in Directed Forgetting. Paper presented at the meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Boston, Mass.

Gernsbacher, M.A., and M.E. Faust
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Gotlib, I.H., and C.D. McCann
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Kelly, A.E., and J.H. Kahn
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Lavy, E.H., and M.A. van den Hout
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Mischel, W., and N. Baker
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Recall and stem completion priming have different electrophysiological correlates and are modified differentially by directed forgetting. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 16:1021-1032.

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Opening Up: The Healing Power of Confiding in Others. New York: Morrow. 
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Social mechanisms of constraint. Pp. 200-219 in D.M. Wegner and J.W. Pennebaker, eds., Handbook of Mental Control. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Pennebaker, J.W., and S.K. Beall
1986  
Confronting a traumatic event: Toward an understanding of inhibition and disease. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 95:274-281.

Pennebaker, J.W., and C.H. Chew
1985  
Behavioral inhibition and electrodermal activity during deception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 49:1427-1433.

Pennebaker, J.W., and R. O'Heeron
1984  
Confiding in others and illness rates among spouses of suicide and accidental death victims. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 93:473-476.

Pennebaker, J.W., J.K. Kiecolt-Glaser, and R. Glaser
1988  
Disclosure of traumas and immune function: Health implications for psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 56:239-245.

Pennebaker, J.W., M. Colder, and L.K. Sharp
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1981  
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Emotional processing. Behavior Research and Therapy 18:51-60.

Rachman, S., and P. de Silva
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Rachman, S.J., and R.J. Hodgson
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Worry:  Unwanted cognitive activity that controls unwanted somatic experience. Pp. 220-238 in D.M. Wegner and J.W. Pennebaker, eds., Handbook of Mental Control. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

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A review and critique of thought stopping research. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 10: 189-192.

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EPILOGUE

Druckman, D., and R. Bjork, eds.
1991  
In the Mind's Eye: Enhancing Human Performance. Committee on Techniques for the Enhancement of Human Performance, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Druckman, D., and J. Swets, eds.
1988  
Enhancing Human Performance: Issues, Theories, and Techniques. Committee on Techniques for the Enhancement of Human Performance, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Fiske, E.
1990 
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Ericsson, K.A., R.T. Krampe, and C. Tesch-Romer
1993  
The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological Review 100:363-406.

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APPENDICES

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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
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Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance Get This Book
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Can such techniques as sleep learning and hypnosis improve performance? Do we sometimes confuse familiarity with mastery? Can we learn without making mistakes? These questions apply in the classroom, in the military, and on the assembly line.

Learning, Remembering, Believing addresses these and other key issues in learning and performance. The volume presents leading-edge theories and findings from a wide range of research settings: from pilots learning to fly to children learning about physics by throwing beanbags. Common folklore is explored, and promising research directions are identified. The authors also continue themes from their first two volumes: Enhancing Human Performance (1988) and In the Mind's Eye (1991).

The result is a thorough and readable review of

  • Learning and remembering. The volume evaluates the effects of subjective experience on learning--why we often overestimate what we know, why we may not need a close match between training settings and real-world tasks, and why we experience such phenomena as illusory remembering and unconscious plagiarism.
  • Learning and performing in teams. The authors discuss cooperative learning in different age groups and contexts. Current views on team performance are presented, including how team-learning processes can be improved and whether team-building interventions are effective.
  • Mental and emotional states. This is a critical review of the evidence that learning is affected by state of mind. Topics include hypnosis, meditation, sleep learning, restricted environmental stimulation, and self-confidence and the self-efficacy theory of learning.
  • New directions. The volume looks at two new ideas for improving performance: emotions induced by another person--socially induced affect--and strategies for controlling one's thoughts. The committee also considers factors inherent in organizations--workplaces, educational facilities, and the military--that affect whether and how they implement training programs.

Learning, Remembering, Believing offers an understanding of human learning that will be useful to training specialists, psychologists, educators, managers, and individuals interested in all dimensions of human performance.

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