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41 Introduction Implementation strategies link corridor goals to tangible actions. Strategies can identify methods for addressing needs, assigning responsibilities, and finding and prioritizing resources. Selected strategies should be tailored to the unique needs and strengths of the study corridor and recognize available tools. Appendix B, Description of Implementation Strategies, offers a menu of strategies, but Handbook strategies are NOT prescriptive. Handbook users are encouraged to modify and add to the strategies provided herein to create a comprehensive list of implementa- tion strategies, tailored to the unique needs and strengths of the study corridor. After assessing corridor needs using metric indicators (Step 2), examining goals (Step 3), and setting a vision supported by stakeholders (Step 4), have stakeholders review, consider, and commit to suitable implementation strategies (Step 5). Engage corridor stakeholders in the development of strategies to ensure they are comprehensive and reflect the specific setting. Implementation (Step 5 in Figure 1) involves three substeps: â¢ Step 5.1: Examine Menu of Possible Strategies. â¢ Step 5.2: Link Goals to Strategies. â¢ Step 5.3: Develop and Adopt Corridor Recommendations. Step 5.1: Examine Menu of Possible Strategies A wide range of strategies are available to promote livable transit corridors. Decision makers and stakeholders should familiarize themselves with available strategies, including those sum- marized below. Stakeholdersâ cursory review of possible strategies should inform discussion on the most appropriate strategies for building corridor livability. Strategies listed below were compiled based on planning literature, case studies, and professional experience. Strategies are organized within two general categories: â¢ Governance Frameworks describe common ways that governments address livability needs along transit corridors. â¢ Livability Strategies are associated with the Livability Principles with which they most closely relate. For more detailed descriptions and explanations of these strategies, see Appendix B. S E C T I O N 5 Implement Strategies (Step 5)
42 Livable Transit Corridors: Methods, Metrics, and Strategies Government Frameworks Government frameworks are the vehicles for instituting the Livability Strategies shown below. Government frameworks occur at all scales: federal, state, regional, city, and station area. Literature, interviews, and case studies pointed to the following more common implementation vehicles. State and Federal Frameworks State Declarations. Declarations by state governors can, through executive action, direct state resources (and influence decisions by regional agencies and local governments) toward livability-enhancing strategies such as compact development, transportation choices, and afford- able housing. Federal Programs. These support community revitalization, transportation alternatives, and other actions that promote livability, often through grants and technical assistance. Regional Frameworks Regional Plans. Regional plans embrace a wide spectrum of livability goals and connect these to TOD, with authority invested in regional plans varying among states. TOD Guidelines. Advisory guidelines encourage livability through features like connectivity, local destinations, and pedestrian-oriented buildings. TOD Strategic Plans. These are action plans that actively promote TOD by funding station area plans, offering developer incentives, dedicating land to public-private partnerships, and cultivating community engagement. Location-Specific Planning Station Area Plans. These promote transit-oriented, pedestrian-friendly districts and typically address a range of planning factors in a location-specific way. Corridor Plans. These organize land use and transportation to address livability concerns, such as jobs-housing balance and large-scale transportation investments, which cannot be adequately addressed with station area or regional plans. Grant Programs Technical Assistance Grants. These grants address livability needs by helping local juris- dictions overcome specific obstacles to building livable transit corridors, such as by addressing development feasibility, infrastructure needs, or parking and transportation demand. TOD Implementation Grants. Grants can give direct assistanceâfor both planning and capital investmentsâto promote transit corridor livability, such as the development of infra- structure financing plans or the funding of complete streets. In brownfield locations (sites with abandoned and aging industrial uses), grants can help overcome implementation barriers with site investigations and site cleanup activities. Incremental Approaches Livable transit corridor activities must sometimes rely on incremental planning steps to build political support, using smaller commitments followed by more comprehensive efforts. Pedestrian safety plans, urban design guidelines, and affordable housing inventories are
Implement Strategies (Step 5) 43 examples of incremental planning efforts that can become foundational cornerstones of larger corridor plans. Livability Strategies The following Livability Strategies are organized by the Transit Corridor Livability Principle to which they most closely relate. Handbook users should be aware that many strategies apply to multiple principles and their related goals. (For more on goals, see Section 3 and Appendix A.) High-Quality Transit, Walking, and Bicycling Opportunities Opportunities for high-quality transit, walking, and bicycling are a combination of non- auto transportation service quality with urban form characteristics. High-quality urban form characteristics can be described as TOD and other compact development patterns that increase the accessibility of people to employment and services without the need for a car. Non-auto transportation service quality characteristics include comprehensive and high-frequency transit services as well as complete and direct sidewalk and bicycle facility networks. Connected Network Planning. Highly connected transportation networks encourage walking and bicycling by providing direct routes to destinations, including transit. Network connectivity can be promoted with district-level planning and by retrofitting circuitous routes. Circuitous Route Retrofits. Circuitous route retrofits add pedestrian and bicycle connections across superblocks and in other settings where streets do not provide local connections. They can be promoted by local planning and by government grants. Compact Development. Walkable districts with greater density increase housing, support local âwalk-toâ retail and services, and boost transit ridership. They can be promoted using infrastructure investments, zoning regulations, and other TOD-related tools. Alternative Modes. The availability of alternative modes such as walking, bicycling, and transit, and incentives for their use, offers greater travel choices, better access, and reduced reliance on the car. Related strategies include providing free transit passes, secure bicycle parking, and enhanced pedestrian and bicycle environments (see âComplete Streetsâ below). Transit Pass Subsidies. These can be provided by landlords, developers, employers, and universities to encourage residents, employees, and students to use transit and limit car use. Parking Management and Requirements. Parking can be managed to reduce car use. Strategies such as leasing parking separately from other rent (and at market-based prices) can be paired with alternative modes and reduced zoning requirements to allow development to be built at higher intensities (see âCompact Developmentâ). Transit Frequency and Reliability. Opportunities for access are enhanced by more frequent transit service and predictable transit schedules. Specific approaches include separating transit from potential sources of congestion and providing real-time departure information. Last-Mile Shuttles. âLast-mileâ shuttles connect corridor trunk transit lines with major corridor destinations to increase transit use and reduce car use. Mixed-Income Housing Near Transit Transit corridors with equitable and affordable housing opportunities have a combination of an economically and age-diverse population and adequate mixed-income housing. Corridors
44 Livable Transit Corridors: Methods, Metrics, and Strategies with people from diverse social and economic backgrounds can provide opportunities for residents and visitors to feel kinship within it while also offering opportunities for people from different back- grounds to mingle, interact, find common ground, and possibly create new community identities in the process. Corridors with adequate mixed-income housing provide housing rental and ownership opportunities that are affordable to people of diverse economic and social backgrounds. Location Efficiency. Housing-plus-transportation (H+T) cost indices influence location decisions made by residents, employers, and developers, by communicating the benefits of access to transit, distance to destinations, and compact mixed-use development. Location-efficient mortgages are being offered to homebuyers in some high-density, transit-rich urban areas as a way to bring more investment to these communities and increase the availability of affordable housing. Housing Production and Targets. Government agencies and nongovernment organizations can offer real estate expertise and financial assistance to help developers, landowners, and financial institutions overcome barriers to housing production to increase affordability. Regulatory Streamlining. Housing production can be encouraged by addressing regulatory obstacles to development, such as excessive parking requirements, restrictive setback and height requirements, high fees, and lengthy development approval processes. Housing Assistance. Low-income households can receive direct assistance from government to rent housing, such as with Section 8 vouchers, which are generally administered at the local level and limited to qualifying properties, such as those near transit. Inclusionary Housing. Local jurisdictions can require residential development projects to make a certain percentage of housing units affordable to middle- and low-income households. Inclusionary housing relies on ongoing administration by landlords and monitoring by government. Local Housing Trust Funds. Development fees or real estate transfer taxes can be assessed to residential and/or commercial properties for the production of affordable housing. Housing trust funds are gathered by local governments and used to leverage grants and financing, often in partnership with affordable housing developers. Anti-displacement Strategies. Rising rents can force residents out of neighborhoods. This can be addressed with programs that reduce tax burdens among low-income households, with below-market inclusionary housing, low-income housing production, and relocation assistance. Transit-Accessible Economic Opportunities Transit corridors with good economic opportunities have a combination of a high quality and quantity of consumer opportunities and an ample supply of employment. Corridors with high concentrations of employment provide transit-accessible means for residents and visitors to earn decent incomes. Corridors with ample consumer opportunities provide retail outlets, both large and small, that offer a competitive consumer marketplace accessible without the need of a car. Regional Competitiveness. Strategies for smart growth, TOD, and corridor planning can promote economic opportunities and the economic health of metropolitan areas, such as by exchanging real estate information, fostering partnerships, and efficient infrastructure. Station Area Profiles. Station area profiles gather land use, real estate, demographic, and other information to inform policy making and communicate development opportunities to municipal governments, developers, and other stakeholders.
Implement Strategies (Step 5) 45 Financial Feasibility and Incentives. Financial factors can deter developers from investing in corridor livability and TOD, but can be addressed by identifying financial barriers and offering incentives. Land Assemblage and Joint Development. Transit agencies and municipalities can encourage TOD and corridor livability by helping to assemble small parcels and by making public land available for development through public-private joint development activities. Predevelopment Assistance. Predevelopment and site investigation funding helps developers through critical due diligence activities such as market studies and cleanup of contaminated parcels, and can target livable transit corridor opportunities. District Financing and Value Capture. District-level financing can underwrite capital improvements in a station area or subarea of strategic importance, using tools such as local improvement districts and developer impact fees. Activity Center Master Plans. Activity centers create nodes of commercial and cultural activity. Activity centers generally result from large-scale master planning efforts and public- private partnerships to facilitate land acquisition and development activities. Jobs-Housing Alignment Activities. Corridor-level planning tools can help regions attain jobs-housing balance, such as with spatial analysis of jobs versus housing that are accompanied by âcarrots and sticksâ for developing jobs and housing in certain locations. Social Investments. Issues affecting low-income and other disadvantaged communities can be addressed through community-based planning activities and economic development programs, such as job training and small business assistance. Programs can target location-efficient places to leverage a range of additional benefits. Accessible Social and Government Services The quality, quantity, and accessibility of social and governmental services (both public and private) are important elements in creating a truly livable transit corridor. Corridors with highly accessible services provide high concentrations of health care, social welfare, and government service outlets around transit stations. Corridors with high-quality social and governmental services are distinguished by a high level of coordination between different levels and branches of government and privately run providers and include highly integrated transportation and land uses that use the full capacities of their transit, pedestrian, and bicycling facilities. Partnerships with Service Providers. Local and regional planners can work with area hos- pitals, universities, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and other social service providers to build new and expand existing facilities along transit corridors. Accessible Community Services. Direct and inviting pedestrian and bicycle connections to health and other social services enhance livability. Efficient Infrastructure and Services. Compact development patterns allow community resources to be used efficiently and can help leverage a wider array of community benefits com- pared to low-intensity and less-connected places. Community Safety. Safety and security are essential to livability and are shaped by physical environments, government services, and community policing.
46 Livable Transit Corridors: Methods, Metrics, and Strategies Vibrant and Accessible Community, Cultural, and Recreational Opportunities Transit corridors with vibrant and accessible community, cultural, and recreational oppor- tunities have a combination of numerous and diverse artistic, entertainment, and recreational venues organized in compact, bicycle- and pedestrian-accessible locations near transit. Public Art. Public art enriches communities and can be promoted as part of transit infra- structure improvements and through local zoning. Cultural Destinations. Cultural destinations can be encouraged through joint development for new destinations and by supporting the revitalization of established cultural districts. District Revitalization. Revitalization is a tool for expanding destinations in established districts along transit corridors. The revitalization of urban districts saves cultural assets through reinvestment, while encouraging infill on underused sites. Recreation and Open Space. Transit and other infrastructure improvements can result in new recreation and open-space facilities. Recreation and open space can also be created using zoning, financing districts, and development agreements. Sense-of-Place Guidelines. Architectural guidelines can be developed to maintain the unique, valued character of a place. The guidelines can emphasize a placeâs character-defining features in new construction and building additions, as well as preservation and adaptive reuse of historic resources. Healthy, Safe, and Walkable Communities The most livable transit corridors also have healthy, safe, and walkable communities near transit nodes and beyond. People in these corridors are encouraged to walk and exercise more when they feel they can do so safe from traffic and crime. Pedestrian safety and willingness to walk and bicycle are enhanced when the street network is designed in a pedestrian-oriented fashion, providing a grid street network with the most direct routes possible for people to reach their destinations. Complete Streets. Complete streets emphasize pedestrians and bicyclists. MPOs and local jurisdictions can promote them with design standards, education, and direct funding. Walk and Bike Safety Audits. Safety audits can identify where pedestrians or bicyclists are at risk for collision with motor vehicles in order to target funding for needed improvements. Traffic Calming. Traffic calming supports walking and bicycling to transit and other destinations, by introducing features like crosswalk improvements, speed tables, and pedestrian- activated blinker lights. Pedestrian and Bicycle Network Maintenance. Pedestrian and bicycle access is maintained through ongoing maintenance and repairs, which make walking and biking safer and more attractive. Form-Based Codes. Form-based codes provide a clear, easily administered format, focusing on key design characteristics that determine how buildings should relate to streets in order to encourage walking and support community life. These codes are organized and illustrated to be easy to use. TOD Guidelines. See TOD Guidelines description under âGovernment Frameworks.â
Implement Strategies (Step 5) 47 Zoning Overlay Districts. Zoning can be amended as an overlay district to address many factors found in form-based codes and TOD guidelines, and to provide incentives for development near transit. Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED). CPTED recognizes that physical factors can attract crime and other unwanted behavior, and that these physical factors can be addressed through development codes, design guidelines, master plans, and design review. Step 5.2: Link Goals to Strategies Based on examination of metrics and goals (Steps 2 and 3), Handbook users should identify pertinent strategies by examining Tables 11 through 16, which connect goals to promising strat- egies, and Table 17, which connects corridor types to possible strategies. Strategies that Relate to Goals Goals defined in Section 3 are connected to specific Livability Strategies in Tables 11 through 16. Strategies for Corridor Types An optional path to identifying strategies is through typology. The Handbook defines a transit corridor typology to provide users with a framework to more easily identify corridor strengths and needs, and connect these to appropriate implementation strategies. Three basic corridor types are defined: Emerging, Transitioning, and Integrated. Characteristics of these corridor types are described in Step 3.2.1, and in greater detail in Appendix D. Strategies connected to specific typology categories are summarized Table 17. Goals Strategies Regional Access Integrate corridor transit, nonmotorized modes, and land uses to provide convenient access to economic, social, and other livability opportunities. Connected network planning Circuitous route retrofits Transit frequency and reliability Last-mile shuttles Compact development Activity center master plans Jobs-housing alignment Station area profiles Regional competitiveness Regional Connectivity Promote pedestrian and bicycle routes that offer reasonably direct routes to local destinations and transit stations/stops. Connected network planning Circuitous route retrofits Last-mile shuttles Complete streets Pedestrian and bicycle network maintenance Demand Management Encourage travel decisions that favor alternatives to the car and optimize use of available transit capacity. Alternative modes Parking management and requirements Transit pass subsidies Zoning overlay districts Table 11. Strategies for building high-quality transit, walking, and bicycling opportunities.
48 Livable Transit Corridors: Methods, Metrics, and Strategies Goals Strategies Affordability Provide sufficient affordable housing that fits the needs of an areaâs workforce, disabled, elderly, and low- income residents and that offers affordable transportation options. Location efficiency Transit pass subsidies Housing production and targets Regulatory streamlining Inclusionary housing Local housing trust funds Anti-displacement strategies Land assemblage and joint development Station area profiles (development site identification) Variety Allow and encourage diverse housing options that reflect the variety of households and housing needs along a corridor. Housing production and targets Regulatory streamlining Inclusionary housing Local housing trust funds Anti-displacement strategies Land assemblage and joint development Form-based codes (housing type flexibility) Station area profiles (development site identification) Table 12. Strategies for encouraging equitable and affordable housing near transit. Goals Strategies Jobs and Housing Offer a range of employment opportunities and align jobs along the corridor with the skills of residents who live, or may live, along the corridor. Mix of uses Jobs-housing alignment Activity center master plans Station area profiles (to identify jobs or housing growth opportunities) Vitality and Growth Promote economically and culturally vibrant corridor districts. Structure new growth along transit corridors and away from sensitive land. Compact development Regional competitiveness Financial feasibility and incentives Land assemblage and joint development District financing and value capture Social investments Station area profiles (for economic trends and opportunities) Reuse Encourage the reuse of previously developed land that has become vacant or underutilized. Financial feasibility and incentives Land assemblage and joint development District financing and value capture Predevelopment assistance Social investments Table 13. Strategies for encouraging transit-accessible economic opportunities. Goals Strategies Essential Services Provide convenient transit access to health care and other essential social services. Partnerships with service providers Accessible community services Connected network planning Last-mile shuttles Infrastructure and Government Services Promote effective and safe infrastructure and other government services, while supporting other livability goals. Compact development Efficient infrastructure and services Community safety Walk and bike safety audits CPTED Table 14. Strategies for encouraging accessible social and government services.
Implement Strategies (Step 5) 49 Goals Strategies Recreational and Community Facilities Provide small parks, other recreational and community opportunities, and schools within walking distance of most transit-oriented homes; provide schools as well as larger parks and recreational facilities along transit corridors, while maintaining compact walkable development near transit stations/stops. Recreation and open space Mix of uses Connected network planning Station area profiles (to identify underserved areas) Cultural Enrichment Offer opportunities for cultural enrichment. Public art Cultural destinations District revitalization Context-Sensitive Design Respect historic, scenic, and other characteristics of established districts that are important for aesthetic cohesion and community identity. Integrate historic and other cultural resources when possible. District revitalization Sense-of-place guidelines Form-based code Station area profiles (to identify cultural assets) Table 15. Strategies for encouraging vibrant and accessible community, cultural, and recreational opportunities. Goals Strategies Mix of Uses Provide retail conveniences, recreation, basic services, and cultural destinations close to transit stations/stops and within walking distance of most homes and jobs. Compact development Form-based codes TOD and other guidelines Zoning overlay districts Cultural destinations Recreation and open space Activity center master plans Walking and Biking Environments Provide pedestrian and bicycling paths that are safe, attractive, and support community life. Complete streets Connected network planning Walk and bike safety audits Traffic calming Pedestrian and bicycle network maintenance Community safety CPTED Circuitous route retrofits Street-Oriented Buildings Line streets with building facades that have generous windows, frequent entrances, and attractive features; generally avoid parking lots or blank walls along streets. Enhance connectivity with building entrances that face streets or are connected to the circulation network via a pedestrian path. Form-based codes TOD and other design guidelines Zoning overlay districts CPTED Table 16. Strategies for encouraging healthy, safe, walkable transit corridor neighborhoods.
50 Livable Transit Corridors: Methods, Metrics, and Strategies For Emerging Corridors, strategies are often concerned with adding accessible destinations, improving connectivity, and encouraging compact development for its associated benefits. Transitioning Corridors face some of these same challenges, but to a lesser extent. Transitioning Corridors can have accessible destinations and older, transit-oriented neighborhoods that can serve as a foundation for expanding TOD patterns throughout the rest of the corridor. Integrated Corridors exhibit high levels of performance on average, but gentrification and housing afford- ability can present acute challenges. Enhancements can continue to be made in Integrated Corridors, such as aligning jobs and housing, maintaining pedestrian and bicycle networks, and so on. Some implementation strategies are generally associated with each corridor type and its com- mon characteristics, as summarized in Table 17. Implementation strategies are described under âLivability Strategiesâ (above) and are explained in Appendix B. Also note that corridors vary, and the typology and associated strategies for corridor types serve only as a guide. Handbook users should also consider the spectrum of goals and list of possible strategies described in Step 5.2. Step 5.3: Develop and Adopt Corridor Recommendations In this step, Handbook users identify and agree upon the final tasks necessary to create a comprehensive corridor guidance document. Step 5.3.1: Compile and Develop Strategies Compile strategies identified in Steps 5.1 and 5.2, as well as any other strategies that emerged during the process. Define strategies in more depth, such as by addressing how a strategy would be applied in a project-specific way. Consider governance questions, such as how state and local Transit Corridor Livability Principle Corridor Type Emerging Transitioning Integrated High-quality transit, walking, and bicycling opportunities Connected network planning Circuitous routes retrofits Compact development Last-mile shuttles Parking management Mixed-income housing near transit Location efficiency Housing production and targets Housing assistance Anti-displacement strategies Inclusionary housing Local housing trust funds Transit-accessible economic opportunities Station area profiles Financial feasibility and incentives Activity center master plan Jobs-housing alignment Social investments Accessible social and government services Access to services Efficient infrastructure Community safety Vibrant and accessible community, cultural, and recreational opportunities Cultural destinations District revitalization Public art Healthy, safe, walkable transit corridor neighborhoods Complete streets Traffic calming Form-based codes TOD guidelines Walk and safety audits Pedestrian and bicycle network maintenance Table 17. Strategies associated with corridor types.
Implement Strategies (Step 5) 51 laws may allow or limit strategies. Clarify each strategyâs purpose and objectives and identify stakeholders who may be involved with implementing the strategy. Step 5.3.2: Set Priorities and Connect with Resources Identify priorities, such as by evaluating critical needs, ways to leverage resources, and stake- holder strengths. Suggested approaches to setting priorities include the following. Look for strategies listed more than once. Priority might be given to strategies that address multiple goals and are associated with the corridor typology. To identify strategies that leverage multiple goals and corridor type, refer to Step 5.2. Critically examine strategies using local knowledge and professional judgment. Promote discussion among decision makers, stakeholders, and professional staff, using their expertise to identify promising strategies. Consider local conditions and regional precedents. Build on stakeholder strengths. Consider stakeholdersâ capacity to implement strategies. Stakeholder strengths may include technical skills, available resources, leadership capabilities, and legislative or regulatory powers. Match each strategy with stakeholders who have the capacity to help implement it. When setting priorities, consider where stakeholders, or multiple stakeholders, can substantially contribute to a strategyâs successful implementation. Encourage people and place compatibility. Where a strong people or place factor is coupled with a weaker one, a strategy to address the weaker factor may leverage big livability benefits. Based on the strengths and needs analysis (Step 2), look for people and place factor pairings where one factor has a high metric score and its matching factor has a low score. Target available resources. Funding vehicles and grant programs that are already established will make some strategies more easily realized in the near term. For example, established business improvement districts or infrastructure financing districts might provide funding vehicles for implementation. Established grant programs should also be considered. Step 5.3.3: Package Corridor Recommendations Create a comprehensive guidance document containing pertinent strategies, implementation priorities, responsibilities, resources, and other relevant matter. Preface discussion on strategies with a summary of corridor metrics, goals, and vision (adapted from Steps 2 through 4). Communicate corridor recommendations to decision makers and stakeholders, and seek commitments to adopt and implement corridor recommendations. Engage in cooperative and collaborative efforts that lay the groundwork for broad-based support. The advancement of cor- ridor livability will require sustained attention and effort, which should continue to be informed by the results of this Handbook.