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74 Bhasin, A. and V. Ganesan, “Preliminary Investigation of Using a Multi-component Phase Field Model to Evaluate Micro- structure of Asphalt Binders,” International Journal of Pavement Engineering, Vol. 16, Suppl. 1, 2015, pp. 1–8. Bhasin, A., J.E. Howson, E.A. Masad, D.N. Little, and R.L. Lytton, “Effect of Modification Processes on Bond Energy of Asphalt Binders,” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1998, Transporta- tion Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2007, pp. 29–37. Borrego, A.G., C.G. Blanco, J.G. Prado, C. Diaz, and M.D. Guillen, “1H NMR and FTIR Spectroscopic Studies of Bitumen and Shale Oil from Selected Spanish Oil Shales,” Energy Fuels, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1996, pp. 77–84. Boysen, R.B. and J.F. Schabron, “The Automated Asphaltene Determinator Coupled with Saturates, Aromatics, and Resins Separation for Petroleum Residua Characterization,” Energy & Fuels, Vol. 27, No. 8, 2013, pp. 4654–4661. Branthaver, J.F., M.W. Catalfomo, and J.C. Petersen, “Ion Exchange Chromatography Separation of SHRP Asphalts,” Fuel Science and Technology International, Vol. 10, No. 4–6, 1992, pp. 855–885. Brule, B., G. Ramond, and C. Such, “Relationships Between Composition, Structure, and Properties of Road Asphalts: State of Research at the French Public Works Central Laboratory,” Transportation Research Record 1096, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1986, pp. 22–34. Cao, X.-j., “Research on the Performance of New Reactive Asphalt Modifier,” Dangdai Huagong, Vol. 44, No. 6, 2015, pp. 1350–1352. Carpenter, S.H. and J.R. Wolosick, “Modifier Influence in the Characterization of Hot-Mix Recycled Material,” Transporta- tion Research Record 777, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1980, pp. 15–22. Chailleux, E., et al., “Alternative Binder from Microalgae: Algoroute Project,” Transportation Research E-Circular 165, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2012, pp. 7–14. Chambrion, P., R. Bertau, and P. Ehrburger, “Characterization of Bitumen by Differential Scanning Calorimetry,” Fuel, Vol. 75, No. 2, 1996, pp. 144–148. Churchill, E., S. Amirkhanian, and J. Burati, Jr., “HP-GPC Characterization of Asphalt Aging and Selected Properties,” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1995, pp. 41–49. Claudy, P., J.M. Letoffe, G.N. King, and J.P. Planche, “Characterization of Asphalt Cements by Thermomicroscopy and Dif- ferential Scanning Calorimetry,” Fuel Science & Technology International, Vol. 10, No. 4, 1992a, pp. 735–765. Claudy, P., et al., “A New Interpretation of Time-Dependent Physical Hardening in Asphalt Based on DSC and Optical Ther- moanalysis,” Division of Fuel Chemistry Preprints, Vol. 37, No. 3, 1992b, pp. 1408–1426. Clifton, E.C., R.C. Barborak, and C. Coward, Detection and Estimation of Re-refined Engine Oil Bottoms in Asphalt Binders Using Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Texas Department of Transportation’s Approach¸ 95th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., Jan. 2016 [Online]. Available: ttps://trid.trb. org/view/1394231. Collins, R.J. and S.K. Ciesielski, NCHRP Synthesis 199: Recycling and Use of Waste Materials and By-products in Highway Construction, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1994, 92 pp. Cooper, S.B., I. Negulescu, S.S. Balamurugan, L. Mohammad, and W.H. Daly, “Binder Composition and Intermediate Tem- perature Cracking Performance of Asphalt Mixtures Containing RAS,” Road Materials and Pavement Design, 2015, pp. 275–295. Corbett, L.W., “Densimetric Method for Characterizing Asphalt,” Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 36, No. 10, 1964, pp. 1967–1971. Corbett, L.W., “Composition of Asphalt Based on Generic Fractionation, Using Solvent Deasphaltening, Elution-Adsorption Chromatography, and Densiometric Characterization,” Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 41, No. 4, 1969, pp. 576–579. Corbett, L.W., “Relation Between Composition and Physical Properties of Asphalt,” Proceedings of the Assocation of Asphalt Paving Technology, Vol. 39, 1970, pp. 481–491. Corbett, L.W., “Refinery Processing of Asphalt Cement,” Transportation Research Record, 999, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1984, pp. 1–6. Corbett, L.W. and R.E. Swarbrick, “Structural Analysis of Asphalt Petrolene Fractions,” Preprints, Division of Petroleum Chemistray, American Chemical Society, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1966, pp. B-161–B-166.

75 Costa, L.M.B., H.M.R.D. Silva, J.R.M. Oliveira, and S.R.M. Fernandes, “Incorporation of Waste Plastic in Asphalt Binders to Improve Their Performance in the Pavement,” International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, Vol. 6, No. 4, 2013, pp. 457–464. D’Angelo, J.A., Effect of Polyphosphoric Acid on Asphalt Binder Properties, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2012, pp. 27–39 [Online]. Available: http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/166590.aspx. Daly, W.H., I.I. Negulesci, and S.S. Balamurugan, Implementation of GPC Characterization of Asphalt Binders at Louisiana Materials Laboratory, FHWA/LA, 13/505, 2013, 114 pp. [Online]. Available: http://www.ltrc.lsu.edu/pdf/2013/ts_505. pdf. Daly, W.H., Z.-Y. Qiu (Chiu), and I.I. Negulescu, “Differential Scanning Calorimetry Study of Asphalt Crystallinity,” Trans- portation Research Record 1535, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1996, pp. 54–60. Das, P., N. Kringos, V. Wallqvist, and B. Birgisson, “Micromechanical Investigation of Phase Separation in Bitumen by Com- bining Atomic Force Microscopy with Differential Scanning Calorimetry Results,” Road Materials and Pavement Design, Vol. 14, Suppl. 1, 2013, pp. 25–37. Davis, C. and C. Castorena, “Implications of Physico-Chemical Interactions in Asphalt Mastics on Asphalt Microstructure,” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 94, No. 2015, pp. 83–89. Davison, R.R., C.J. Glover, B.L. Burr, and J.A. Bullin, “Size Exclusion Chromatography of Asphalts,” In Handbook of Size Exclusion Chromatography and Related Techniques, C.-S. Wu, Ed., Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York City, N.Y., 1995, pp. 211–247. DeDene, C.D. and Z. You, “The Performance of Aged Asphalt Materials Rejuvenated with Waste Engine Oil,” International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2014, pp. 145–152. del Barco Carrión, A.J., D. Lo Presti, and G.D. Airey, Binder Design of High RAP Content Hot and Warm Asphalt Mixture Wearing Courses, Taylor & Francis, Abingdon, United Kingdom, 2015 [Online]. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/146 80629.2015.1029707. Dessouky, S., D. Contreras, J. Sanchez, and D. Park, Anti-Oxidants’ Effect on Bitumen Rheology and Mixes’ Mechanical Performance, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/9780784479278.002. Dickie, J.P. and T.F. Yen, “Macrostructures of the Asphaltic Fractions by Various Instrumental Methods,” Analytical Chem- istry, Vol. 39, No. 14, 1967, pp. 1847–1852. Durrieu, F., J.-P. Planche, J. Lamontagne, V. Mouillet, and J. Kister, “Application of Infrared Micro-Spectroscopy in the Study of Bitumen-Polymer Aging,” Bulletin de Liaison des Laboratoires des Ponts et Chaussees, Vol. 240, 2003, pp. 15–25. Elseifi, M.A., et al., “Relationship Between Molecular Compositions and Rheological Properties of Neat Asphalt Binder at Low and Intermediate Temperatures,” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 22, No. 12, 2010, pp. 1288–1294. Evans, M., R. Marchildon, and S.A.M. Hesp, “Effects of Physical Hardening on Stress Relaxation in Asphalt Cements: Impli- cations for Pavement Performance,” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2207, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2011, pp. 34–42. Fee, D., R. Maldonado, G. Reinke, and H. Romagosa, “Polyphosphoric Acid Modification of Asphalt,” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2179, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2010, pp. 49–57. Fernandes, P.R., S.d.A. Soares, R.F. Nascimento, J.B. Soares, and R.M. Cavalcante, “Evaluation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Asphalt Binder Using Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion and Gas Chromatography,” Journal of Chromato- graphic Science, Vol. 47, No. 9, 2009, pp. 789–793. Fini, E.H., I.L. Al-Qadi, Z. You, B. Zada, and J. Mills-Beale, “Partial Replacement of Asphalt Binder with Bio-Binder: Char- acterisation and Modification,” International Journal of Pavement Engineering, Vol. 13, No. 6, 2012, pp. 515–522. Fini, E.H., S. Hosseinnezhad, D.J. Oldham, E. Chailleux, and V. Gaudefroy, “Source dependency of rheological and surface characteristics of bio-modified asphalts,” Road Materials and Pavement Design, 2016, Ahead of Print. Fini, E. H., et al., “Chemical Characterization of Biobinder from Swine Manure: Sustainable Modifier for Asphalt Binder,” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 23, No. 11, 2011, pp. 1506–1513.

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TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 511: Relationship Between Chemical Makeup of Binders and Engineering Performance documents the current practices of departments of transportation (DOTs) in the selection of the chemical composition of a binder used in pavement applications. The study provides information about the selection of binders and postproduction additives and modifiers, as well as corresponding engineering performance.

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