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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Private Transit: Existing Services and Emerging Directions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25020.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Private Transit: Existing Services and Emerging Directions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25020.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Private Transit: Existing Services and Emerging Directions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25020.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Private Transit: Existing Services and Emerging Directions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25020.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Private Transit: Existing Services and Emerging Directions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25020.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Private Transit: Existing Services and Emerging Directions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25020.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Private Transit: Existing Services and Emerging Directions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25020.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Private Transit: Existing Services and Emerging Directions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25020.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

2018 T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 196 Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation Subject Areas Public Transportation Private Transit: Existing Services and Emerging Directions Sharon Feigon Colin Murphy Taylor McAdam Shared-USe Mobility Center Chicago, IL

TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 196 Project J-11/Task 24 ISSN 2572-3782 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-44687-7 © 2018 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nation’s growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Cur- rent systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating prob- lems, adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Coopera- tive Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213—Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration—now the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- solving research. TCRP, modeled after the successful National Coop- erative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of transit ser- vice providers. The scope of TCRP includes various transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooperating organi- zations: FTA; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research organization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for propos- als), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired effect if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminat- ing TCRP results to the intended users of the research: transit agen- cies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, train- ing aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are imple- mented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Published research reports of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under TCRP Project J-11/Task 24 by the Shared-Use Mobility Center (SUMC). This report was written by Colin Murphy and Taylor McAdam with the oversight of the Principal Investigator, Sharon Feigon, all of SUMC. Rudy Faust and Tim Frisbie of SUMC also worked on the project. Roger Teal, Ph.D., of DemandTrans Solutions provided additional consultation and expertise. The researchers especially wish to thank all the individuals, agencies, and companies that took the time to contribute their knowledge and insights during the interviews that were at the heart of this research. CRP STAFF FOR TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 196 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Gwen Chisholm Smith, Manager, Transit Cooperative Research Program Dianne S. Schwager, Senior Program Officer Daniel J. Magnolia, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Ellen M. Chafee, Senior Editor TCRP PROJECT J-11/TASK 24 PANEL Field of Special Projects Jameson Auten, Kansas City Area Transportation Authority, Kansas City, MO Eric Beaton, New York City DOT, New York, NY Marlene B. Connor, Marlene Connor Associates, LLC, Holyoke, MA Carol L. Ketcherside, Valley Metro Regional Public Transportation Authority, Phoenix, AZ David Leininger, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, Dallas, TX Tom Maguire, San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency, San Francisco, CA Hugh A. Mose, State College, PA Jenny O’Brien, Mid-America Regional Council, Kansas City, MO Mariana Parreiras, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Oakland, CA Francie Stefan, City of Santa Monica—Planning & Community Development, Santa Monica, CA Mary Leary, FTA Liaison Darnell Grisby, APTA Liaison

TCRP Research Report 196: Private Transit: Existing Services and Emerging Directions pro- vides an overview and taxonomy of private transit services in the United States, reviews their present scope and operating characteristics, presents three case studies, and discusses ways private transit services may affect the communities in which they operate. This report is intended to help inform public transit agencies, local governments, potential service opera- tors and sponsors, and other stakeholders about private transit services and ways these services address transportation needs in a variety of operating environments. Private transit services—including airport shuttles, shared taxis, private commuter buses, dollar vans, and jitneys—have operated for decades in many cities in the United States. Recently, business innovations and technological advances that allow real-time ride-hailing, routing, tracking, and payment have ushered in a new generation of private transportation options. These include ride-splitting products like UberPool and Lyft Line, “microtransit” services, and new types of public-private partnerships that are helping to bridge first-/ last-mile gaps in suburban areas. The taxonomy of private transit presented in this report includes two main branches, according to their primary commercial relationship: • Private market services: The provider does business directly with the rider, generally for a fare (business-to-consumer). These include – On-demand pooled services, such as shared taxis and shared transportation network company (TNC) services; – Prearranged route- or zone-based services, such as those offered by “microtransit” providers like Chariot; and – Flexible route-based services like jitneys and dollar vans. • Sponsored services: A property owner or employer contracts with the service provider for the benefit of some other party, such as tenants or employees (business to business). These include – Employer-based commuter services and – Property-based private transit services. The report examines ways that private transit services are interacting with communities and transit agencies, as well as resulting impacts and benefits. Key findings include the following: • Private transit services can complement public transit and help reduce solo car trips. • Some private transit services divert drive-alone trips and may cause reductions in vehicle miles traveled (VMT). F O R E W O R D By Dianne S. Schwager Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

• Without prudent regulation, private transit services can contribute to conflicts over use of street space and public rights-of-way. • Private transit’s safety benefits stem from per capita VMT reductions. • Private transit can expand access in underserved or hard-to-serve communities. The report also includes a discussion of key federal regulations that can affect private transportation services and the role played by states and cities in overseeing operation of private transportation services, such as through ordinances on TNCs like Uber and Lyft. Finally, the report concludes with a series of suggested strategies for public agencies looking to constructively engage with operators of private transit services.

1 Summary 4 Section 1 Introduction 4 Research Objective 4 Defining Private Transit Services 5 Research Approach 5 Historical Overview 7 Informal Networks and Commuter Shuttles 7 Emerging Mobility Services 8 Section 2 Defining Private Transit Services 8 Taxonomy of Private Transit Services 10 Private Market Services 19 Sponsored Services 23 Section 3 Private Transit Services: Benefits and Impacts 23 Private Transit Services Can Complement Public Transit and Help Reduce Solo Car Trips 26 Without Prudent Regulation, Private Transit Services Can Contribute to Conflicts Over Use of Street Space and Public Rights-of-Way 27 Private Transit’s Safety Benefits Stem from per Capita VMT Reductions 28 Private Transit Can Expand Transportation Access in Underserved or Hard-to-Serve Communities 29 Section 4 Regulatory Environment 29 Federal Regulation 30 State Regulation 31 Local Regulation 32 Section 5 Case Studies: Local Approaches to Transportation Challenges 32 Case Study I: San Francisco’s “Tech Buses”: Piloting a Cooperative Process for Prioritizing Street Use 37 Case Study II: Consortium-Sponsored Services: Public-Private Partnerships to Access Low-Density Areas 41 Case Study III: Dollar Vans and Jersey Jitneys: Grassroots Private Transit Evolves at the Regulatory Margins 45 Section 6 Conclusions and Areas for Further Research 45 Conclusions 46 Areas for Further Research C O N T E N T S

47 Appendix A List of Stakeholders Interviewed 48 Appendix B Definition of Private Transit Services 51 Appendix C Description of Taxonomy Categories 54 Bibliography 60 Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Initialisms

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TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Research Report 196: Private Transit: Existing Services and Emerging Directions provides information about private transit services and ways they are addressing transportation needs in a variety of operating environments. The document contains an overview and taxonomy of private transit services in the United States, a review of their present scope and operating characteristics, and a discussion of ways they may affect the communities in which they operate along with several case studies and other supporting information.

Private transit services—including airport shuttles, shared taxis, private commuter buses, dollar vans and jitneys—have operated for decades in many American cities. Recently, business innovations and technological advances that allow real-time ride-hailing, routing, tracking, and payment have ushered in a new generation of private transit options. These include new types of public-private partnership that are helping to bridge first/last mile gaps in suburban areas.

The report also examines ways that private transit services are interacting with communities and transit agencies, as well as resulting impacts and benefits.

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