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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25244.
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Frontiers of
Materials Research

A Decadal Survey

Committee on Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey

National Materials and Manufacturing Board

Board on Physics and Astronomy

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

A Consensus Study Report of

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25244.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. DMR-1647113 from National Science Foundation and Contract No. DE-SC0016257 from Department of Energy. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-48387-2
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Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25244

Cover: Materials research is a never-ending quest. A snapshot in time of the frontiers of yesterday, today, and tomorrow is explored in this decadal survey. As each sphere of understanding is scaled back and understood, a universe of spheres still remains to be explored. Graphic Artist: Erik Svedberg.

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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/25244.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25244.
×

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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president.

The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.

The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.

Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25244.
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Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25244.
×

COMMITTEE ON FRONTIERS OF MATERIALS RESEARCH: A DECADAL SURVEY

LAURA H. GREENE, NAS,1 National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and Florida State University, Co-Chair

TOM LUBENSKY, NAS, University of Pennsylvania, Co-Chair

MATTHEW V. TIRRELL, NAS/NAE,2 University of Chicago and Argonne National Laboratory, Co-Chair

PAUL M. CHAIKIN, NAS, New York University

HONG DING, Beijing National Laboratory

KATHERINE T. FABER, California Institute of Technology

PAULA T. HAMMOND, NAS/NAE/NAM,3 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

CHRISTINE E. HECKLE, Corning, Inc.

KEVIN J. HEMKER, Johns Hopkins University

JOSEPH P. HEREMANS, NAE, Ohio State University

BARBARA A. JONES, IBM Almaden Research Center

NADYA MASON, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

THOMAS MASON, Battelle Memorial Institute

TALAT SHAHNAZ RAHMAN, University of Central Florida

ELSA REICHMANIS, NAE, Georgia Institute of Technology

JOHN L. SARRAO, Los Alamos National Laboratory

SUSAN B. SINNOTT, Pennsylvania State University

SUSANNE STEMMER, University of California, Santa Barbara

SAMUEL I. STUPP, NAE, Northwestern University

TIA BENSON TOLLE, Boeing

MARK L. WEAVER, University of Alabama

TODD YOUNKIN, Intel Assignee at SRC

STEVEN J. ZINKLE, NAE, University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Staff

ERIK SVEDBERG, Study Director

JAMES LANCASTER, Director, National Materials and Manufacturing Board and the Board on Physics and Astronomy

NEERAJ P. GORKHALY, Associate Program Officer

HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate

LINDA WALKER, Program Coordinator

HENRY KO, Research Associate (through January 18, 2019)

___________________

1 Member, National Academy of Sciences.

2 Member, National Academy of Engineering.

3 Member, National Academy of Medicine.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25244.
×

NATIONAL MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING BOARD

BEN WANG, Georgia Institute of Technology, Chair

RODNEY C. ADKINS, NAE, IBM Corporate Strategy (retired)

CRAIG ARNOLD, Princeton University

JIM C.I. CHANG, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

THOMAS M. DONNELLAN, Applied Research Laboratory

STEPHEN FORREST, NAS/NAE, University of Michigan

ERICA FUCHS, Carnegie Mellon University

THERESA KOTANCHEK, Evolved Analytics, LLC

DAVID LARBALESTIER, NAE, Florida State University

MICK MAHER, Maher & Associates, LLC

ROBERT MILLER, NAE, IBM Almaden Research Center

EDWARD MORRIS, Consequence Consulting, LLC

NICHOLAS A. PEPPAS, NAE/NAM, University of Texas, Austin

TRESA M. POLLOCK, NAE, University of California, Santa Barbara

GREGORY TASSEY, University of Washington

HAYDN WADLEY, University of Virginia

STEVEN J. ZINKLE, NAE, University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Staff

JAMES LANCASTER, Director

ERIK SVEDBERG, Senior Program Officer

NEERAJ P. GORKHALY, Associate Program Officer

HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate

JOSEPH PALMER, Senior Project Assistant

HENRY KO, Research Associate (through January 18, 2019)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25244.
×

BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY

BARBARA JACAK, NAS, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Chair

ABRAHAM LOEB, Harvard University, Vice Chair

LOUIS DIMAURO, The Ohio State University

FRANCIS DISALVO, NAS, Cornell University

NATHANIEL FISCH, Princeton University

DANIEL FISHER, Stanford University

WENDY FREEDMAN, NAS, University of Chicago

TIM HECKMAN, NAS, Johns Hopkins University

WENDELL HILL III, University of Maryland

ALAN HURD, Los Alamos National Laboratory

BARBARA A. JONES, IBM Almaden Research Center

ANDREW LANKFORD, University of California, Irvine

NERGIS MAVALVALA, NAS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

LYMAN PAGE, JR., NAS, Princeton University

STEVEN RITZ, University of California, Santa Cruz

Staff

JAMES LANCASTER, Director

DONALD SHAPIRO, Senior Scholar

CHRISTOPHER JONES, Program Officer

NEERAJ P. GORKHALY, Associate Program Officer

HENRY KO, Research Associate

LINDA WALKER, Program Coordinator

BETH DOLAN, Financial Associate

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25244.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25244.
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Preface

The National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Department of Energy (DOE) requested that the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine perform an in-depth and broad study that will articulate the status and promising future directions of materials research (MR) in the United States in the context of similar efforts worldwide. This is the second major survey of the broad area of MR; the first was published in 1990 (Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials). In 2010, a focused study (Condensed-Matter and Materials Physics: The Science of the World Around Us) was published.

Included in the statement of task for this assessment is that MR will be considered broadly in terms of material type, forms/structure, property, and phenomenon, as well as the full breadth of approaches to MR (e.g., experiment, theory, computation, modeling and simulation, instrument/technique development, synthesis, characterization, etc.). In particular, the report will

  • Assess the progress and achievements in MR over the past decade;
  • Identify the principal changes in the research and development landscape for MR in the United States and internationally over the past decade, and how those changes have impacted MR;
  • Identify MR areas that offer promising investment opportunities and new directions for the period 2020-2030 or have major scientific gaps;
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25244.
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  • Identify fields in MR that may be good candidates for transition to support by other disciplines, applied research and development (R&D) sponsors, or industry;
  • Identify the broad impacts that MR has had and is expected to have on emerging technologies, national needs, and science;
  • Identify challenges that MR may face over the next decade and offer guidance to the materials research community for addressing those challenges; and
  • Evaluate recent trends in investments in MR in the United States relative to similar research that is taking place internationally by using a limited number of case studies of representative areas of MR that either have experienced significant recent growth or are anticipated to see significant near-term growth, and based on those trends, recommend steps that the United States might take either to secure leadership or to enhance collaboration and coordination of such research support, where appropriate, for identified subfields of MR.

In addition to the five full committee meetings, the committee will engage in extensive data gathering. Data gathering for the project will consist of

  1. A review of relevant published literature;
  2. Invited presenters at the committee’s public meetings;
  3. Sustained engagement with the materials research communities; and
  4. If the committee decides, commissioned papers.

The project will conduct a review of the literature related to aspects of the issues to be addressed by the project, which will include previous work (such as seminal reports) done in the past decade by other not-for-profits, societies, and foreign entities.

The project will engage in sustained efforts to solicit broad input from relevant communities. These outreach efforts will include sessions at geographically dispersed locations across the United States, and may include town halls, professional meetings, solicitation of white papers, and aggressive use of electronic communications and networks.

The committee closely followed the statement of task, with the following small deviations:

  • In the fourth list item, it was interpreted that “transition” cannot simply be a handoff, as even if a fundamental discovery appears ready for other disciplines or applications, communication back to the bench is required for successful implementation—especially as processes become more complex.
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25244.
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  • Workforce empowerment is not in the statement task, but research by the committee and a great deal of input from the community indicated that it must be mentioned.
  • MR and economics are, by nature, intertwined. The committee decided that addressing economic policy is beyond its scope, and so the topic is not addressed here.

During the course of the study, the committee came into agreement that MR in the United States is at a precipice—there have been extraordinary advances in materials growth, measurement, and computation, both separately and in coordinated collaborations at universities, in national laboratories, and in industry, across nearly all fields of MR. Many breakthroughs are reported here, many are directly predicted, and many are as yet unforeseen, which will have tremendous effect on our understanding, and significant impact on our daily lives, globally. If the United States does not maintain its position as a world leader in MR, it risks not being a significant player.

Finally, a disclaimer: The statement of task was extremely broad, and the committee could not cover every aspect of MR, from the most fundamental to the most disruptive manufacturing, without leaving important and even crucial areas of MR out of the report, or providing only brief mention. This does not indicate that the committee felt these areas were less important or crucial.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25244.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25244.
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Acknowledgments

This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

___________________

1 Member, National Academy of Engineering.

2 Member, National Academy of Sciences.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25244.
×

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by David W. Johnson, Jr., NAE, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, and Celia I. Merzbacher, Office of Institutional Planning, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

The committee also thanks the following guest speakers and panelists at its meetings, who added to the members’ understanding of the frontiers of materials research:

___________________

3 Member, National Academy of Medicine.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25244.
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The committee gratefully acknowledges information provided by the following experts from the materials research community:

Every member of the committee made heroic efforts to complete this daunting task. Erik Svedberg provided guidance and management, and we also appreciate similar support from Jim Lancaster. We thank the outside speakers listed and are grateful for the input from the entire community.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25244.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25244.
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3.5 Polymers, Biomaterials, and Other Soft Matter

3.5.1 Polymers

3.5.2 Biomaterials and Bio-Inspired Materials

3.5.3 Soft Matter and Granular Materials

3.6 Architected and Metamaterials

3.6.1 Architected Materials

3.6.2 Metamaterials for Photonics, Phononics, and Plasmonics

3.7 Materials for Energy, Catalysis, and Extreme Environments

3.7.1 Materials for Energy

3.7.2 Materials for Catalysis

3.7.3 Materials for Extreme Environments

3.8 Materials Research in Water, Sustainability, and Clean Technologies

3.9 Materials to Move, Store, Pump, and Manage Heat

3.9.1 Thermal Energy Storage

3.9.2 Solid-State Thermal Energy Conversion

3.9.3 Active Thermal Devices, Rectifiers, and Switches

3.9.4 Thermal Barrier Coatings

3.10 Findings and Recommendations

4 RESEARCH TOOLS, METHODS, INFRASTRUCTURE, AND FACILITIES

4.1 Characterization Tools

4.1.1 Electron Microscopy

4.1.2 Atom Probe Tomography

4.1.3 Scanning Probe Microscopies

4.1.4 Time-Resolved, Especially Ultrafast Methods

4.1.5 3D/4D Measurements, Including In Situ Methods

4.2 Synthesis and Processing Tools

4.2.1 Precision Synthesis

4.2.2 3D Structures from DNA Building Blocks

4.2.3 2D Shape-Changing Materials

4.2.4 Additive Manufacturing

4.2.5 Cold Gas Dynamic Spraying

4.2.6 Nonequilibrium Processing

4.2.7 Single Crystal Growth

4.3 Simulation and Computation Tools

4.3.1 Integrated Computational Materials Engineering and Materials Genome Initiatives

4.3.2 Computational Materials Science and Engineering

4.3.3 Machine Learning for Materials Discovery

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25244.
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Modern materials science builds on knowledge from physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics, computer and data science, and engineering sciences to enable us to understand, control, and expand the material world. Although it is anchored in inquiry-based fundamental science, materials research is strongly focused on discovering and producing reliable and economically viable materials, from super alloys to polymer composites, that are used in a vast array of products essential to today’s societies and economies.

Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey is aimed at documenting the status and promising future directions of materials research in the United States in the context of similar efforts worldwide. This third decadal survey in materials research reviews the progress and achievements in materials research and changes in the materials research landscape over the last decade; research opportunities for investment for the period 2020-2030; impacts that materials research has had and is expected to have on emerging technologies, national needs, and science; and challenges the enterprise may face over the next decade.

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