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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25244.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Frontiers of Materials Research A Decadal Survey Committee on Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey National Materials and Manufacturing Board Board on Physics and Astronomy Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences A Consensus Study Report of

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS  500 Fifth Street, NW  Washington, DC 20001 This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. DMR-1647113 from National Science Foundation and Contract No. DE-SC0016257 from Department of Energy. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-48387-2 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-48387-5 Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25244 Cover: Materials research is a never-ending quest. A snapshot in time of the frontiers of yesterday, today, and tomorrow is explored in this decadal survey. As each sphere of understanding is scaled back and understood, a universe of spheres still remains to be explored. Graphic Artist: Erik Svedberg. This publication is available in limited quantities from National Materials and Manufacturing Board 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 nmmb@nas.edu http://www.nationalacademies.edu/nmmb Additional copies of this publication are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http:// www.nap.edu. Copyright 2019 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https:// doi.org/10.17226/25244.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for out- standing contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contribu- tions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceed- ings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

COMMITTEE ON FRONTIERS OF MATERIALS RESEARCH: A DECADAL SURVEY LAURA H. GREENE, NAS,1 National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and Florida State University, Co-Chair TOM LUBENSKY, NAS, University of Pennsylvania, Co-Chair MATTHEW V. TIRRELL, NAS/NAE,2 University of Chicago and Argonne ­National Laboratory, Co-Chair PAUL M. CHAIKIN, NAS, New York University HONG DING, Beijing National Laboratory KATHERINE T. FABER, California Institute of Technology PAULA T. HAMMOND, NAS/NAE/NAM,3 Massachusetts Institute of Technology CHRISTINE E. HECKLE, Corning, Inc. KEVIN J. HEMKER, Johns Hopkins University JOSEPH P. HEREMANS, NAE, Ohio State University BARBARA A. JONES, IBM Almaden Research Center NADYA MASON, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign THOMAS MASON, Battelle Memorial Institute TALAT SHAHNAZ RAHMAN, University of Central Florida ELSA REICHMANIS, NAE, Georgia Institute of Technology JOHN L. SARRAO, Los Alamos National Laboratory SUSAN B. SINNOTT, Pennsylvania State University SUSANNE STEMMER, University of California, Santa Barbara SAMUEL I. STUPP, NAE, Northwestern University TIA BENSON TOLLE, Boeing MARK L. WEAVER, University of Alabama TODD YOUNKIN, Intel Assignee at SRC STEVEN J. ZINKLE, NAE, University of Tennessee, Knoxville Staff ERIK SVEDBERG, Study Director JAMES LANCASTER, Director, National Materials and Manufacturing Board and the Board on Physics and Astronomy NEERAJ P. GORKHALY, Associate Program Officer HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate LINDA WALKER, Program Coordinator HENRY KO, Research Associate (through January 18, 2019) 1 Member, National Academy of Sciences. 2 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 3 Member, National Academy of Medicine. v

NATIONAL MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING BOARD BEN WANG, Georgia Institute of Technology, Chair RODNEY C. ADKINS, NAE, IBM Corporate Strategy (retired) CRAIG ARNOLD, Princeton University JIM C.I. CHANG, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan THOMAS M. DONNELLAN, Applied Research Laboratory STEPHEN FORREST, NAS/NAE, University of Michigan ERICA FUCHS, Carnegie Mellon University THERESA KOTANCHEK, Evolved Analytics, LLC DAVID LARBALESTIER, NAE, Florida State University MICK MAHER, Maher & Associates, LLC ROBERT MILLER, NAE, IBM Almaden Research Center EDWARD MORRIS, Consequence Consulting, LLC NICHOLAS A. PEPPAS, NAE/NAM, University of Texas, Austin TRESA M. POLLOCK, NAE, University of California, Santa Barbara GREGORY TASSEY, University of Washington HAYDN WADLEY, University of Virginia STEVEN J. ZINKLE, NAE, University of Tennessee, Knoxville Staff JAMES LANCASTER, Director ERIK SVEDBERG, Senior Program Officer NEERAJ P. GORKHALY, Associate Program Officer HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate JOSEPH PALMER, Senior Project Assistant HENRY KO, Research Associate (through January 18, 2019) vi

BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY BARBARA JACAK, NAS, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Chair ABRAHAM LOEB, Harvard University, Vice Chair LOUIS DIMAURO, The Ohio State University FRANCIS DISALVO, NAS, Cornell University NATHANIEL FISCH, Princeton University DANIEL FISHER, Stanford University WENDY FREEDMAN, NAS, University of Chicago TIM HECKMAN, NAS, Johns Hopkins University WENDELL HILL III, University of Maryland ALAN HURD, Los Alamos National Laboratory BARBARA A. JONES, IBM Almaden Research Center ANDREW LANKFORD, University of California, Irvine NERGIS MAVALVALA, NAS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology LYMAN PAGE, JR., NAS, Princeton University STEVEN RITZ, University of California, Santa Cruz Staff JAMES LANCASTER, Director DONALD SHAPIRO, Senior Scholar CHRISTOPHER JONES, Program Officer NEERAJ P. GORKHALY, Associate Program Officer HENRY KO, Research Associate LINDA WALKER, Program Coordinator BETH DOLAN, Financial Associate vii

Preface The National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Department of Energy (DOE) requested that the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine perform an in-depth and broad study that will articulate the status and promising future directions of materials research (MR) in the United States in the context of similar efforts worldwide. This is the second major survey of the broad area of MR; the first was published in 1990 (Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials). In 2010, a focused study (Condensed-Matter and Materials Physics: The Science of the World Around Us) was published. Included in the statement of task for this assessment is that MR will be con- sidered broadly in terms of material type, forms/structure, property, and phenom- enon, as well as the full breadth of approaches to MR (e.g., experiment, theory, computation, modeling and simulation, instrument/technique development, syn- thesis, characterization, etc.). In particular, the report will • Assess the progress and achievements in MR over the past decade; • Identify the principal changes in the research and development landscape for MR in the United States and internationally over the past decade, and how those changes have impacted MR; • Identify MR areas that offer promising investment opportunities and new directions for the period 2020-2030 or have major scientific gaps; ix

x P re fac e • Identify fields in MR that may be good candidates for transition to support by other disciplines, applied research and development (R&D) sponsors, or industry; • Identify the broad impacts that MR has had and is expected to have on emerging technologies, national needs, and science; • Identify challenges that MR may face over the next decade and offer guidance to the materials research community for addressing those challenges; and • Evaluate recent trends in investments in MR in the United States relative to similar research that is taking place internationally by using a limited number of case studies of representative areas of MR that either have experienced significant recent growth or are anticipated to see significant near-term growth, and based on those trends, recommend steps that the United States might take either to secure leadership or to enhance collaboration and coordination of such research support, where appropriate, for identified subfields of MR. In addition to the five full committee meetings, the committee will engage in extensive data gathering. Data gathering for the project will consist of 1. A review of relevant published literature; 2. Invited presenters at the committee’s public meetings; 3. Sustained engagement with the materials research communities; and 4. If the committee decides, commissioned papers. The project will conduct a review of the literature related to aspects of the issues to be addressed by the project, which will include previous work (such as seminal reports) done in the past decade by other not-for-profits, societies, and foreign entities. The project will engage in sustained efforts to solicit broad input from relevant communities. These outreach efforts will include sessions at geographically dis- persed locations across the United States, and may include town halls, professional meetings, solicitation of white papers, and aggressive use of electronic communica- tions and networks. The committee closely followed the statement of task, with the following small deviations: • In the fourth list item, it was interpreted that “transition” cannot simply be a handoff, as even if a fundamental discovery appears ready for other disciplines or applications, communication back to the bench is required for successful implementation—especially as processes become more complex.

P re fac e xi • Workforce empowerment is not in the statement task, but research by the committee and a great deal of input from the community indicated that it must be mentioned. • MR and economics are, by nature, intertwined. The committee decided that addressing economic policy is beyond its scope, and so the topic is not addressed here. During the course of the study, the committee came into agreement that MR in the United States is at a precipice—there have been extraordinary advances in materials growth, measurement, and computation, both separately and in coordi- nated collaborations at universities, in national laboratories, and in industry, across nearly all fields of MR. Many breakthroughs are reported here, many are directly predicted, and many are as yet unforeseen, which will have tremendous effect on our understanding, and significant impact on our daily lives, globally. If the United States does not maintain its position as a world leader in MR, it risks not being a significant player. Finally, a disclaimer: The statement of task was extremely broad, and the com- mittee could not cover every aspect of MR, from the most fundamental to the most disruptive manufacturing, without leaving important and even crucial areas of MR out of the report, or providing only brief mention. This does not indicate that the committee felt these areas were less important or crucial.

Acknowledgments This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published re- port as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Ewa A. Bardasz, NAE,1 Zual Associates in Lubrication LLC, Malcolm R. Beasley, NAS,2 Stanford University, Robert J. Cava, NAS, Princeton University, Edwin Chandross, NAE, Materials Chemistry, LLC, Dianne Chong, NAE, Boeing Research and Technology (retired), C. Randy Giles, NAE, Center for the Advancement of Science in Space, Heinrich M. Jaeger, University of Chicago, Angus Kingon, Brown University, LaShonda T. Korley, University of Delaware, Theresa Kotanchek, Evolved Analytics, LLC, 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 2 Member, National Academy of Sciences. xiii

xiv Acknowledgments Julia M. Phillips, NAE, Sandia National Laboratories, Ward E. Plummer, NAS, Louisiana State University, Angus Rockett, Colorado School of Mines, David J. Srolovitz, NAE, University of Pennsylvania, George W. Sutton, NAE, Analysis and Applications, Inc., and Michael J. Yaszemski, NAM,3 Mayo Clinic. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommenda- tions of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by David W. Johnson, Jr., NAE, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, and Celia I. Merzbacher, Office of Institutional Planning, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. The committee also thanks the following guest speakers and panelists at its meet- ings, who added to the members’ understanding of the frontiers of materials research: Paul Alivisatos, NAS, University of California, Berkeley, Frank Anderson, CoorsTek, David Awschalom, NAS/NAE, University of Chicago, Greg Boebinger, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Geoff Brennecka, Colorado School of Mines, Craig Brice, Lockheed Martin, Timothy Bunning, Air Force Research Laboratory, Tzahi Cath, Colorado School of Mines, Noel Clark, NAS, University of Colorado, Boulder, Amy Clarke, Colorado School of Mines, George Crabtree, NAS, University of Illinois, Chicago, and Argonne National Laboratory, Arrelaine Dameron, ForgeNano, Rod Eggert, Colorado School of Mines, Jim Fekete, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Mike Gazarik, Ball Aerospace, Judah Goldwasser, Office of Naval Research, Nancy Haegel, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Heinrich Jaeger, University of Chicago, 3 Member, National Academy of Medicine.

Acknowledgments xv Sylvia Johnson, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Mercouri Kanatzidis, Northwestern University, Alexander King, Critical Materials Institute, Melissa Krebs, Colorado School of Mines, Cristina Marchetti, Syracuse University, David Marshall, NAE, University of Colorado, Boulder, Jerry Martin, Synthio Chemicals, LLC, Seth Miller, Heron Scientific, Margaret Murnane, NAS, University of Colorado, Boulder, Corinne Packard, Colorado School of Mines and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Karin Payne, University of Colorado, Denver, John Poate, Colorado School of Mines, Ivar Reimanis, Colorado School of Mines, John Rogers, NAS/NAE, Northwestern University, Robert Schafrik, GE, Nicole Smith, Colorado School of Mines, John Speer, NAE, Colorado School of Mines, Reginald Stilwell, Allosource, Stein Sture, University of Colorado, Boulder, Mark VanLandingham, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Andriy Zakutayev, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Alex Zunger, University of Colorado, Boulder, and All members of the University Materials Council. The committee gratefully acknowledges information provided by the following experts from the materials research community: Ryan Baumbach, National MagLab, Thomas N. Theis, IBM (Emeritus), and Lucas Wagner, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Every member of the committee made heroic efforts to complete this daunting task. Erik Svedberg provided guidance and management, and we also appreciate similar support from Jim Lancaster. We thank the outside speakers listed and are grateful for the input from the entire community.

Contents SUMMARY 1 1 BRIEF SURVEY OF DEVELOPMENTS OVER THE DECADE 14 1.1 Industrial Perspectives, 18 1.2 Defense and National Security Perspectives, 21 1.3 Conclusion, 22 1.4 Key Findings and Recommendations, 23 2 PROGRESS AND ACHIEVEMENTS IN MATERIALS RESEARCH OVER THE PAST DECADE 26 2.1 Metals, 27 2.1.1 Accelerated Development, 27 2.1.2 Bulk Metallic Glasses, 31 2.1.3 High-Performance Alloys, 32 2.2 Ceramics, Glasses, Composites, and Hybrid Materials, 34 2.2.1 Ceramics, 34 2.2.2 Glasses, 35 2.2.3 Composites and Hybrids, 36 2.3 Semiconductors and Other Electronic Materials, 43 2.3.1 Materials and Devices for Information Technology, 43 2.3.2 Continued Miniaturization of Silicon-Based Field-Effect Devices, 45 xvii

xviii Contents 2.3.3 Alternative Solutions to Address the Bottlenecks in Field-Effect Transistors, 47 2.3.4 Semiconductors for Optoelectronics, 50 2.3.5 Organic Semiconductors, 52 2.3.6 Flexible Electronics, 53 2.4 Quantum Materials and Strongly Correlated Systems, 54 2.4.1 Superconductors and Strongly Correlated Electrons, 54 2.4.2 Magnetic Materials, 58 2.4.3 Two-Dimensional Quantum Materials, 63 2.4.4 Topological Materials, 68 2.4.5 Qubits—The Building Blocks for Quantum Computers, 71 2.5 Polymers, Biomaterials, and Other Soft Matter, 74 2.5.1 Polymers, 74 2.5.2 Biomolecular and Bio-Inspired Materials, 82 2.5.3 Biomaterials, 83 2.5.4 Soft Matter, 87 2.6 Architected Materials, 98 2.7 Materials for Catalysis, 98 2.8 Conclusion, 103 3 MATERIALS RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES 104 3.1 Metals, 105 3.1.1 Fundamental Studies of Classical Metals and Alloys, 105 3.1.2 High-Entropy Alloys, 106 3.1.3 Nanostructured Metallic Alloys, 107 3.2 Ceramics, Glasses, Composites, and Hybrid Materials, 108 3.2.1 Ceramics and Glasses, 108 3.2.2 Composites and Hybrid Materials, 111 3.3 Semiconductors and Other Electronic Materials, 115 3.3.1 Device Miniaturization and Advances Beyond Miniaturization, 116 3.3.2 Multifunctional Devices and the Internet of Things, 117 3.3.3 Next-Generation Semiconductors for RF and Power Electronics, 118 3.3.4 Interconnects and Packaging, 119 3.4 Quantum Materials, 119 3.4.1 Superconductors, 120 3.4.2 Magnetic Materials, 121 3.4.3 Two-Dimensional Materials, 123 3.4.4 Topological Materials, 126

Contents xix 3.5 Polymers, Biomaterials, and Other Soft Matter, 127 3.5.1 Polymers, 127 3.5.2 Biomaterials and Bio-Inspired Materials, 131 3.5.3 Soft Matter and Granular Materials, 135 3.6 Architected and Metamaterials, 138 3.6.1 Architected Materials, 138 3.6.2 Metamaterials for Photonics, Phononics, and Plasmonics, 139 3.7 Materials for Energy, Catalysis, and Extreme Environments, 139 3.7.1 Materials for Energy, 139 3.7.2 Materials for Catalysis, 141 3.7.3 Materials for Extreme Environments, 143 3.8 Materials Research in Water, Sustainability, and Clean Technologies, 145 3.9 Materials to Move, Store, Pump, and Manage Heat, 149 3.9.1 Thermal Energy Storage, 151 3.9.2 Solid-State Thermal Energy Conversion, 152 3.9.3 Active Thermal Devices, Rectifiers, and Switches, 153 3.9.4 Thermal Barrier Coatings, 153 3.10 Findings and Recommendations, 155 4 RESEARCH TOOLS, METHODS, INFRASTRUCTURE, AND FACILITIES 162 4.1 Characterization Tools, 162 4.1.1 Electron Microscopy, 162 4.1.2 Atom Probe Tomography, 165 4.1.3 Scanning Probe Microscopies, 166 4.1.4 Time-Resolved, Especially Ultrafast Methods, 168 4.1.5 3D/4D Measurements, Including In Situ Methods, 170 4.2 Synthesis and Processing Tools, 174 4.2.1 Precision Synthesis, 174 4.2.2 3D Structures from DNA Building Blocks, 175 4.2.3 2D Shape-Changing Materials, 177 4.2.4 Additive Manufacturing, 180 4.2.5 Cold Gas Dynamic Spraying, 182 4.2.6 Nonequilibrium Processing, 182 4.2.7 Single Crystal Growth, 184 4.3 Simulation and Computation Tools, 185 4.3.1 Integrated Computational Materials Engineering and Materials Genome Initiatives, 185 4.3.2 Computational Materials Science and Engineering, 188 4.3.3 Machine Learning for Materials Discovery, 192

xx Contents 4.3.4 Quantum Computing as a Computational Materials Tool, 194 4.3.5 Materials Databases: Achievements, Promise, and Challenges, 196 4.4 Integration of Synthesis, Characterization, and Modeling, 198 4.4.1 High-Throughput Screening, 198 4.4.2 Predictive Experimental Materials Design and Combined Experimental/Computational Analysis, 200 4.5 Infrastructure and Facilities, 202 4.5.1 Research Infrastructure, 202 4.5.2 General Laboratory Infrastructure, 206 4.5.3 Midscale Instrumentation/Facilities, 206 4.5.4 Nanoscale Science Research Centers, 208 4.5.5 X-Ray Light Sources, 208 4.5.6 Neutrons, 211 4.5.7 High Magnetic Field Facilities, 213 4.5.8 Advanced Computational Facilities, 214 4.6 Conclusion, Findings, and Recommendations, 215 5 NATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS 220 5.1 Amounts and Directions, 221 5.2 A Global Perspective, 223 5.2.1 European Union, 225 5.2.2 Finland, 227 5.2.3 France, 228 5.2.4 Germany, 229 5.2.5 United Kingdom, 230 5.2.6 China, 231 5.2.7 South Korea, 233 5.2.8 Japan, 234 5.3 Case Studies, 237 5.3.1 Case 1—Flat Panel Liquid Crystal Displays, 237 5.3.2 Case 2—Additive Manufacturing in Aerospace, 238 5.3.3 Case 3—Permanent Magnets on the World Market, 239 5.3.4 Case 4—Photovoltaics, 240 5.3.5 Case 5—Lithium-Ion Batteries, 243 5.4 Science Diplomacy with Industrial and Homeland Security, 244 5.5 A National Perspective, 245 5.6 Findings and Recommendations, 246

Contents xxi APPENDIXES A Statement of Task 251 B Town Halls 253 C Committee Biographies 255 D Acronyms 267

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Modern materials science builds on knowledge from physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics, computer and data science, and engineering sciences to enable us to understand, control, and expand the material world. Although it is anchored in inquiry-based fundamental science, materials research is strongly focused on discovering and producing reliable and economically viable materials, from super alloys to polymer composites, that are used in a vast array of products essential to today’s societies and economies.

Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey is aimed at documenting the status and promising future directions of materials research in the United States in the context of similar efforts worldwide. This third decadal survey in materials research reviews the progress and achievements in materials research and changes in the materials research landscape over the last decade; research opportunities for investment for the period 2020-2030; impacts that materials research has had and is expected to have on emerging technologies, national needs, and science; and challenges the enterprise may face over the next decade.

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