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Â D Acronyms 1D one dimensional 2D two dimensional 3D three dimensional 4D four dimensional ABINIT a computational software package ACSR Advanced Scientific Computing Research ADAPT Americans Disabled Attendant Programs Today ADP adenosine diphosphate AFM atomic force microscopy AFOSR Air Force Office of Scientific Research AFRL Air Force Research Laboratory AHE anomalous Hall effect ALCF Argonne Leadership Computing Facility ALD atomic layer deposition ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ALS-U Advanced Light Source Upgrade AM additive manufacturing AMTIR a âglass-likeâ amorphous material that is able to transmit in the ANL Argonne National Laboratory ANN artificial neural network APL Applied Physics Laboratory appm atomics parts per million APS-U Advanced Photon Source Upgrade APT atom probe tomography ARES Autonomous Research System ARO Army Research Office ARPA Advanced Research Projects Agency ARPES angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy ASCR Advanced Scientific Computing Research BCS Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory (named after John Bardeen, Leon Cooper, and John Robert Schrieffer) BEPC II Beijing Electron Positron Collider II BES Basic Energy Sciences (in DOE Office of Science) BESAC Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee BMBF German Ministry of Research BMW Bayerische Motoren Werke BNL Brookhaven National Laboratory (National Synchrotron Light Source II) BRN basic research needs PREPUBLICATION COPY â SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION D-1
Â BSRF Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility CAD computer-aided design CALPHAD Computer Coupling of Phase Diagrams and Thermochemistry CARR China Advanced Research Reactor CAS Chinese Academy of Science CASTEP Cambridge Serial Total Energy Package (a DFT software package) CBRAM conductive bridge RAM CEA French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research CFM CFM International CFRP carbon-fiber reinforced polymer CFRP controlled free-radical polymerization cGLP Current Good Laboratory Practice cGMP Current Good Manufacturing Practice CIF Crystallographic Information File CIGS copper-indium-gallium-selenide CLP controlled, living polymerization CMC ceramic-matrix composite CMI Critical Materials Institute CMOS complementary metal-oxide semiconductor CMP chemical mechanical polishing CNRS Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNY China Renminbi COHMAG Committee on Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science CPS Cyber-Physical Systems cQED circuit quantum electrodynamics CRL Collaborative Research Laboratory CSM Colorado School of Mines CSNS China Spallation Neutron Source CSTI Council for Science, Technology, and Innovation CVD chemical vapor deposition DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DCNS Direction des Constructions et Armes Navales (now Naval Group) DESY Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DFG German Research Foundation DFT density functional theory DICTRA diffusion module of computer code for Thermo-Calc DMC Diffusion Monte Carlo DMFT dynamical mean field theory DNA deoxyribonucleic acid DOD Department of Defense DOE Department of Energy DOI Department of Interior DRAM dynamic random-access memory DREAM software package for 3D data DRIE deep reactive ion etching DSA directed self-assembly DSA Digital Signature Algorithm DSM Dirac semimetal PREPUBLICATION COPY â SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION D-2
Â DTMRC Discovery to Translation Materials Research Center DURIP Defense University Research Instrumentation Program EAGER Early-Concept Grants for Exploratory Research EBC environmental barrier coating EBSD electron backscatter diffraction EFM electric force microscopy EPA Environmental Protection Agency EPFL Ãcole polytechnique fÃ©dÃ©rale de Lausanne EPSRC Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council ESF European Science Foundation ESnet Energy Science Network ESS European Spallation Source ETRI Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute ETSF European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility EuMaT European Platform for Advanced Engineering Materials and Technologies EUV extreme ultraviolet EUVL extreme ultraviolet lithography FA formamidinium, a common component in some perovskites FAIR findable, accessible, interoperable, and reproducible FCC face-centered cubic crystal structure FDA Food and Drug Administration FEFET ferroelectric field-effect transistor FERAM ferroelectric RAM FET field-effect transistor FIB focused ion beam FIRST Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R&D on Science and Technology (Japan) FRM Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz-II, Garching, Germany FRP fiber-reinforced plastic FS Fermi surface FTS Spallation Neutron SourceâFirst Target Station GBRI government-backed research institute GDP gross domestic product GERA Topical Group on Energy Research and Applications GHG greenhouse gas GIWAXS grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering GPU graphics processing unit GRI Global Reporting Initiative GST Goods and Services Tax HEA high-entropy alloy HFIR High Flux Isotope Reactor HOMO Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital HPC high-performance computing/computer HSLA high-strength, low-alloy HTS high-temperature superconductivity/superconductor HVAC heating, ventilation, and air conditioning PREPUBLICATION COPY â SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION D-3
Â IARPA Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity IBM International Business Machines Corporation IBS Institute for Basic Science ICME Integrated Computational Materials Engineering ICME International Council on Metals and the Environment ICMSE International Conference on Manufacturing Systems Engineering ICT information and communications technology IEA International Energy Agency IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IKTS Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IMPACT Impulsing Paradigm Change Through Disruptive Technologies Program IOT Internet of Things IP intellectual property IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPO initial public offering IRT infrared thermography ISI Institute of Scientific Information ISIS ISIS Neutron and Muon Source (a pulsed neutron and muon source; situated at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory of the Science and Technology Facilities Council) ISO International Organization for Standardization ISS International Space Station ITRS International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors IVA interactive visual analysis JST Japan Science and Technology JUMP Joint University Microelectronics Program KAIST Center for Catalytic Hydrocarbon Functionalizations KBSI Korean Basic Science Institute KIMS Korean Institute of Materials Science KIST Korean Institute of Science and Technology KKR Kernel Ridge Regression KTN Knowledge Transfer Network LAMMPS Large-Scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator LBL layer by layer LBNL Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory LCA life cycle analysis LCD liquid crystal display LCLS Linac Coherent Light Source LEAP leading-edge aviation propulsion LED light-emitting diode LEGO line of plastic construction toys manufactured by The Lego Group (the name LEGO is an abbreviation of the two Danish words leg godt, meaning âplay wellâ) LELE litho-etch-litho-etch LGBT lesbian gay bisexual transsexual LIGO Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory LLZO lithium lanthanum zirconium oxide LUMO Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital MA methylammonium (a common component in some perovskites) PREPUBLICATION COPY â SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION D-4
Â MaRIE Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes MatSEEC Materials Science and Engineering Expert Committee MAX IV next-generation synchrotron radiation facility in Lund, Sweden MBE molecular beam epitaxy MD molecular dynamics MDI Materials Data Infrastructure MEA medium entropy alloys MEMS microelectromechanical system METI Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry MEXT Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology MGI Materials Genome Initiative MII Materials Innovation Infrastructure MIM metal-insulator-metal MIP Materials Innovation Platforms ML machine learning MOF metal organic framework MOU memorandum of understanding MPEA multiprincipal element alloy MR materials research MRAM magnetic random-access memory MRI Major Research Instrumentation NAMII National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute NAND negative-AND gate NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASEM National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine NCFET negative capacitance field-effect transistor NCNR NIST Center for Neutron Research NEC National English Center NERSC National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center NGK Nippon Tokushu TÅgyÅ Kabushiki-gaisha (a spark plug company in Japan) NHMFL National High Magnetic Fields Laboratory NIH National Institutes of Health NIPA N-isopropylacrylamide NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NMOS n-channel metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor NMR nuclear magnetic resonance NNI National Nanotechnology Initiative NNSA National Nuclear Security Administration NOR Boolean operator that gives the value one if and only if all operands have a value of zero and otherwise has a value of zero NREL National Renewable Energy Laboratory NRI Nanoelectronics Research Initiative NSF National Science Foundation NSFC National Science Foundation of China NSRC Nanoscale Science Research Centers NSRL National Software Reference Library NST National Research Council for Science and Technology NTD negative tone development NV nitrogen vacancy PREPUBLICATION COPY â SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION D-5
Â OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OFET organic field-effect transistor OIL open innovation laboratory OLCF Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility OLED organic light-emitting diode ONR Office of Naval Research OPAL Open-Pool Australian Lightwater Reactor OPV organic photovoltaic OSTP Office of Science and Technology Policy PCA principle component analysis PCM phase-change memory PCRAM phase-change random-access memory PDMS polydimethylsiloxane PFM piezoresponse force microscopy PI principal investigator PLD pulsed laser deposition PMMA poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) PMOS p-channel metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor POSTECH Center for Artificial Low-Dimensional Electronic Systems PPU Proton Power Upgrade PRISMS Predictive Integrated Structural Materials Science PSI Paul Scherrer Institute PV photovoltaics QIS quantum information science QMC Quantum Monte Carlo R&D research and development RAM random-access memory RC resistive-capacitive RCA root cause analysis REACH Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals RF radio frequency RNA ribonucleic acid ROI return on investment RRAM resistive RAM rRNA ribosomal ribonucleic acid RTI Radical Technology Inquirer SADP self-aligned double patterning SCI Science Citation Index SCM scanning capacitance microscopy SEM scanning electron microscopy SESAME Synchrotron-Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East SIP Strategic Innovation Promotion Program SKFM scanning kelvin force microscopy SLAC SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory SME small and medium-size enterprise SNAP Spectral Neighbor Analysis Potential SNS Spallation Neutron Source PREPUBLICATION COPY â SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION D-6
Â SOC spin-orbit coupling SPM scanning probe microscopy SQUID superconducting quantum interference device SRC Semiconductor Research Corporation SSRF Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility SSRL Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource STEM scanning transmission electron microscope STEM science, technology, engineering, and mathematics STI science, technology, and innovation STM scanning tunneling microscope STS Second Target Station STT spin-transfer torque STT-MRAM spin transfer torque magnetic random-access memory SVM support vector machine TBC thermal barrier coating TCE trichloroethylene TDDFT time-dependent density functional theory TEKES business, Finland TEM transmission electron microscope/microscopy TFET tunneling field-effect transistor TI topological insulator TMD transition metal dichalcogenide TPS thermal protection system TRL technology readiness level TSC theory, simulation, and computation TSV through-silicon vias UCSB University of California, Santa Barbara UHMPWE ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene UNIST Center for Multidimensional Carbon Materials USAF U.S. Air Force USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics VAR vacuum arc remelting VASP Vienna Ab Initio Simulation Package VDOE volumetric diffractive optical element VIM vacuum induction melting VLSI very-large-scale integration WLP wafer-level packaging WOS Web of Science WSM Weyl semimetal YIG yttrium-iron-garnet PREPUBLICATION COPY â SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION D-7