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Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies (2018)

Chapter: Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

38 UFIT and the SRM This chapter includes detailed guidance for practitioners on implementing effective metro- politan freight transportation strategies along with detailed supporting information used to develop this guidance. The practitioner guidance is in the form of the SRM, UFIT, a user’s guide for UFIT, and strategy fact sheets produced from UFIT. As stated in prior chapters, the synthesis of the effective and/or innovative freight strategies implemented for metropolitan freight transportation is in the SRM, which was developed through an exhaustive review of academic literature, government reports, comprehensive surveys, and case studies. The SRM serves as a key part of UFIT. UFIT draws on the urban freight transportation strategies and associated performance measures included in the SRM. UFIT is an interactive sketch-planning tool that assesses freight transportation strategies for possible implementation based on user inputs. This tool compares urban freight transportation strategies to aid the practitioner in identifying the most promising strategies based on criteria and ranked relevance as defined by users and stakeholders. UFIT is an Excel-based tool. It features a graphical user interface to customize the input evaluation metrics and compare scenarios. Users are guided to provide inputs at different steps. Users can review the list of related references that are identified for the problem specified and select the best fit for their specific scenario and can also customize the default weights for each of the relevant critical facilitators and barriers. The research team suggests ensuring that all contents are enabled when opening UFIT. UFIT User’s Guide This section provides a step-by-step user’s guide for UFIT. Reading this user’s guide com- pletely, while following through with the tool, will help ensure the user’s proper and efficient use of UFIT. As an overview, the contents of the user guide are listed below: • Introduction • Step 1: Start UFIT • Step 2: Select Use Case Options – Step 2A: Identify Your Strategy – Step 2B: Select the Strategy in the Tool – Step 2C: View Strategy Fact Sheet and Citation Notes C H A P T E R 4 Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance

Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance 39 • Step 3: Problem Identification – Step 3A: Determine Whether You Want to Use Additional Criteria – Step 3B: Review the Produced List of Strategies by Importance of Factors to Implementation – Step 3C: View Fact Sheets of Interest • Step 4: Select Additional Criteria • Step 5: Finalize Selected Studies to Use • Step 6: Define User Priorities by Adjusting Default Factor Weights • Step 7: Review Inputs and View Final Result Introduction UFIT is a sketch-planning tool to assess urban freight strategies for possible implementation based on user criteria. It is an Excel-based tool powered by an extensive literature review and expert surveys. UFIT provides an opportunity for the user to customize inputs related to a specific urban freight problem and get targeted results. The user can expect the following from the tool: • UFIT selects strategies based on their relation to one of nine problem groups. • UFIT sorts the selected strategies based on the importance (i.e., expert user weights) of their implementation factors. Strategies with higher rankings on the list are expected to generate more benefits after implementation. • UFIT creates a list of selected strategies (based on the importance of their implementation factors) and offers relevant information for the implementation of the strategies, including guidance and notes regarding implementation via strategy fact sheets. The audience for the tool is both practitioners in the public sector (state DOT, MPOs, cities, counties) and in the private sector. It is equally important to understand what UFIT does not do. UFIT does not provide guidance on strategies based on effectiveness. In an extensive literature review, researchers found no system that measures the effectiveness of the strategies. Researchers found that selected performance measures are occasionally (and inconsistently) used in the literature to capture some conditions, but in these limited cases, the results are not causally related to the strategies. It is also important to understand that UFIT does not offer quantitative information on the likelihood of successful implementation of strategies. This information is not available in the literature. It is important to note that successful implementation is a needed condition, but not a sufficient condition, for the effectiveness of a strategy. In other words, a successful imple- mentation is necessary for a strategy to be effective; however, a strategy could be successfully implemented and still not work (for any number of other reasons). There are two primary use cases for practitioners using UFIT for input on urban freight- related challenges and problems: 1. Practitioners looking to learn more about a specific strategy, identifying ways to overcome barriers of a current implementation, and/or identifying ways to accentuate facilitators to increase success of implementation. The way to think about this case is the user saying, “I need implementation guidance for a specific strategy.” 2. Practitioners seeking strategies to address a specific problem, learning ways to overcome barriers of a current implementation, and/or identifying ways to accentuate facilitators to increase success of implementation of urban freight strategies that address that problem. The way to think about this use case is the user saying, “I have a problem and need specific strategies to address it.”

40 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Step 1: Start UFIT The first step is to open the UFIT Excel file and select the “Main” tab. Figure 6 shows the main UFIT screen. The “Start Option 1” and “Start Option 2” buttons refer to the two use cases discussed in the introduction to the user guide. Upon clicking the button on the left (“Show Use Case Flowchart”), the user will see a flowchart of the two use cases and the workflow for each case. Figure 7 shows this flowchart. Step 2: Select Use Case Options When the user selects “Start Option 1,” he/she is following the left side of the use case flow- chart shown in Figure 7. Option 1 is the basic use case for UFIT, and the user may select one or multiple strategies to view the associated fact sheet(s). Figure 8 shows the selection screen. The fact sheets provide implementation guidance (among other things) for each strategy, and they are discussed further at the end of this chapter. As an example, consider the following practitioner scenario: “I am interested in learning more about implementing a drop-off facility. What are the important factors to implement it success- fully? How can I overcome implementation barriers?” Step 2A: Identify Your Strategy In this example, we are interested in learning more about implementing a drop-off facility and would like to learn more about the implementation of this strategy, the barriers, and guidance to overcome these barriers. Step 2B: Select the Strategy in the Tool Figure 8 shows the list of strategies by strategy group as presented in the tool. The user looks over this list and selects the strategy of interest. In this example, Strategy #16 (Alternate Pickup/ Delivery Locations) is the strategy related to a drop-off facility. The user selects it, and the selection will be highlighted, as shown in Figure 9. After selecting the strategy of interest, the user clicks on the “Show Strategy Fact Sheets and Relevant Citation Notes” button at the bottom of the screen, which is also highlighted in Figure 9. Step 2C: View Strategy Fact Sheet and Citation Notes Figure 10 shows the resulting output after selecting the “Show Strategy Fact Sheets and Relevant Citation Notes” button. The resulting output shows the strategy fact sheet on the left side of the page and the citation notes on the right side of the page. The Urban Freight Implementation Tool (UFIT) is a sketch-planning tool to assess urban freight strategy implementation factors (barriers and facilitators) based on expert survey input and user inputs. It compares and identifies promising urban freight transportation strategies based on these implementation factors. Figure 6. UFIT main screen.

Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance 41 Figure 7. UFIT use case flowchart.

Figure 8. UFIT strategies. Figure 9. UFIT strategies—selecting a strategy.

Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance 43 The strategy fact sheet on the left provides the practitioner with the following information: • Scale showing the effectiveness, cost, and time level (under the strategy number). • Strategy description. • Category of problems addressed by each strategy (problem group). • Transportation mode(s) targeted by the strategy. • Facilitators for implementation and barriers to implementation (top three of each). • Guidance for implementation and implementation notes. • Examples of each strategy. • Selected reference representative of each strategy (more references are on the right side of the page in the citation notes). On the right-hand side of Figure 10, there is a list of references drawn from the full SRM that cite the specific strategy. Using the buttons above the “Strategy Resource Matrix Record” on the top right side of the page, the user can scroll through the references related to this strategy. Each strategy resource matrix record provides the following for each relevant citation: • Citation information (type, citation, synopsis, keywords). • Strategy information (strategy group, strategy, conditions, factors favoring implementation, factors preventing implementation, guidance, and adaptability opportunities). Figure 10. Strategy fact sheet and citation notes.

44 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies • Additional information (year, transportation mode, cost and time, whether it has been implemented, and where/what situation it was used). Step 3: Problem Identification When the user selects “Start Option 2” shown in Figure 7, the user is following the right side of the use case flowchart. Option 2 is the core use case for UFIT. Problem identification is the most important step in obtaining the parameters that match the user’s project conditions. Recall that Option 2 is appropriate for when the user has a problem and needs specific strategies to address it. The user must then define different aspects of the project problem by selecting from multiple categories. As an example, consider the following practitioner scenario: “My city hosts several high- demand entertainment activities downtown. There are lots of mixed-used developments, and the demand and competition for curb space is very high. This causes additional delay due to double-parked delivery vehicles and drivers waiting or circling around for curbside parking.” When users click on “Start Option 2,” a screen comes up listing nine urban freight problem categories (see Figure 11). The nine problem categories are the following: 1. Environmental problems (environmental sustainability related to emissions, air pollution, noise, light pollution, energy consumption, etc.). 2. Social problems (preservation of historical landmarks or sites, goods accessibility, distribution based on neighborhood socioeconomic profile, relationship with other road users, etc.). 3. Economic problems (unmet demand, inadequate economic activities through freight, etc.). 4. Land use problems (strained growth of freight facilities, limited transportation access, freight zoning restrictions, etc.). 5. Technical problems (lack of knowledge, lack of information, data collection issues, data integration, network system inefficiencies, etc.). 6. Institutional problems (related to decision makers: conflict of interest, agency role issues, unclear authority/responsibility, etc.). Figure 11. Urban freight problem categories.

Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance 45 7. Stakeholder-involved challenges (related to users or affected public: toll issues, coordination issues, contractual issues, etc.). 8. Logistics operational issues (congestion, truck parking, empty returns, etc.). 9. Infrastructure problems (electric or fuel network infrastructure, buffer areas, road network inadequate conditions, etc.). The user selects one problem category. If the problem belongs in multiple categories, the user should clarify the problem definition and then select one relevant category at a time. Each problem category covers a series of problems; therefore, to obtain targeted and meaningful results, the user must identify other details about the problem. Step 3A: Determine Whether You Want to Use Additional Criteria (Steps 3A–3C assume no additional criteria are selected.) If the user wants to select additional criteria to refine the problem selection, that process begins with Step 4. For this “lack of curbside parking” example, “Infrastructure Problems” is a relevant category. From the screen shown in Figure 11, the user can • View the relevant strategies for this problem category by clicking on the “Show Relevant Strategies” button. • Further refine the criteria for the problem by clicking on the “Go to Citation Screening Criteria” button. In Figure 12, the highlighting indicates the path of the Option 2 workflow if the user decides to view the relevant strategies (sorted by importance of factors to implementation). Step 3B: Review the Produced List of Strategies by Importance of Factors to Implementation (Steps 3A–3C assume no additional criteria are selected.) For this “lack of curbside parking” example, Figure 13 shows the list of selected strategies. The “Main” button beneath the list of strategies will return the user to the main page of the tool. Step 3C: View Fact Sheets of Interest (Steps 3A–3C assume no additional criteria are selected.) To view each strategy fact sheet, the user can click on the “View” button for each strategy (see Figure 13). The analyst will then see the fact sheet selected. Step 4: Select Additional Criteria In Figure 14, the workflow for the scenario where the user decides to provide additional criteria to refine the problem context is highlighted. When the “Go to Citation Screening Criteria” is clicked in the screen listing urban freight problem categories (see Figure 11), a screen with additional criteria groups comes up (see Figure 15). This screen is titled “Search for Keywords in Literature” because the SRM powers UFIT. Selecting a criteria group (e.g., “Strategy Group”) opens an additional dialog box with a detailed list of those criteria. Figures 16 through 20 show these detailed lists for “Strategy Group” (Figure 16), “Facilitators to Implementation” (Figure 17), “Barriers to Implementation” (Fig- ure 18), “Transportation Mode” (Figure 19), and “Spatial Scope of Problems” (Figure 20).

46 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Figure 12. Option 2 workflow—no additional criteria.

Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance 47 By default, if there is no criteria selection, then all strategies are included. If the user presses the “Clear All Selected Criteria” button (shown in Figure 15), all selected criteria will be cleared. For the example of “lack of curbside parking,” the user chooses to select from “Strategy Group” (Figure 16) and “Spatial Scope of Problems” (Figure 20) for a more targeted result. From the “Strategy Group” screen (Figure 16), the user would select “Traffic management.” From the “Spatial Scope of Problems” screen (Figure 20), the user would select “City—any.” To proceed, the user must choose to match “all” (click “Match all selected criteria”) or “any” (“Match any selected criteria in each selected category”) from the selection options shown at the bottom of the “Search for Keywords in Literature” screen (Figure 15). After selecting the desired criteria and selection option, the user clicks “Next” to proceed. The criteria groups that the user modifies are highlighted, as shown in Figure 21. For the example “lack of curbside parking,” the user selects “Match all selected criteria” and proceeds to “Next.” Step 5: Finalize Selected Studies to Use The result of clicking “Next” in Step 4 is shown in Figure 22. Figure 22 shows that for the example “lack of curbside parking” and the additional criteria, two targeted citation references are returned from the SRM. The user can review these references and remove any citations by changing “yes” in the first column to “no” (see highlight at the left in Figure 22). If the user would like to print a summary of all the listed citations to PDF, this can be done by selecting “Summary of Selected Records” (at top right of the window). To print out detailed individual citation notes, the user should select “Individual Detailed Synopsis” (at top right of the screen). In both cases, a PDF report is generated and saved in the same directory where UFIT resides on the computer in use. Figure 13. Strategy list—Option 2 example.

48 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Figure 14. Option 2 workflow—define additional criteria.

Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance 49 Figure 15. Additional criteria groups. Figure 16. Additional criteria— strategy group. Figure 17. Additional criteria—facilitators to implementation. Figure 18. Additional criteria—barriers to implementation.

50 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Figure 19. Additional criteria— transportation mode. Figure 20. Additional criteria—spatial scope of problems. Figure 21. Option 2 additional criteria— ”lack of curbside parking” example.

Figure 22. Option 2 additional criteria illustrating targeted SRM output—”lack of curbside parking” example.

52 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies When the user is satisfied with the selected list of citations, there are two options shown in the box at the center top of the window with the text that reads “Select the literature records to include for analysis then go to . . .”: • “Adjust Factor Importance by Strategy” allows users to modify expert survey weights, which, in turn, adjusts the importance of factors to implementation by strategy. This may affect the importance order of strategies in the strategy assessment report (note that strategies would appear in a manner similar to what is shown in Figure 22). • “See Strategy Assessment Report” allows users to see strategies based on the relevant citations (note that strategies would appear in a similar manner to that shown in Figure 22). The next step discusses the adjustment of default weights. Step 6: Define User Priorities by Adjusting Default Factor Weights This step and the remaining steps assume that additional criteria have been selected. The default importance of 16 facilitators and 16 barriers was defined by the research team on the basis of the results of the expert survey. Researchers grouped the factors’ values into four levels (not important, low, medium, and high). See Chapter 2 for more details on the factors. Where the factor is not important, it is shown as “n.a.” for “not applicable.” Users can overwrite these weights based on their specific environment and their agency’s value. In Figure 23, the workflow for adjusting default weights is highlighted. Selecting “Adjust Factor Importance by Strategy” (see Figure 22), opens the “Importance of Strategy Implemen- tation Factors” window and provides users with an opportunity to modify the default factor weights signifying the importance of specific facilitators and barriers for each strategy (see Figures 24 and 25). For example, if the user’s strategic goal is to address environmental issues, and he/she is less concerned about budget constraints, he/she can set a high weight for “implementation time” and very low weight for “costs.” After the user makes changes, any user-defined weights are highlighted (see Figure 26). In the “Importance of Strategy Implementation Factors” window, selecting “Reset All Strategy Weights” will reset all factors for all strategies to the default values. By selecting “Reset Current Strategy Weights,” only the weights for the current active strategy will be set to default values. Step 7: Review Inputs and View Final Result (This step assumes additional criteria were selected.) Once user-defined weights have been entered into the “Importance of Strategy Implementa- tion Factors” window and are highlighted (highlighted items are circled in Figure 26), the user clicks on “See Strategy Assessment Report” in the lower right-hand corner of the window to obtain the updated report. Recall that this strategy assessment report is similar to the one shown in Figure 13, and from that point, the user can then review relevant strategy fact sheets powered by the user-defined inputs. Another feature of UFIT is that users can review all their inputs to the tool by clicking on the tab at the bottom of the UFIT window titled “Criteria.” This tab and the window that comes up when it is clicked are shown in Figure 27.

Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance 53 Figure 23. Option 2 workflow—adjust default factor weight.

Figure 24. Adjust default weights window. Figure 25. Adjust default weights window—strategy drop-down menu.

Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance 55 Figure 26. User-defined weights highlighted. Figure 27. Record of user’s input to UFIT.

56 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Fact Sheets and Contents Knowing there was a tremendous amount of information available through UFIT, the research team, in accordance with the project panel, created one-page, concise fact sheets for each strategy. Figures 28 through 57 show the fact sheets for all 30 of the strategies as follows: • Figure 28. Geometric modifications fact sheet • Figure 29. Designated truck routes/lanes fact sheet • Figure 30. On-street parking and loading zones fact sheet • Figure 31. Multiuse lanes or shared lanes fact sheet • Figure 32. Off-street parking and loading requirements fact sheet • Figure 33. Parking restrictions fact sheet • Figure 34. Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) fact sheet • Figure 35. Autonomous vehicles/connected vehicles (AV/CV) fact sheet • Figure 36. Vehicle parking reservation systems fact sheet • Figure 37. Freight demand management fact sheet • Figure 38. Multimodal/intermodal urban distribution fact sheet • Figure 39. Intermodal logistics center (ILC) fact sheet • Figure 40. Urban consolidation center (UCC) fact sheet • Figure 41. Urban freight villages fact sheet • Figure 42. Urban logistics services fact sheet • Figure 43. Alternate pickup/delivery locations fact sheet • Figure 44. Certification programs fact sheet • Figure 45. Low-noise delivery programs/regulations fact sheet • Figure 46. Freight rail routing through urban center fact sheet • Figure 47. Urban distribution using multiple types of vehicles fact sheet • Figure 48. Vehicle access control fact sheet • Figure 49. Truck side guards fact sheet • Figure 50. Preferential parking fact sheet • Figure 51. Preferential zoning fact sheet • Figure 52. Taxation and fees fact sheet • Figure 53. Integrating freight into the land use planning process fact sheet • Figure 54. Developing an urban freight plan fact sheet • Figure 55. Freight advisory committee (FAC) fact sheet • Figure 56. Contractual freight partnerships fact sheet • Figure 57. Integrating freight and economic policies fact sheet The fact sheets in Figures 28 through 57 are divided into the following six sections: 1. A box at the top left of the fact sheets under the strategy number shows “quick facts” about the effectiveness, implementation cost, and implementation time of the specific strategy. Researchers used dots to show how the strategy measures up in terms of effectiveness, cost, and time. The more filled dots a category has, the more weight that category carries. More filled dots in effectiveness means it is more effective, more in cost means higher implementation costs, and more in time means longer implementation time. 2. The “At a Glance” section provides the reader with a brief description of the strategy, the problem groups it addresses, the modes of transportation it affects, and other strategies in the same strategy group. 3. The “Implementation Notes” section provides a brief summary of guidance that can help practitioners to implement the strategy. 4. The “Opportunities & Constraints” section lists facilitators, barriers, and guidance for implementation.

Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance 57 5. The “Examples” section provides examples of how the strategy is effectively used. 6. The “Selected References” section provides a resource that is focused primarily on the strategy and can be reviewed by the practitioner for extra information. To make the fact sheets manageable and understandable, researchers developed the extensive classification and taxonomy presented in Chapter 2. The list of 30 strategies and nine problem groups are the actual groups that aggregate the entire set of specific strategies and problems. Wording in the definitions of these strategies and problems is purposefully general to cover all relevant specific strategies. It is worth making some additional clarifications about particular fact sheets based on proj- ect team and project panel discussions. The research team included drones as examples in two strategies: autonomous vehicles/connected vehicles (AV/CV) (Strategy 8) and multimodal/ intermodal urban distribution (Strategy 11). While these delivery drone practices are not currently in use, there are strong indications that they will be in the near future. One specific example is Amazon’s recent patent and pilot tests of mobile drone maintenance and delivery platforms. The research team thought it was important to include some technologies, such as drones and AVs/CVs, which are showing great promise and are expected to be in place in the short term. The decision to separate out truck side guards (Strategy 22) as a strategy is a result of a peer- exchange workshop discussion. Specifically, researchers deemed truck side guards to have two basic objectives: improved safety and improved efficiency. They keep pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorcyclists from being struck by a large truck’s rear wheels in a side-impact collision. In addition, starting at a certain speed (approximately 60 mph), the side guards improve aero- dynamics and save fuel. However, comments from workshop attendees indicated that the safety features of truck side guards have generated a lot of public discussion, which suggested that this strategy should be treated independently from other safety strategies.

58 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Figure 28. Geometric modifications fact sheet. S T R AT E GY Implementation Notes Opportunities & Constraints FA C I L I TAT O R S At a Glance B A R R I E R S D E S C R I P T I O N Effectiveness Cost Time T R A N S P O R TAT I O N M O D E Examples Selected References P R O B L E M A D D R E S S E D O T H E R S T R AT E G I E S I N S A M E S T R AT E GY G R O U P R E C O M M E N DAT I O N S F O R I M P L E M E N TAT I O N Haider Y. Abdulla/Shutterstock.com Freight training for staff is implementation stages requires knowledge on how freight operates and its requirements. It is important to recognize multi-jurisdictional issues and balance competing interests. implementation is critical. • Improve performance through freight operations • Improve mobility through freight operations • Improve safety through freight operations • • Collaborate with private sector • Regulatory signage during implementation to minimize inconvenience and confusion • Plan construction activities to be performed in off-peak hours • Develop public-private partnerships • Require context-sensitive solutions • Require knowledge, expertise, data access, and external support • Require considerations for other vulnerable road users Any changes in roadway infrastructure design that facilitate freight movement. • Land Use Problems • Technical Problems • Logistics Operational Issues • None • Multimodal • Roadway • Rail Freight • Deepwater ports & inland waterways • Air Freight Enhancing the geometric design and physical characteristics of current roadways, railways, intermodal connectors and intermodal terminals; new roadways, railways, etc. on new alignments. Holguín-Veras, J., Jaller, M., Amaya, J., Wang, C., González-Calderón, C., Sánchez- Díaz, I., Browne, M., Wojtowicz, J., Hodge, S., Rhodes, S. S., & Haake, D. G. (2014). Public Sector Freight Interventions in Metropolitan Areas I: Governance, Transportation Research Board, 12–16 January 2014, Washington, D.C. beneficial as the planning of the Traffic management during Public education and outreach to build social awareness of the benefits Supply Side, and Traffic Operations. Presented at 93rd Annual Meeting of the

Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance 59 Figure 29. Designated truck routes/lanes fact sheet. S T R AT E GY Implementation Notes Opportunities & Constraints FA C I L I TAT O R S At a Glance B A R R I E R S D E S C R I P T I O N Effectiveness Cost Time T R A N S P O R TAT I O N M O D E Examples Selected References R E C O M M E N DAT I O N S F O R I M P L E M E N TAT I O N O T H E R S T R AT E G I E S I N S A M E S T R AT E GY G R O U P P R O B L E M A D D R E S S E D Jojoo64/Shutterstock.com The implementation needs of designated lanes are similar to those for multiuse or shared lanes. Implementation requires close collaboration with stakeholders to understand the road network needs. Regulatory and zoning changes are required. Competing interests with citizen groups must shown to the included jurisdictions. Application of traffic technologies adds additional efficiency. • Improve mobility • Improve safety • Reduce maintenance requirements • Collaborate closely with private and public stakeholders • Engage metropolitan jurisdictions • Examine regulations including zoning Consider applying traffic flow technology to enhance efficiency• • Require desirable geometric conditions • Require effective enforcement by local authorities • by transportation agencies Routes and/or lanes designated for use by trucks to guide heavy vehicles and hazardous materials towards roadways better equipped to accommodate them, in vehicles and other roadway users • Technical Problems • Logistics Operational Issues • On-street Parking and Loading Zones • Multiuse Lanes or Shared Lanes • Off-street Parking and Loading Requirements • Parking Restrictions • Roadway Requesting freight vehicle drivers to use particular roads or lanes (depending on circumstances, vehicle, and/ or cargo) (e.g., hazardous material routes, truck-only lanes); large vehicles diverted from narrow streets in a city. Imanishi, Y., & Taniguchi, E. (2016). Framework of the Urban Road Freight Transport— Lessons Learned from Case Studies. Transportation Research Procedia, 12, 627–633. Designated Truck Routes/Lanes order to minimize conflicts with passenger Require consistent traffic control be balanced. Benefits need to be

60 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Figure 30. On-street parking and loading zones fact sheet. S T R AT E GY Implementation Notes Opportunities & Constraints FA C I L I TAT O R S At a Glance B A R R I E R S D E S C R I P T I O N Effectiveness Cost Time T R A N S P O R TAT I O N M O D E Examples Selected References P R O B L E M A D D R E S S E D O T H E R S T R AT E G I E S I N S A M E S T R AT E GY G R O U P R E C O M M E N DAT I O N S F O R I M P L E M E N TAT I O N Jojoo64/Shutterstock.com Adjustments for access around legacy infrastructure are required and private sector partnerships are critical to facilitate change. This includes balancing diverse needs and interests among techniques improve conditions during implementation. Comprehensive planning and design requirements for new facilities support future change. • Designate access for freight vehicles • • Reduce vulnerable road user fatalities • Evaluate physical infrastructure to identify improvements and plan for future needs • Identify regulatory changes and freight strategies that support parking and facility access • Establish private sector partnerships • Look at curbside management processes and appropriate fee structures to support change • Limited parking availability • Limited time windows • Require effective enforcement by local authorities Designing and allocating curb space to accommodate truck loading and unloading. • Stakeholder Involved Challenges • Logistics Operational Issues • Infrastructure Problems • Designated Truck Routes/Lanes • Multiuse Lanes or Shared Lanes • Off-street Parking and Loading Requirements • Parking Restrictions • Multimodal • Roadway Streets with curbside parking exclusively for loading and unloading. Butrina, P., Girón-Valderrama, G. D. C., Machado-León, J. L., Goodchild, A., & Ayyalasomayajula, P. C. (2017). From the Last Mile to the Last 800 ft: Key Factors in Urban Pickup and Delivery of Goods. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2609, 85–92. On-street Parking and Loading Zones Reduce conflicts with other road users businesses and the public. Traffic flow and curbside management

Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance 61 Figure 31. Multiuse lanes or shared lanes fact sheet. S T R AT E GY Implementation Notes Opportunities & Constraints FA C I L I TAT O R S At a Glance B A R R I E R S D E S C R I P T I O N Effectiveness Cost Time T R A N S P O R TAT I O N M O D E Examples Selected References P R O B L E M A D D R E S S E D O T H E R S T R AT E G I E S I N S A M E S T R AT E GY G R O U P R E C O M M E N DAT I O N S F O R I M P L E M E N TAT I O N Baloncici/Shutterstock.com The implementation needs of multiuse or shared lanes are similar to those for designated lanes. Both require collaboration with stakeholders regarding road network needs. Regulatory and zoning changes are required. Competing interests with citizen groups must be balanced. Benefits can be quantified from operational efficiency, improved safety and traffic flow, as well as environmental attainment. Application of traffic technologies adds efficiency. • Improve circulation for freight vehicles • Mitigate traffic congestion • Reduce maintenance requirements • Collaborate closely with private and public stakeholders • Quantify benefits from operational efficiency to safety, traffic flow, and environmental attainment • Engage metropolitan jurisdictions • Examine regulations including zoning • Consider applying traffic flow technology to enhance efficiency • • Increase vulnerable road user fatalities • Require desirable geometric conditions The use of currently restricted road capacity for truck delivery use. • Environmental Problems • Designated Truck Routes/Lanes • On-street Parking and Loading Zones • Off-street Parking and Loading Requirements • Parking Restrictions • Multimodal • Roadway Allowing delivery vehicles to use bus-only lanes to access loading zones during off-peak hours. Holguín-Veras, J., Sánchez-Díaz, I., & Browne, M. (2016). Sustainable Urban Freight Systems and Freight Demand Management. Transportation Research Procedia, 12, 40–52. Multiuse Lanes or Shared Lanes Increase conflicts with other road users

62 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Figure 32. Off-street parking and loading requirements fact sheet. S T R AT E GY Implementation Notes Opportunities & Constraints FA C I L I TAT O R S At a Glance B A R R I E R S D E S C R I P T I O N Effectiveness Cost Time T R A N S P O R TAT I O N M O D E Examples Selected References P R O B L E M A D D R E S S E D O T H E R S T R AT E G I E S I N S A M E S T R AT E GY G R O U P R E C O M M E N DAT I O N S F O R I M P L E M E N TAT I O N Bjoern Wylezich/Shutterstock.com Implementation requires revision and possible changes to land use planning and zoning regulations. Adjustments for access around legacy infrastructure are required and private sector partnerships are critical to facilitate change. This includes balancing diverse needs and interests among businesses and the public. Technology may help manage demand. Comprehensive planning and design requirements for new facilities support future needs. • Designate access for freight vehicles • • Reduce vulnerable road user fatalities • Identify regulatory changes for zoning and land use plans • Focus on physical infrastructure to identify potential improvements and plan for future needs • Establish private sector partnerships including building operators and developers • Limited parking availability • Limited time windows • Require effective enforcement by local authorities Designing and allocating parking areas in places other than on the streets. • Stakeholder Involved Challenges • Logistics Operational Issues • Infrastructure Problems • Designated Truck Routes/Lanes • On-street Parking and Loading Zones • Multiuse Lanes or Shared Lanes • Parking Restrictions • Multimodal • Roadway Establishing off-street loading zones/bays (e.g., alleys, business loading docks). Baudel, T., Dablanc, L., Alguiar-Melgarejo, P., & Ashton, J. (2016). Optimizing Urban Freight Deliveries: From Designing and Testing a Prototype System to Addressing Real Life Challenges. Transportation Research Procedia, 12, 170–180. Off-street Parking and Loading Requirements Reduce conflicts with other road users

Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance 63 Figure 33. Parking restrictions fact sheet. S T R AT E GY Implementation Notes Opportunities & Constraints FA C I L I TAT O R S At a Glance B A R R I E R S D E S C R I P T I O N Effectiveness Cost Time T R A N S P O R TAT I O N M O D E Examples Selected References P R O B L E M A D D R E S S E D O T H E R S T R AT E G I E S I N S A M E S T R AT E GY G R O U P R E C O M M E N DAT I O N S F O R I M P L E M E N TAT I O N Cassiohabib/Shutterstock.com Implementation should be directed delays. Balancing the restrictions between the freight and public communities is important. Stakeholder engagement is needed to support changes in operational schedules and sequences. Locate zones where the infrastructure and the composition of the freight flow fit the strategy. • Regulate illegal freight parking • • Protect the right-of-way of other road users • Identify required regulatory changes • Establish target locations • Balance penalties with incentives to achieve results • Develop private sector partnerships to foster change • Limited parking availability • Limited time windows • Require effective enforcement by local authorities Parking prohibitions for loading and unloading on certain roads/sections of • Logistics Operational Issues • Infrastructure Problems • Designated Truck Routes/Lanes • On-street Parking and Loading Zones • Multiuse Lanes or Shared Lanes • Off-street Parking and Loading Requirements • Multimodal • Roadway Streets with prohibitions for curbside parking or stopping during peak hours (e.g., peak-hour clearways). Battelle, Short, J., Trego, T., Murray, D., Yim, J., Neuman, T., Proctor, G., Gallamore, R., & Varma, S. (2010). NCFRP Report 7: Identifying and Using Low-Cost and Quickly Implementable Ways to Address Freight-System Mobility Constraints. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. Parking Restrictions road during periods of high traffic demand. Mitigate traffic congestion at reducing parking conflicts and

64 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Figure 34. Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) fact sheet. S T R AT E GY Implementation Notes Opportunities & Constraints FA C I L I TAT O R S At a Glance B A R R I E R S D E S C R I P T I O N Effectiveness Cost Time T R A N S P O R TAT I O N M O D E Examples Selected References P R O B L E M A D D R E S S E D O T H E R S T R AT E G I E S I N S A M E S T R AT E GY G R O U P R E C O M M E N DAT I O N S F O R I M P L E M E N TAT I O N Dmitri Ma/Shutterstock.com Technology application requires coordinating efforts among agencies that operate in a designated region including public and private sector stakeholders. Leverage existing infrastructure and optimize distribution patterns and land use planning to build a successful package of technological, logistical, and behavioral policy. Use reduce negative environmental impact. Quantify the long-term • Provide innovative services related to freight transportation • Facilitate freight demand management • Inform freight vehicle operators to make smarter choices • Establish public and private partnerships across agencies and jurisdictions • using existing infrastructure where possible • Improve data access and integration with tracking technology to support industry partnerships and facilitate future projects • Require emerging techniques • Require highly developed infrastructure • Require effective enforcement by local authorities Operational system of various technologies that provides innovative services/improvements related to • Technical Problems • Logistics Operational Issues • Autonomous Vehicles / Connected Vehicles • Vehicle Parking Reservation Systems • Multimodal • Roadway Truck platooning, signal priorities, automated tolling, etc. Brüning, M., & Schönewolf, W. (2012). Manually Guidable Freight Transport System for Urban Shipment and Delivery. Procedia—Social and Behavioral Sciences, 48, 2444–2453. Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) transportation and traffic management. Focus on technology that improves flow and efficiency, benefits for future planning. technology that facilitates traffic flow to improve efficiency and

Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance 65 Figure 35. Autonomous vehicles/connected vehicles (AV/CV) fact sheet. S T R AT E GY Implementation Notes Opportunities & Constraints FA C I L I TAT O R S At a Glance B A R R I E R S D E S C R I P T I O N Effectiveness Cost Time T R A N S P O R TAT I O N M O D E Examples Selected References P R O B L E M A D D R E S S E D O T H E R S T R AT E G I E S I N S A M E S T R AT E GY G R O U P R E C O M M E N DAT I O N S F O R I M P L E M E N TAT I O N Martial Red/Shutterstock.com The technology around autonomous and connected vehicles is still developing. As a result, current implementations need to consider ongoing research in planning to incorporate future change. The adoption of the technology can have a positive impact on safety. Enhancing helps support public/private cooperation and investment. • Reduce labor costs • Reduce operating costs • Improve supply chain performance • Public and private entities work together in observing and participating in U.S. and global AV/CV work groups • Public and private entities work together in identifying anticipated transportation infrastructure impacts • Public and private entities work together in assessing transitional infrastructure needs • Require emerging techniques • Require highly developed infrastructure • Require effective enforcement by local authorities The use of vehicles capable of sensing their environment, communicating with other vehicles or infrastructure, and/ or navigating without human input. • Social Problems • Logistics Operational Issues • Infrastructure Problems • Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) • Vehicle Parking Reservation Systems • Multimodal • Roadway • Rail Freight Self-driving cars; Self-driving drones. Arseneau, B., Roy, S., Salazar, J., & Yang, J. (2015). Autonomous and Connected Vehicles: Preparing for the Future of Surface Transportation. (White paper). HDR, Inc. Autonomous Vehicles / Connected Vehicles (AV/CV) and testing, remaining flexible traffic flow can expand capacity. Quantifying these benefits

66 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Figure 36. Vehicle parking reservation systems fact sheet. S T R AT E GY Implementation Notes Opportunities & Constraints FA C I L I TAT O R S At a Glance B A R R I E R S D E S C R I P T I O N Effectiveness Cost Time T R A N S P O R TAT I O N M O D E Examples Selected References P R O B L E M A D D R E S S E D O T H E R S T R AT E G I E S I N S A M E S T R AT E GY G R O U P R E C O M M E N DAT I O N S F O R I M P L E M E N TAT I O N Gorodenkoff/Shutterstock.com Integrated technology between carriers and parking management systems is required for a successful appointment process. Changes to curbside and parking infrastructure and the provision of appropriate signage may be necessary. Transit times must be reliable for trucks to meet appointments. Enforcement of policy is a requirement to keep The appointment management accommodate change, supported by rapid communication of change. • Minimize the number of loading zones • Reduce the destination queue times • Mitigate the surrounding • • Establish the appointment system that shares data and communicates effectively with carriers • Adjust regulations and signage and improve infrastructure to accommodate the parking system • • Require emerging techniques • Require effective enforcement by local authorities • Require stakeholder engagement Information technology systems that enable drivers to reserve on-street and off-street parking spaces in advance. • Technical Problems • Logistics Operational Issues • Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) • Autonomous Vehicles / Connected Vehicles • Roadway Reserving loading/unloading and day through the use of wireless communication technology; reserving truck parking at rest areas. Williams, K. M., & Carroll, A. (2015). Integrating Freight into Livable Communities. (NITC-RR-752). National Institute for Transportation and Communities, Transportation Research and Education Center, Portland, Oregon, 105–106. Vehicle Parking Reservation Systems traffic congestion Improve and monitor traffic flow to provide reliable transit times Provide flexibility to accommodate disruptions in the system parking space at a specific time the system flowing smoothly. system needs some flexibility to

Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance 67 Figure 37. Freight demand management fact sheet. S T R AT E GY Implementation Notes Opportunities & Constraints FA C I L I TAT O R S At a Glance B A R R I E R S D E S C R I P T I O N Effectiveness Cost Time Examples Selected References R E C O M M E N DAT I O N S F O R I M P L E M E N TAT I O N P R O B L E M A D D R E S S E D O T H E R S T R AT E G I E S I N S A M E S T R AT E GY G R O U P T R A N S P O R TAT I O N M O D E GaudiLab/Shutterstock.com A combination of road pricing, shift freight demand to different hours and locations. Land use practices for locating freight facilities and regulations such as noise ordinances may require revisions. Information sharing is critical to combine freight from different cargo owners, recognizing the complex relationships among shippers, carriers, and consumers. Communities within a metropolitan area need to accept changes in operations. • Increase economic productivity • • Enhance environmental sustainability • Balance road pricing and incentives to facilitate operational change • Engage stakeholders and facilitate collaboration • Recognize the impact of jurisdictional regulations and acceptance • Technology infrastructure can aid coordination in the implementation • Require a moderate time frame to implement • Expect higher costs to provide initiatives • Require stakeholder collaboration and engagement the demand generator (i.e., receivers) to achieve urban freight systems that increase economic • Stakeholder Involved Challenges • Logistics Operational Issues • Multimodal/Intermodal Urban Distribution • Intermodal Logistics Center (ILC) • Urban Consolidation Center (UCC) • Urban Freight Villages • Urban Logistics Services • Alternate Pickup/Delivery Locations • • Low-Noise Delivery Programs/ Regulations • Freight Rail Routing through Urban Center • Multimodal • Roadway • Rail Freight • Deepwater ports & inland waterways • Air Freight Off-hour delivery programs, staggered pick-up/delivery, receiver- led consolidation, relocating Holguín-Veras, J., Sánchez-Díaz, I., & Browne, M. (2016). Sustainable Urban Freight Systems and Freight Demand Management. Transportation Research Procedia, 12, 40–52. Freight Demand Management Certification Programs productivity and efficiency. Strategies that seek to influence Improve logistics efficiency large truck traffic generators. transportation cost benefits, and financial incentives are needed to

68 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Figure 38. Multimodal/intermodal urban distribution fact sheet. S T R AT E GY Implementation Notes Opportunities & Constraints FA C I L I TAT O R S At a Glance B A R R I E R S D E S C R I P T I O N Effectiveness Cost Time Examples Selected References R E C O M M E N DAT I O N S F O R I M P L E M E N TAT I O N Issarawat Tattong/Shutterstock.com Transfer of freight to alternate modes requires an effective service demand and network of public and private costs and must be understood. Education and collaboration are necessary to promote new and dynamic modal concepts to stakeholders. Change can be facilitated by punitive measures for urban operations but fair sharing of risks and rewards improves acceptance. Regulatory and physical infrastructure changes may be required. • Improved environmental sustainability • Economically competitive for freight operators • in urban areas • Promote education to introduce new transportation methods • • Facilitate public/private collaboration • Identify multimodal projects with fair sharing of risks • Implement infrastructure and regulatory changes to support multimodal projects • Require multiple modes of transportation • Limitations of freight operations • Require high-level coordination among stakeholders The use of varied modes of transportation (and associated transloads) for urban freight distribution. Rail to/from truck; truck to drones or truck to walking for multiple deliveries. Ruesch, M., Hegi, P., Petz, C., Haefeli, U., Matti, D., Rütsche, P., & Schultz, B. (2010, February). Sustainable Goods Supply and Transport in Conurbations: Analysis of Freight Developments and Strategies. Presented at European Transport Conference, 2010, 11–13 October, Glasgow, Scotland. Multimodal/Intermodal Urban Distribution P R O B L E M A D D R E S S E D O T H E R S T R AT E G I E S I N S A M E S T R AT E GY G R O U P • Environmental Problems • Logistics Operational Issues • Freight Demand Management • Intermodal Logistics Center (ILC) • Urban Consolidation Center (UCC) • Urban Freight Villages • Urban Logistics Services • Alternate Pickup/Delivery Locations • • Low-Noise Delivery Programs/Regulations • Freight Rail Routing through Urban Center T R A N S P O R TAT I O N M O D E • Multimodal • Roadway • Rail Freight • Deepwater ports & inland waterways • Air Freight Certification Programs Reduced traffic disturbance Understand demand and service networks to identify cost/benefit model. Careful identification benefits from intermodal transfer

Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance 69 Figure 39. Intermodal logistics center (ILC) fact sheet. S T R AT E GY Implementation Notes Opportunities & Constraints FA C I L I TAT O R S At a Glance B A R R I E R S D E S C R I P T I O N Effectiveness Cost Time Examples Selected References R E C O M M E N DAT I O N S F O R I M P L E M E N TAT I O N O T H E R S T R AT E G I E S I N S A M E S T R AT E GY G R O U P evgenii mitroshin/Shutterstock.com Stakeholder collaboration is critical. It is advisable to leverage private sector funding and balance partnerships with public money particularly for start up. Evaluate location to promote easy access and limiting the mix of • logistics services • Reduce environmental impacts • Positive impacts on transportation corridor industrial property value • Evaluate physical infrastructure to identify improvements and plan for future needs • Engage stakeholders and facilitate collaboration • Recognize the impact of jurisdictional regulations and acceptance • Competitive pressures • Overall costs • Limited facilities A center that enables the transfer of freight from one mode to another with other value-added logistics activities and is typically located near a seaport or airport. • Freight Demand Management • Multimodal/Intermodal Urban Distribution • Urban Consolidation Center (UCC) • Urban Freight Villages • Urban Logistics Services • Alternate Pickup/Delivery Locations • • Low-Noise Delivery Programs/Regulations • Freight Rail Routing through Urban Center Air cargo centers Blancas, L. C., Ollivier, G., & Bullock, R. (2015). Integrated Logistics Centers: Experience from North America and Options for China, China Transport Topics, No. 13. The World Bank, Washington, D.C. Intermodal Logistics Center (ILC) P R O B L E M A D D R E S S E D T R A N S P O R TAT I O N M O D E • Economic Problems • Land Use Problems • Logistics Operational Issues • Multimodal • Roadway • Rail Freight • Air Freight Certification Programs Provide reliable and flexible freight and passenger traffic.

70 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Figure 40. Urban consolidation center (UCC) fact sheet. S T R AT E GY Implementation Notes Opportunities & Constraints FA C I L I TAT O R S At a Glance B A R R I E R S Effectiveness Cost Time Examples Selected References R E C O M M E N DAT I O N S F O R I M P L E M E N TAT I O N D E S C R I P T I O N O T H E R S T R AT E G I E S I N S A M E S T R AT E GY G R O U P T R A N S P O R TAT I O N M O D E Tuckwalker/Shutterstock.com Urban Consolidation Centers can mile freight activity. Successful implementation requires understanding characteristics for demand, geography, and freight operations within cities and neighborhoods. Land use planning and regulatory changes support UCC development. and emissions relief. Dedicated public participation is necessary to effect behavioral change. End user satisfaction is critical. • Improve supply chain performance • Reduce negative impacts of freight transport activity • Relieve the challenges of last- mile distribution activities • Identify geographic constraints and operational requirements • • • • Examine both incentives and restrictions as motivators • Adopt supportive regulatory structure Understand what benefits offset development cost • Competitive pressures • Overall costs • Limited facilities in a target area by consolidating cargo at a terminal or consolidation depot. P R O B L E M A D D R E S S E D • Stakeholder Involved Challenges • Logistics Operational Issues • Freight Demand Management • Multimodal/Intermodal Urban Distribution • Intermodal Logistics Center (ILC) • Urban Freight Villages • Urban Logistics Services • Alternate Pickup/Delivery Locations • • Low-Noise Delivery Programs/Regulations • Freight Rail Routing through Urban Center• Multimodal • Roadway • Rail Freight • Air Freight Reverse logistics consolidation centers such as recycling depots. Allen, J., Browne, M., Woodburn, A., & Leonardi, J. (2012). The Role of Urban Consolidation Centres in Sustainable Freight Transport. Transport Reviews, 32(4), 473–490. Urban Consolidation Center (UCC) Facilities that seek to reduce freight traffic Certification Programs be effective in managing final Benefits are derived from carrier efficiencies along with congestion Confirm feasibility with active public and private sector participation Develop financing partnerships

Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance 71 Figure 41. Urban freight villages fact sheet. S T R AT E GY Implementation Notes Opportunities & Constraints FA C I L I TAT O R S At a Glance B A R R I E R S D E S C R I P T I O N Effectiveness Cost Time T R A N S P O R TAT I O N M O D E Examples Selected References R E C O M M E N DAT I O N S F O R I M P L E M E N TAT I O N P R O B L E M A D D R E S S E D O T H E R S T R AT E G I E S I N S A M E S T R AT E GY G R O U P Travis Poland/Shutterstock.com Freight Village implementation requires understanding of the differences among the needs and preferences of transport providers, shippers, and receivers and thus stakeholder engagement is critical. Adequate consideration must be given to behavioral issues of the potential users. The physical structure of the village and the operations policies will have an impact on its attraction for tenants. Fees must balance the willingness of stakeholders to pay. • Relocate distribution facilities from sensitive districts • Reduce environmental impacts • Positive effects on urban logistics • Engage stakeholders to develop understanding for their needs and preferences • Design the freight village physical components and operations policies to address needs of stakeholders • and users to pay • Require highly developed infrastructure • Require multiple modes of transportation • Require high-level public/ private partnerships activities relating to transport, logistics, and the distribution of goods are carried out by various operators. • Environmental Problems • Social Problems • Economic Problems • Land Use Problems • Technical Problems • Institutional Problems • Stakeholder Involved Challenges • Logistics Operational Issues • Freight Demand Management • Multimodal/Intermodal Urban Distribution • Intermodal Logistics Center (ILC) • Urban Consolidation Center (UCC) • Urban Logistics Services • Alternate Pickup/Delivery Locations • • Low-Noise Delivery Programs/Regulations • Freight Rail Routing through Urban Center • Multimodal • Roadway • Rail Freight • Air Freight Relocation of different freight users, such as distribution centers, manufacturers, truck terminals, and intermodal facilities Kawamura, K., & Lu, Y. (2006). Effectiveness and Feasibility of Innovative Freight Strategies for the U.S. Urban Areas. In Recent Advances in City Logistics: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on City Logistics (Langkawi, Malaysia 12–14 July, 2005), (E. Taniguchi and R. G. Thompson, eds.). Emerald Group Publishing, Limited, Bingley, United Kingdom, 269–281. Urban Freight Villages A defined area within which all Certification Programs Ensure that the fees are in line with the benefits and the willingness of tenants to a specific area at the urban fringe.

72 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies S T R AT E GY Implementation Notes Opportunities & Constraints FA C I L I TAT O R S At a Glance B A R R I E R S Effectiveness Cost Time Examples Selected References R E C O M M E N DAT I O N S F O R I M P L E M E N TAT I O N D E S C R I P T I O N O T H E R S T R AT E G I E S I N S A M E S T R AT E GY G R O U P T R A N S P O R TAT I O N M O D E P R O B L E M A D D R E S S E D Jemastock/Shutterstock.com Facilitating urban logistics services requires provision of well-designed infrastructure. It is important to integrate logistics activities into land use and planning policies. Collect data at regular intervals and adopt measures that encourage the consolidation of urban shipments into focused pickup and delivery locations. Understanding the freight needs within the urban area and engaging stakeholders across jurisdictions is important. • Improve supply chain performance • Relieve the challenges of last- mile distribution activities • Positive effects on urban logistics • Understand logistics needs and requirements • Develop a regulatory framework to support urban logistics • Manage fragmented jurisdictional issues • Integrate logistics into land use and planning policies • Identify data needs and facilitate collection to support system design • Require sustainable freight policy initiatives • Require expertise about logistical operations • Require interaction between policy makers and freight carriers Strategies aimed at improving supporting services for the movement of materials and products in urban areas. • Environmental Problems • Social Problems • Economic Problems • Logistics Operational Issues • Freight Demand Management • Multimodal/Intermodal Urban Distribution • Intermodal Logistics Center (ILC) • Urban Consolidation Center (UCC) • Urban Freight Villages • Alternate Pickup/Delivery Locations • • Low-Noise Delivery Programs/Regulations • Freight Rail Routing through Urban Center • Multimodal • Roadway • Rail Freight • Deepwater ports & inland waterways • Air Freight Cross docking; consolidation of delivery trips. Quak, H. J. (2008). Sustainability of Urban Freight Transport: Retail Distribution and Local Regulations in Cities. (No. EPS-2008-124-LIS). Erasmus University Rotterdam, Erasmus Research Institute of Management, Rotterdam, Netherlands. Urban Logistics Services Certification Programs Figure 42. Urban logistics services fact sheet.

Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance 73 S T R AT E GY Implementation Notes Opportunities & Constraints FA C I L I TAT O R S At a Glance B A R R I E R S Effectiveness Cost Time Examples Selected References R E C O M M E N DAT I O N S F O R I M P L E M E N TAT I O N P R O B L E M A D D R E S S E D D E S C R I P T I O N O T H E R S T R AT E G I E S I N S A M E S T R AT E GY G R O U P T R A N S P O R TAT I O N M O D E Hadrian/Shutterstock.com Alternate pickup and delivery locations depend on utilizing guidelines, signage and adoption of new methods and technology. Changes in operations including and convenience encourage the participation of stakeholders. Comprehensive logistics of centralized locations and • • • Improve environmental sustainability Improve logistics efficiency • Quantify savings from parking, dock utilization, transit reliability • • Understand factors that motivate system users • Modify infrastructure, regulations and zoning to facilitate change • Adopt new technology, operations methodology • Expect longer distribution time • Expect higher labor costs • Require high-level coordination among stakeholders A “last mile” pickup and delivery strategy offering alternate, usually centralized, locations for delivery and pickup. • Logistics Operational Issues • Freight Demand Management • Multimodal/Intermodal Urban Distribution • Intermodal Logistics Center (ILC) • Urban Consolidation Center (UCC) • Urban Freight Villages • Urban Logistics Services • • Low-Noise Delivery Programs/Regulations • Freight Rail Routing through Urban Center • Multimodal • Roadway Centralizing home deliveries by offering residents lockers that can be accessed at a central location other than the post Amazon or DHL delivery lockers. Varma, A., Chatterjee, A., Fischer, A., & Swenson, J. (2008). Curbside Freight Delivery in Downtowns of Small- and Medium-Sized Urban Areas. Presented at 11th National Conference on Transportation Planning for Small and Medium-Sized Communities, 17–19 September 2008, Portland, Oregon. Alternate Pickup/ Delivery Locations Certification Programs Identify public benefits from emission reductions, land use, traffic flow Mitigate traffic congestion office, such as a nearby grocery store; justifies public subsidies. measures help establish benefits specific truck routes and truck lanes are beneficial. Efficiency infrastructure to increase efficiency in freight flow. Implementation requires specific loading zone Figure 43. Alternate pickup/delivery locations fact sheet.

74 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Figure 44. Certification programs fact sheet. S T R AT E GY Implementation Notes Opportunities & Constraints FA C I L I TAT O R S At a Glance B A R R I E R S Effectiveness Cost Time Examples Selected References R E C O M M E N DAT I O N S F O R I M P L E M E N TAT I O N D E S C R I P T I O N O T H E R S T R AT E G I E S I N S A M E S T R AT E GY G R O U P T R A N S P O R TAT I O N M O D E P R O B L E M A D D R E S S E D WHYFRAME/Shutterstock.com The private sector must realize benefits from the certification program to promote adoption. This justifies the cost of changes requirements. Care must be taken to not disadvantage smaller firms with the costs to achieve the certification. • Improve environmental sustainability • Enhance livability • Flexible and adaptable incentives • boundaries and between the public and private sector • • • Implement technology and systems to validate the benefits of the certification processes • Require consensus between public and private sectors • Require interagency collaboration • Require stakeholder engagement of training courses that prove that the A certification program is a defined set attendees have achieved a measured level of knowledge within a designated timeline. • Institutional Problems • Stakeholder Involved Challenges • Freight Demand Management • Multimodal/Intermodal Urban Distribution • Intermodal Logistics Center (ILC) • Urban Consolidation Center (UCC) • Urban Freight Villages • Urban Logistics Services • Alternate Pickup/Delivery Locations • Low-Noise Delivery Programs/Regulations • Freight Rail Routing through Urban Center • Multimodal • Roadway Dablanc, L. (2004). Urban Freight Management in Large European Cities. Presented at the European Transport Conference 2004, 4–6 October 2004, Strasbourg, France. Smart driving certification programs, logistics certification programs to satisfy the certification Build consensus regarding certification regulations across jurisdictional Certification must offer clear gains in efficiency to business Balance requirements so that smaller firms may achieve certification

Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance 75 Figure 45. Low-noise delivery programs/regulations fact sheet. S T R AT E GY Implementation Notes Opportunities & Constraints FA C I L I TAT O R S At a Glance B A R R I E R S D E S C R I P T I O N Effectiveness Cost Time Examples Selected References R E C O M M E N DAT I O N S F O R I M P L E M E N TAT I O N ducu59us/Shutterstock.com Noise reduction and off-peak scheduling in freight operations are often in competition. Time windows need to be established that meet the temporal needs of shippers, receivers, and service providers. These windows also served. Regulations that vary by jurisdiction require harmonization. Application of alternate vehicle types and other noise reduction technologies can be used where offset the cost to carriers. • Improve environmental sustainability • Enhance livability • Facilitate off-hour deliveries • Identify competing regulations including those across jurisdictional boundaries • Use stakeholder input to determine the time windows that best meet the service requirements • • Apply infrastructure and operations improvements • Require a moderate time frame to implement • Expect higher costs to provide initiatives • Require stakeholder collaboration and engagement Adoption of low-noise technologies and practices. Use of electric vehicles; encouraging to reduce noise pollution. Taylor, S., Giang, C., & Kogios, L. (2016, November). Overcoming Barriers to the Off-Peak Movement of Freight in Urban Areas. Presented at 27th Australian Road Research Board Conference, 16–18 November 2016, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Low-Noise Delivery Programs/Regulations O T H E R S T R AT E G I E S I N S A M E S T R AT E GY G R O U P T R A N S P O R TAT I O N M O D E P R O B L E M A D D R E S S E D • Stakeholder Involved Challenges • Logistics Operational Issues • Freight Demand Management • Multimodal/Intermodal Urban Distribution • Intermodal Logistics Center (ILC) • Urban Consolidation Center (UCC) • Urban Freight Villages • Urban Logistics Services • Alternate Pickup/Delivery Locations • • Freight Rail Routing through Urban Center • Multimodal • Roadway Certification Programs with technology to increase benefits Quantify potential benefits to justify costs and incentives carriers to deliver at specific times efficiencies gained or subsidies need to reflect the communities

76 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Figure 46. Freight rail routing through urban center fact sheet. S T R AT E GY Implementation Notes Opportunities & Constraints FA C I L I TAT O R S At a Glance B A R R I E R S Effectiveness Cost Time Examples Selected References R E C O M M E N DAT I O N S F O R I M P L E M E N TAT I O N D E S C R I P T I O N T R A N S P O R TAT I O N M O D E O T H E R S T R AT E G I E S I N S A M E S T R AT E GY G R O U P P R O B L E M A D D R E S S E D Ttstudio/Shutterstock.com Urban freight rail requires a well-planned design for city logistics, including rail car drop- off and pick up sites (unloading/ loading) along the established rail infrastructure using track sidings. Both infrastructure and operations considerations are critical. Active stakeholder participation is important to existing infrastructure and adding new facilities for operations. Public sector investment may be required. • Eliminate the need for truck transportation of commodities • Avoid potential extra costs through reduced highway activities • Affect long-term economic growth • Engage all stakeholders in the design • Understand the rail component of urban logistics • • • Establish public-private partnership for investment • Comparative disadvantages in terms of time • Comparative disadvantages in terms of costs • Comparative disadvantages in terms of reliability This strategy considers a train making stops along a route for loading and unloading. Frequent stops made at intermediate stations enable larger market area coverage by rail in a combined transport system. • Land Use Problems • Stakeholder Involved Challenges • Logistics Operational Issues • Freight Demand Management • Multimodal/Intermodal Urban Distribution • Intermodal Logistics Center (ILC) • Urban Consolidation Center (UCC) • Urban Freight Villages • Urban Logistics Services • Alternate Pickup/Delivery Locations • • Low-Noise Delivery Programs/Regulations • Rail Freight Similar to a passenger train, freight rail routing makes stops along the route for loading and unloading; freight on passenger rail operates similarly. Kordnejad, B. (2016). Stakeholder Analysis in Intermodal Urban Freight Transport. Transportation Research Procedia, 12, 750–764. Freight Rail Routing through Urban Center Certification Programs Define changes to the existing infrastructure Clearly define costs and benefits developing plans for reconfiguring

Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance 77 Figure 47. Urban distribution using multiple types of vehicles fact sheet. S T R AT E GY Implementation Notes Opportunities & Constraints FA C I L I TAT O R S At a Glance B A R R I E R S D E S C R I P T I O N Effectiveness Cost Time T R A N S P O R TAT I O N M O D E Examples Selected References P R O B L E M A D D R E S S E D O T H E R S T R AT E G I E S I N S A M E S T R AT E GY G R O U P R E C O M M E N DAT I O N S F O R I M P L E M E N TAT I O N Igor Tichonow/Shutterstock.com Positive public opinion and a favorable regulatory environment are needed. Implementation and operations requirements that are matched with the vehicle types in consideration. Suitability of infrastructure and that vary regionally. Costs to carriers for implementation and public costs for infrastructure development need to be balanced congestion, and air quality. • Improved environmental sustainability • Economically competitive for freight operators • • Promote alternate vehicle types through an integrated strategy with private operators • • • • Lack of advanced technology • Lack of available or reliable infrastructure • Lack of mature market Use of several types of vehicles within the same transportation mode. • Logistics Operational Issues • Vehicle Access Control • Truck Side Guards • Multimodal • Roadway Use of large trucks, small trucks, bicycles, alternate-fueled vehicles, etc. Electric Vehicles in Urban Road Freight Transport—A Multi-Criteria Analysis of Policy Measures in Germany. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 91, 61–79. Urban Distribution Using Multiple Types of Vehicles Taefi, T. T., Kreutzfeldt, J., Held, T., & Fink, A. (2016). Supporting the Adoption of Ensure the freight conditions and needs are accurately defined Local authorities’ support is needed and financial incentives may be required Promote the economic efficiencies and environmental effectiveness of proposals Energy efficient for freight operators against the benefits in efficiency, traffic operations are key factors targets specific freight types

78 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Figure 48. Vehicle access control fact sheet. S T R AT E GY Implementation Notes Opportunities & Constraints FA C I L I TAT O R S At a Glance B A R R I E R S D E S C R I P T I O N Effectiveness Cost Time T R A N S P O R TAT I O N M O D E Examples Selected References P R O B L E M A D D R E S S E D O T H E R S T R AT E G I E S I N S A M E S T R AT E GY G R O U P R E C O M M E N DAT I O N S F O R I M P L E M E N TAT I O N Jojoo64/Shutterstock.com Technology and data management are requirements to establish and monitor control zones. Consensus around the programs must be developed and promoted across jurisdictions and with stakeholders with differing/diverging needs and interests. Understanding of urban logistics operations is required to identify appropriate time windows relative to the time sensitivity of the freight. Shift the focus of planning from minimizing the negative transportation operations. effects of truck traffic to improving • Designate access for freight vehicles • • Reduce vulnerable road user fatalities Reduce conflicts with other road users • Develop a coordinated effort between local and regional decision makers building consensus • Ensure access to appropriate technology and data • Commit to sharing information and data to create a common source • Create a regulatory framework that meets differing needs of stakeholders and fits commodity type • Limit access for other road users • Increase enforcement by local authorities • Require available and reliable techniques Allowing commercial vehicles access to certain areas that are usually restricted because of vehicle characteristics and other vehicle conditions. • Environmental Problems • Stakeholder Involved Challenges • Logistics Operational Issues • Urban Distribution Using Multiple Types of Vehicles • Truck Side Guards • Multimodal • Roadway Vehicle access to some areas based on a combination of the size and the age of delivery vehicles, such as allowing access to polluted areas only to newer or ecologically certified vehicles. Debauche, W., & Duchateau, H. (1998). Urban Freight Transport Strategy in Brussels. In Policy, Planning and Sustainability. Proceedings of Seminar B Held at the European Transport Conference, Loughborough University, 14-18 September 1998. Vehicle Access Control

Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance 79 Figure 49. Truck side guards fact sheet. S T R AT E GY Implementation Notes Opportunities & Constraints FA C I L I TAT O R S At a Glance B A R R I E R S D E S C R I P T I O N Effectiveness Cost Time T R A N S P O R TAT I O N M O D E Examples Selected References R E C O M M E N DAT I O N S F O R I M P L E M E N TAT I O N P R O B L E M A D D R E S S E D O T H E R S T R AT E G I E S I N S A M E S T R AT E GY G R O U P Steve Design/Shutterstock.com Regulations and standards are required to address issues around installation, maintenance, and operations. Not all vehicle types are suitable for the use of side guards; therefore it is important to identify the mix of freight vehicle types in the target area to establish practical and effective regulations. Standards should differentiate between vehicles with strictly city operations and those with broader highway use. • Protect automobile occupants • Reduce fuel consumption • Reduce vulnerable road user fatalities • Understand the implications of side guards to various types of trucks • Identify areas of operations, interurban vs highway, and assess the effectiveness of side guards in each • and operations Develop standards and regulations that reflect the differences for truck types • Require available and reliable techniques • Increase enforcement by local authorities • Increase costs for freight vehicle operations Vehicle-based safety devices that cover the space between the front and rear wheels and thus keep pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorcyclists from being struck by a large truck’s rear wheels in a side-impact collision. • Logistics Operational Issues • Urban Distribution Using Multiple Types of Vehicles • Vehicle Access Control • Roadway Volpe´s (The National Transportation Business Systems Center) side guards national network. Epstein, A. K., Segev, E., & Breck, A. (2016). Cambridge Safer Truck Initiative Vehicle-Based Strategies to Protect Pedestrians and Bicyclists. (No. DOT-VNTSC-CDPW-16-01). City of Cambridge, Massachusetts, Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, U.S. DOT. Truck Side Guards

80 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Figure 50. Preferential parking fact sheet. S T R AT E GY Implementation Notes Opportunities & Constraints FA C I L I TAT O R S At a Glance B A R R I E R S D E S C R I P T I O N Effectiveness Cost Time T R A N S P O R TAT I O N M O D E Examples Selected References P R O B L E M A D D R E S S E D O T H E R S T R AT E G I E S I N S A M E S T R AT E GY G R O U P R E C O M M E N DAT I O N S F O R I M P L E M E N TAT I O N J.D.S./Shutterstock.com Understand city logistics to types of operations best suited identify specific commodities and to the parking infrastructure available for use. For example, perishable products going into high density areas are well suited to this strategy. Stakeholder participation is required. • • Enhance environmental sustainability • Reinforce access regulations Optimize last-mile efficiency • • • Examine existing or proposed infrastructure to understand the costs of change Identify the commodities and types of operations that will most benefit Define areas of the city where the positive impact is greatest Engage stakeholders including the public to promote the benefits• • Limited parking for other road users • Increased enforcement by local authorities • Increased costs for freight vehicle operations Preferential access to on-street parking for freight vehicles that meet required conditions. • Social Problems • Economic Problems • Land Use Problems • Logistics Operational Issues • Preferential Zoning • Taxation and Fees • Multimodal • Roadway Preferential parking permits to freight vehicles that meet the strictest environmental standards; preferential parking to commercial vehicles carrying specific goods (e.g., medicines). Holguín-Veras, J., Sánchez-Díaz, I., & Browne, M. (2016). Sustainable Urban Freight Systems and Freight Demand Management. Transportation Research Procedia, 12, 40–52. Preferential Parking

Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance 81 Figure 51. Preferential zoning fact sheet. S T R AT E GY Implementation Notes Opportunities & Constraints FA C I L I TAT O R S At a Glance B A R R I E R S D E S C R I P T I O N Effectiveness Cost Time T R A N S P O R TAT I O N M O D E P R O B L E M A D D R E S S E D O T H E R S T R AT E G I E S I N S A M E S T R AT E GY G R O U P R E C O M M E N DAT I O N S F O R I M P L E M E N TAT I O N Examples Selected References Yeexin Richelle/Shutterstock.com It is important to recognize multi-jurisdictional issues and balance competing interests. Solutions need to address legacy infrastructure that is restrictive to freight facilities and operations. Understanding the benefits of establishing freight zones such as improved operations and reduction in mixed use traffic helps promote positive acceptance of zoning provisions. • Retention of existing freight- dependent land uses • Provision of potential freight- desirable zoning designations • Encouragement of various freight- friendly development incentives • • • • Develop public-private partnerships to support investment Public education and outreach to build awareness of the benefits Collaborate with private sector stakeholders to establish needs and benefits Evaluate public sector benefits from provision of freight zones • zoning regulations Conflict with established • development intensity regulations Conflict with established • Potential social costs and health- related quality of life impacts Zoning regulations that encourage development that meets established freight planning goals. • Economic Problems • Institutional Problems • Stakeholder Involved Challenges • Logistics Operational Issues • Preferential Parking • Taxation and Fees • Multimodal • Roadway Zoning that offers incentives, such for including freight amenities in as increased floor area ratio (FAR), proposed developments; zoning overlays to preserve waterfront land for maritime dependent industrial uses Bomar, M. A., Becker, E. P., & Stollof, E. R. (2009). Urban Freight Case Studies: New York. (No. FHWA-HOP-10-019). Office of Freight Management and Operations, FHWA, U.S. DOT. Preferential Zoning

82 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Figure 52. Taxation and fees fact sheet. S T R AT E GY Implementation Notes Opportunities & Constraints FA C I L I TAT O R S At a Glance B A R R I E R S D E S C R I P T I O N Effectiveness Cost Time T R A N S P O R TAT I O N M O D E Examples Selected References P R O B L E M A D D R E S S E D O T H E R S T R AT E G I E S I N S A M E S T R AT E GY G R O U P R E C O M M E N DAT I O N S F O R I M P L E M E N TAT I O N arka38/Shutterstock.com Financial incentives can offset costs. Careful analysis of the regional logistics operations reveals where fees can be balanced with productivity gains. • Improve freight industry productivity • Obtain innovative funding sources • Reduce freight-related societal impacts • • hours labor costs in addition to fees Account for public benefits Consider financial incentives such as supporting off Analyze the regional supply chain to understand additional cost-benefit opportunities • • Distribute the implementation costs to all users of the system as well as public agencies • Raise direct costs on freight partners • Shift indirect costs to low- end customers • Require high-level inter- agency enforcement Managing taxes and fees to foster freight company behavior changes that will lead to public benefits. • Stakeholder Involved Challenges • Logistics Operational Issues • Preferential Parking • Preferential Zoning • Multimodal • Roadway Lowering toll fees to incentivize the use of specific routes or roadways for freight movement in a given area and/or for a specific time of day; lowering taxes for the use of commercial vehicles using alternate fuels; lowering parking fees for parking for specific times of the day. Holguín-Veras, J. (2006). The Truth, the Myths, and the Possible in Freight Road Pricing in Congested Urban Areas. Presented at the European Transport Conference, September 2006, Strasbourg, France. Taxation and Fees

Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance 83 Figure 53. Integrating freight into the land use planning process fact sheet. S T R AT E GY Implementation Notes Opportunities & Constraints FA C I L I TAT O R S At a Glance B A R R I E R S D E S C R I P T I O N Effectiveness Cost Time T R A N S P O R TAT I O N M O D E Examples Selected References P R O B L E M A D D R E S S E D O T H E R S T R AT E G I E S I N S A M E S T R AT E GY G R O U P R E C O M M E N DAT I O N S F O R I M P L E M E N TAT I O N TaLaNoVa/Shutterstock.com Recognition of the importance of freight to a community requires outreach and education for metropolitan planners, legislators, and economic development groups. Understanding freight mobility as an economic driver grows with logistics- related employment. Private sector participants in logistics activities must participate in the planning. Effective private sector engagement is encouraged be realized. Breaking through jurisdictional boundaries and resistance is important. when short-term benefits can • Preserve industrial land uses in growing urban areas • Provide direct employment as well as indirect employment • Contribute to economic output from freight-related businesses • Obtain the ongoing support and participation from companies engaged in production and logistics operations • Establish a freight advisory group with a structure to provide ongoing support • the importance of freight mobility Produce short-term benefits Provide education for planners and officials to understand • • Land pressure imposed by freight industry • Lack of available capacity on the infrastructure • Non-favorable living environment Incorporating freight considerations into the land use planning process land uses with freight activities. to identify and mitigate conflicting • Land Use Problems • Infrastructure Problems • Developing an Urban Freight Plan • Freight Advisory Committee (FAC) • Contractual Freight Partnerships • Integrating Freight and Economic Policies • Multimodal • Roadway • Rail Freight • Deepwater ports & inland waterways • Air Freight Designating industrial and mixed-use areas to concentrate freight activity so freight transportation needs may be more effectively served and industrial sprawl can be reduced; relocating large traffic generators through planning. Boarnet, M. G., Hong, A., & Santiago-Bartolomei, R. (2017). Urban Spatial Structure, Employment Subcenters, and Freight Travel. Journal of Transport Geography, 60, 267–276. Integrating Freight into the Land Use Planning Process

84 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Figure 54. Developing an urban freight plan fact sheet. S T R AT E GY Implementation Notes Opportunities & Constraints FA C I L I TAT O R S At a Glance B A R R I E R S D E S C R I P T I O N Effectiveness Cost Time T R A N S P O R TAT I O N M O D E Examples Selected References P R O B L E M A D D R E S S E D O T H E R S T R AT E G I E S I N S A M E S T R AT E GY G R O U P R E C O M M E N DAT I O N S F O R I M P L E M E N TAT I O N pingebat/Shutterstock.com The freight plan includes a comprehensive strategy for efficient and sustainable goods movement across all modes. urban area and connectivity to This includes efficiency within the in the public sector may be significant corridors. Education required. The ongoing participation of private sector companies engaged in production and logistics is critical. Specific goals, objectives, and performance measures are needed. The plan should coordinate with state, federal, and regional initiatives. • Provide policy framework • Adopt effective strategies • Address innovative initiatives • Provide education in the public sector • Form a sustainable freight advisory group to collaborate in the plan Define an overall strategy for goods movement that includes specific goals and objectives • • Set relevant performance measures • Coordinate regionally across corridors and with state and federal initiatives • Raise regulation restrictions on freight partners • among stakeholders Cause interests conflict • Reduce development opportunities in urban areas Developing an urban freight plan to provide a level of freight planning within the urban area. • Technical Problems • Logistics Operational Issues • Integrating Freight into the Land Use Planning Process • Freight Advisory Committee (FAC) • Contractual Freight Partnerships • Integrating Freight and Economic Policies • Multimodal • Roadway • Rail Freight • Deepwater ports & inland waterways • Air Freight City freight plans; mega-region plans. Dablanc, L. (1999). Freight Transport Regulation and the New French Urban Mobility Master Plans. In World Transport Research: Selected Proceedings of the 8th World Conference on Transport Research, Volume 1, 627–636. Developing an Urban Freight Plan

Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance 85 Figure 55. Freight advisory committee (FAC) fact sheet. S T R AT E GY Implementation Notes Opportunities & Constraints FA C I L I TAT O R S At a Glance B A R R I E R S D E S C R I P T I O N Effectiveness Cost Time T R A N S P O R TAT I O N M O D E Examples Selected References P R O B L E M A D D R E S S E D O T H E R S T R AT E G I E S I N S A M E S T R AT E GY G R O U P R E C O M M E N DAT I O N S F O R I M P L E M E N TAT I O N hafakot/Shutterstock.com sector participation is important Establishing benefits for private to garnering their support. The FAC should be established with a clear definition of responsibilities. The FAC charter needs a management plan including continuity beyond an individual project. The FAC needs a mix of stakeholders across a wide range including transportation service providers, shippers, warehouse operators, and others. Committees produce the most valuable information when members are engaged in actual operations. • Facilitate implementation efforts of freight initiatives • Create communication channels between stakeholders • Break long-standing barriers between public and private sectors • Select membership with insight into operations and future needs • Ensure meetings and materials are concise and focused • Promote education and outreach for private and public stakeholders to include planning staff • Create a management plan for effective action to deliver tangible results • Plan for transition and continuity beyond a current project • Require inclusive formation of industry representatives • Require best professional judgments of committee members • Require high-level coordination among stakeholders Forming a broad stakeholder advisory group to address multimodal freight planning and operations. • Institutional Problems • Stakeholder Involved Challenges • Integrating Freight into the Land Use Planning Process • Developing an Urban Freight Plan • Contractual Freight Partnerships • Integrating Freight and Economic Policies • Multimodal • Roadway • Rail Freight • Deepwater ports & inland waterways • Air Freight Government and business committees to exchange ideas and recommend policies and actions to improve freight transportation. Cambridge Systematics, Inc., TransManagement, Inc., TransTech Management, Inc., & Heanue, K. (2007). NCHRP Report 570: Guidebook for Freight Policy, Planning, and Programming in Small- and Medium-Sized Metropolitan Areas. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. Freight Advisory Committee (FAC)

86 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Figure 56. Contractual freight partnerships fact sheet. S T R AT E GY Implementation Notes Opportunities & Constraints FA C I L I TAT O R S At a Glance B A R R I E R S D E S C R I P T I O N Effectiveness Cost Time T R A N S P O R TAT I O N M O D E Examples Selected References R E C O M M E N DAT I O N S F O R I M P L E M E N TAT I O N O T H E R S T R AT E G I E S I N S A M E S T R AT E GY G R O U P P R O B L E M A D D R E S S E D Vova_31/Shutterstock.com Freight partnerships require the ability to access and share load and operations data for participating carriers. A trusted third-party assigned to work out overcome competitive concerns. allocation and benefits can help Data sharing requires compatible formats across all parties. Expanded use of technology to coordinate data collection and support close communications is desirable. A governing protocol is required to manage the relationships among the partners and the operations policies. • Interactive engagement from stakeholders • Effective coordination between agencies • Break long-standing barriers between public and private sectors • partnerships to the private sector Understand and quantify the benefits of collaborative • Identify the third party or mechanisms to oversee the data integration and the equitable sharing of work • Ensure that the terminology, systems, and data sources are compatible • Establish protocols to manage the partnership • • Political risk of private partners Limited influence of public authority • Require high-level coordination among stakeholders A strategy that fosters formal working relationships between private-sector and public-sector groups with the practices that reduce the negative impacts of freight activity. specific intent of implementing • Stakeholder Involved Challenges • Integrating Freight into the Land Use Planning Process • Developing an Urban Freight Plan • Freight Advisory Committee (FAC) • Integrating Freight and Economic Policies • Multimodal • Roadway • Rail Freight • Deepwater ports & inland waterways • Air Freight Any formal combination of public and private stakeholders bound by a contract. Allen, J., Bektaş, T., Cherrett, T., Friday, A., McLeod, F., Piecyk, M., Piotrowska, M., & Zaltz Austwick, M. (2017). Enabling a Freight Traffic Controller for Collaborative Multidrop Urban Logistics: Practical and Theoretical Challenges. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2609, 77–84. Contractual Freight Partnerships

Urban Freight Implementation Tool User Operation and Fact Sheet Practitioner Guidance 87 Figure 57. Integrating freight and economic policies fact sheet. S T R AT E GY Implementation Notes Opportunities & Constraints FA C I L I TAT O R S At a Glance B A R R I E R S D E S C R I P T I O N Effectiveness Cost Time T R A N S P O R TAT I O N M O D E Examples Selected References P R O B L E M A D D R E S S E D O T H E R S T R AT E G I E S I N S A M E S T R AT E GY G R O U P R E C O M M E N DAT I O N S F O R I M P L E M E N TAT I O N Aha-Soft/Shutterstock.com Understanding the domestic and global supply chains of the region is important. Define the economic benefits associated with freight and goods movement, and understand how the regional supply chains contribute economically to facilitate integration. Careful identification of public and private costs and benefits must be understood. Education and collaboration are necessary to promote new and dynamic concepts to stakeholders. • Improve freight industry productivity • Increase employment opportunities • Contribute to economic output from freight-related businesses • Recognize domestic and global supply chain networks • Identify how freight policy can improve freight operations • Upgrade analytics to monitor networks • • Facilitate public/private collaboration Understand demand and service networks to identify cost/benefit • by freight activities Traffic congestion imposed • Lack of available capacity on the infrastructure • Isolation or lack of communication between departments in the same organization A model of freight policy and practice where public- and private- sector leaders work cooperatively to create a more favorable trade environment for the economy. • Technical Problems • Logistics Operational Issues • Integrating Freight into the Land Use Planning Process • Developing an Urban Freight Plan • Freight Advisory Committee (FAC) • Contractual Freight Partnerships • Multimodal • Roadway • Rail Freight • Deepwater ports & inland waterways • Air Freight Developing a freight economic impact assessment to understand the link between freight activity and the economy, typically incorporating current (baseline) and future conditions. Tomer, A., Kane, J., & Puentes, R. (2013). Metro Freight: The Global Goods Trade That Moves Metro Economies. Global Cities Initiative: A Joint Project of Brookings and JP Morgan Chase, Metropolitan Policy Program at Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C. Integrating Freight and Economic Policies

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TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Research Report 897: Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies provides transportation practitioners and decision makers with guidance for implementing effective metropolitan freight transportation strategies. The report outlines thirty strategies that are tailored to the specific circumstances that are found in local areas. It also identifies and describes sixteen factors that impact implementation.

The report includes three appendices, a Powerpoint presentation, and an Excel tool.

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