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The Growing Threat to Air Force Mission-Critical Electronics: Lethality at Risk: Unclassified Summary (2019)

Chapter: Appendix I: Committee and Liaison Biographical Information

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: Committee and Liaison Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Growing Threat to Air Force Mission-Critical Electronics: Lethality at Risk: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25475.
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Page 90
Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: Committee and Liaison Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Growing Threat to Air Force Mission-Critical Electronics: Lethality at Risk: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25475.
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Page 91
Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: Committee and Liaison Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Growing Threat to Air Force Mission-Critical Electronics: Lethality at Risk: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25475.
×
Page 92
Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: Committee and Liaison Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Growing Threat to Air Force Mission-Critical Electronics: Lethality at Risk: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25475.
×
Page 93
Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: Committee and Liaison Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Growing Threat to Air Force Mission-Critical Electronics: Lethality at Risk: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25475.
×
Page 94
Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: Committee and Liaison Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Growing Threat to Air Force Mission-Critical Electronics: Lethality at Risk: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25475.
×
Page 95
Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: Committee and Liaison Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Growing Threat to Air Force Mission-Critical Electronics: Lethality at Risk: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25475.
×
Page 96
Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: Committee and Liaison Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Growing Threat to Air Force Mission-Critical Electronics: Lethality at Risk: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25475.
×
Page 97
Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: Committee and Liaison Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Growing Threat to Air Force Mission-Critical Electronics: Lethality at Risk: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25475.
×
Page 98

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I Committee and Liaison Biographical Information ROBERT H. LATIFF retired from the U.S. Air Force (USAF) as a Major General in 2006. He is a private consultant, providing advice on advanced technology matters to corporate and government clients and to universities. Dr. Latiff is an adjunct faculty member with the John J. Reilly Center for Science, Technology, and Values at the University of Notre Dame. He is also a research professor at George Mason University, where his interests are primarily in technologies to support the U.S. Intelligence Community. Immediately after his retirement from the Air Force, Dr. Latiff was chief technology officer for Science Applications International Corpora- tion’s space and geospatial intelligence business. Major General Latiff ’s last active duty assignment was at the National Reconnaissance Office, where he was director for Advanced Systems and Technology and deputy director for Systems Engineer- ing. He has also served as vice commander of the USAF Electronic Systems Center and commander of the NORAD Cheyenne Mountain Operations Center. While in the U.S. Army, he served both in the infantry branch and in the ordnance corps, where he commanded an Army tactical nuclear weapons unit. He received his commission from the Army ROTC program at the University of Notre Dame. He entered active service in the U.S. Army and later transferred to the U.S. Air Force. Major General Latiff received his Ph.D. and his M.S. in materials science and his B.S. in physics from the University of Notre Dame and is a graduate of the National Security Fellows Program at Harvard’s JFK School of Government. Major General Latiff is a recipient of the National Intelligence Distinguished Service Medal and the Air Force Distinguished Service Medal. 90

Appendix I 91 KEITH R. HALL retired as a senior vice president with Booz Allen Hamilton Corporation in 2009 and has been involved as a private consultant since that time. Mr. Hall joined Booz Allen in 2002 following a distinguished career in the federal government. From February 1996 to December 2001, he served as director of the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO). In March 1997, he was also appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate as Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Space. As NRO director, Mr. Hall was responsible for the acquisition and o ­ peration of all U.S. space-based reconnaissance and intelligence systems. Within the Air Force, he was responsible for the overall supervision of space matters, with primary emphasis on policy, strategy, and planning. Mr. Hall has worked in vari- ous capacities in U.S. intelligence since 1970, when he received his commission as an officer in the U.S. Army. He served 9 years in Army intelligence, including two tours during which he commanded overseas operational intelligence units. Mr. Hall left the Army in 1979 after being selected as a presidential management intern and appointed to the Office of Management and Budget, where he served as budget examiner for the Central Intelligence Agency. In 1983, Senator Barry ­ oldwater G ­appointed him a member of the professional staff of the U.S. Senate Select Commit- tee on Intelligence, on which he served until 1991. Mr. Hall had primary responsi- bility for supporting the committee in the annual intelligence budget authorization process and, as deputy staff director, supported all committee oversight activities as well as the formulation of intelligence-related legislation. From 1991 to 1995, Mr. Hall served as Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Intelligence and Security in the Office of the Secretary of Defense. In addition to his responsibilities for policy development, resource management, counterintelligence, and security oversight, he was chair of the National Counterintelligence Policy Board and co-chair of the Intelligence Systems Board. Prior to his presidential appointment, Mr. Hall served as executive director for Intelligence Community Affairs and director of the Com- munity Management Staff from May 1995 to February 1996 at the Central Intel- ligence Agency. In this capacity he had responsibility for overall policy and resource management of national intelligence activities and was the principal architect and co-chair of the Intelligence Program Review process, he co-chaired the Security Policy Forum, and he co-chaired the study group that created the National ­Imagery and Mapping Agency. Mr. Hall earned an M.A. in public administration from Clark University and an honorary doctorate from Alfred University in New York. MICHAEL J. BEAR is a technical director in BAE Systems’ Electronics System Sec- tor, with over 30 years of experience migrating advanced technologies to national air and space systems. Dr. Bear served as a member of the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board and led, or played major roles, in studies on mitigating cyber vulnerabilities in air and space embedded systems, data analytics for operational decision making, and improving the cyber hardness and reliability of the upcoming

92 Lethality at Risk nuclear modernization platforms. He has co-authored a national space develop- ment standard for mission-critical electronics and guidelines addressing cyber and physical threats to microelectronics throughout the supply chain. In addition to BAE Systems, Dr. Bear has worked at IBM, Loral, and Lockheed Martin, addressing all elements of microelectronics and electronic development from the underlying physics of failure to system-on-a-chip (SoC) development through payload design, manufacturing, and qualification. Additionally, Dr. Bear has taught seminars on the secure methods to develop microelectronics for mission-critical applications. He has led the development of many complex SoCs, including a multicore digital signal processor for space applications. He has been instrumental in creating programs to bring advanced analytics and machine learning to C4ISR platforms. Dr. Bear has worked on multiple Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) pro- grams, including thermal imaging and microelectronic reliability. He has authored multiscale physical simulations to explore material processing techniques needed to produce advanced electronics and sensors. Dr. Bear is a standing member in the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), American Physical Society, and IEEE, where he is a member of the IEEE Cyber-Physical Systems and Human-Systems Integration Technical Committees. He is a leader in the reliability and resilience of complex systems through cyber hardening and systems engineer- ing with a range of publications and patents. Dr. Bear is an active member of the National Academies Intelligence Science and Technology Experts Group (ISTEG). He received two BAE Systems Chairman’s Awards for work in microelectronics and systems development. Dr. Bear received his Ph.D. in computational physics and M.S in applied physics from George Mason University and a B.S. in applied physics from Purdue University, where he became a member of Phi Beta Kappa. JOHN C. BROCK is an independent aerospace technology consultant. Dr. Brock retired from Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, where he was the chief tech- nologist, director of technology strategy and planning, and a senior technical fellow. He received his Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley, stud- ied environmental engineering as a postdoctoral fellow at the California Institute of Technology, and then served as a National Research Council/NASA Fellow at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Dr. Brock joined TRW’s advanced research staff in 1980 and worked in optoelectronics, high-energy lasers, and space technologies. He continued as a senior manager in technology development at Northrop after it acquired TRW in 2002. Dr. Brock has been a member of the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board, the Defense Science Board Advisory Group on Electron Devices, the Air Force Tactical Applications Center Space Advisory Group, and the advisory boards of numerous university optoelectronic centers of excellence. He is an as- sociate fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), and he received the Air Force Exemplary Civilian Service Medal in 2008.

Appendix I 93 BRIAN HOLMES is the dean of the School of Science and Technology Intelligence at the National Intelligence University in Bethesda, Maryland. The school is the fo- cus for science and technical analytic education, research, and external engagement across the intelligence and national security communities. As a synthetic chemist, Dr. Holmes researched multidisciplinary areas of science, including aspects of nanotechnology and crystal engineering. After serving 2 years as a postdoctoral associate in the University of Minnesota Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science researching organic semiconductors, he accepted a 2-year American Society for Engineering Education Fellowship with the U.S. Naval Re- search Laboratory in Washington, D.C., studying single electron nanotransistors. Dr. Holmes served as an all-source intelligence analyst and branch chief in the De- fense Intelligence Agency (DIA) Counterproliferation Support Office from 2006- 2010 before accepting a managerial position in the Directorate for Analysis Staff Operations Division. He was a direct commission intelligence officer in the U.S. Navy Reserve, serving from 2007-2011, and reached the rank of Lieutenant (O-3). For 3 years, he supported the Afghanistan-Pakistan Task Force as an all-source intelligence analyst in DIA’s Directorate for Intelligence (J2). From 2012-2016, Dr. Holmes chaired the Emerging and Disruptive Technology, Geostrategic Resources and Environment, and Weapons of Mass Destruction concentrations at the School of Science and Technology Intelligence. He serves as an executive representative to the Scientific and Technical Intelligence Committee (STIC) under the auspices of the National Intelligence Council, and he directly supports Intelligence Community Directive 204 (National Intelligence Priorities Framework). He primarily focuses his research on dual-use technologies, and the translation of emerging research and development into advanced materials for military systems. From 2016-2017, Dr. Holmes served as the associate dean of the School of Science and Technology Intelligence. He holds two patents with the U.S. Navy, has published numerous peer-reviewed scientific papers, and received the Deputy Director of National Intelligence for Analysis Distinguished Analysis Award in addition to a National Intelligence Meritorious Unit Citation. On August 7, 2017, Dr. Holmes qualified for the academic title of Professor of Intelligence. Dr. Holmes has a B.S. in chemistry with a minor in history from the University of Delaware and a Ph.D. in chemistry from Clemson University. CRAIG L. KEAST is the associate head of the Advanced Technology Division at MIT Lincoln Laboratory (MIT-LL), the principal advanced electronics technology research and development division at the laboratory, since 2009. The division’s focus is on the invention of new device concepts, the practical realization of those devices, and their integration into systems of importance to national security. From 1994-2013, Dr. Keast served as the director of the MIT-LL Microelectronics Laboratory, where he managed operations of the laboratory’s 70,000-square-foot,

94 Lethality at Risk DoD Category 1-A Trusted, semiconductor research and advanced prototyping fabrication facility. The laboratory’s activities include the fabrication of flight- quality megapixel CCD imagers, photon-counting avalanche photodiode arrays, RF MEMS, Nb-based superconducting circuits, extreme environment CMOS fab- rication, and advanced packaging technologies. From 1996-2009, Dr. Keast was also the leader of the Advanced Silicon Technology Group, carrying out work in deep-submicron, low-power, high-performance fully depleted silicon-on-insulator (FDSOI) CMOS process development, CCD/CMOS imaging, RF MEMS, microflu- idics, and three-dimensional circuit integration technologies. From 1992-1994, he was a technical staff member in the Submicrometer Technology Group, developing device and circuit fabrication technologies utilizing 193-nm lithography. Dr. Keast received a Ph.D. in electrical engineering and computer science from the Massa- chusetts Institute of Technology. RANDAL W. LARSON is a systems engineer in the National Security Engineering Center (NSEC), a federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) operated by the MITRE Corporation. Mr. Larson has been working in the supply chain risk management (SCRM) area since 2009 at the Air Force Cryptologic and Cyber Systems Division (CCSD) in San Antonio, Texas. During that time, he has provided conceptual models for SCRM implementation at AFLCMC, including a SCRM Center of Excellence, an AF enterprise Concept of Operations, an operat- ing instruction (HNC 63-102), and statistical analyses on SCRM costs and DIA TAC report efficacies. He also developed the Risk Level and Assessment Report (RLAR) for integrating all-source threat intelligence into the DoD acquisition life cycle and the Risk Management Framework. Prior engineering experience includes semiconductor fabrication at Texas Instruments; prototype weapons systems design of night vision, IR laser transmitters, and sensors at Hughes Aircraft; and digital designs of high-speed, mission-critical systems for a U.S. government agency while at E-Systems. At E-Systems, Mr. Larson was transitioned to the Systems Engineer- ing group, where he developed enterprise architectures, workflow, and technology needed for the commercial release of enterprise mass storage systems and medical imaging systems. Mr. Larson earned his B.S.E.E from Texas Tech University. TERRY P. LEWIS is a senior program manager and former principal systems engi- neer with the Raytheon Company, where his areas of expertise include command, control, communications, and information systems; digitized battlespace systems; communications and transmission security in military tactical systems; wireless network security; and network management authentication techniques for robust security architecture. In addition, Dr. Lewis has developed anti-tampering tech- nologies to prevent or reduce the ability of potential aggressors to reverse-engineer critical U.S. communications technologies. He is a Raytheon Fellow and received

Appendix I 95 the Most Promising Engineer of the Year award conferred at the 2002 Black Engi- neer of the Year Award Conference. Dr. Lewis was a member of the NRC Commit- tee on Examination of the Air Force ISR Capability Planning and Analysis Process and is a current member of the Naval Studies Board. He holds a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the University of Southern California. AARON OKI is a Northrop Grumman Technical Fellow in the Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS) Microelectronics organization, the highest technical level in Northrop Grumman. The NGAS Microelectronics organization is a world leader in the development and production of advanced compound semiconductor technologies for military and commercial applications. Mr. Oki holds 18 patents and has co-authored over 300 technical publications and conference papers on compound semiconductor technology. He led the initial development of gallium arsenide HBT technology from 1985, leading to the insertion of the technology into many military and space systems for the U.S. government. In 1994, his group started working with a small five-person start-up company, RF Micro Devices (RFMD), to use HBT technology for cellular telephone power amplifiers. HBT technology is used in over 90 percent of the world’s cellular handsets today. Since 2000, Mr. Oki has expanded his role to support microelectronics technology insertion of GaAs, InP, and GaN technologies as well as supporting major system programs on challenges with silicon and HgCdTe technologies. These programs include MILSTAR, AEHF, STSS, SBIRS, JWST, Triton, JPSS, NPOESS NPP, and many more U.S. government national systems. Over his 32 years at TRW/Northrop Grumman, Mr. Oki has been a strong proponent for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education, doing volunteer university and high school lectures as well as judging science fair events. He has served as a publication reviewer for the IEEE for the past 25 years, and he has served on several conference technical program committees. Mr. Oki received a B.S. in electrical engineering from the University of Hawaii and an M.S. from the University of California, Berkeley. THOMAS E. ROMESSER is an independent consultant. Dr. Romesser was chief technology officer for Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems until the start of 2012 and sector vice president of Aerospace Systems. In those roles, he provided senior leadership representation with customers, universities, industry, and the rest of the corporation. He also was responsible for technology development to support future programs while maintaining close linkage to legacy programs. Prior to his present assignment, Dr. Romesser was sector vice president and general manager of the Technology and Emerging Systems Division for Northrop Grumman’s former Space Technology sector. In this role, he was responsible for the development and execution of Space Technology’s strategy to support both near- and long-term business objectives, system enhancements, and technology leverage for new busi-

96 Lethality at Risk ness pursuits. He oversaw activities of the Directed Energy Systems and Advanced Concepts organizations as well as the Space Technology Research Laboratories. Previously, Dr. Romesser was vice president of technology development, respon- sible for the identification, development, and acquisition of Space Technology’s strategic technologies, and he managed discretionary investments in technology and product development. He joined Northrop Grumman via the acquisition of TRW in 2002. A vice president since 1998, he previously served as vice president and deputy of the Space and Electronics Engineering organization. Prior to that, he was vice president and general manager of TRW’s Space and Technology Divi- sion, where he was responsible for spacecraft hardware and software engineering; manufacturing, testing, and space vehicle production; chemical and solid-state laser design and development; sensor systems and space and tactical propulsion systems; and research in the physical, chemical, and engineering sciences. Dr. Romesser earned a B.S. in physics from Manhattan College and an M.S. and a Ph.D. from the University of Iowa. He is also a graduate of the University of Southern California Executive Management Program. Dr. Romesser was elected a fellow of the Directed Energy Professional Society in 2002 and a member of the National Academy of Engineering in 2003. Liaison CHRIS BOZADA served as the Air Force technical liaison for this study and is currently assigned as the Aerospace Components and Subsystems Division (AFRL/ RYD) technical advisor and was formerly the Sensors Enabling Devices and Com- ponents Core Technology Competency lead. The division’s primary areas of tech- nology investment include enabling electronics/optoelectronics technologies to subsystems for sensing, electronic warfare, and communications using advanced electronics and optoelectronics to cover the full electromagnetic to provide world- class technology to this nation’s warfighters. The division is also the Sensors Di- rectorate’s lead for trusted and assured electronics for supply chain, sustainment, and access of the most capable electronics. Joining AFRL in 1990, Mr. Bozada has been a principal electronics engineer since 2002. He was a USAF commissioned officer from 1984-1990. He obtained his master’s of science in electrical engineer- ing from the University of Dayton in 1989; a bachelor’s of science in electrical engineering from the University of Missouri, Columbia, in 1986; and a bachelor’s of science in chemical engineering from Stanford University in 1983. In 2011, Mr. Bozada was selected as an AFRL fellow. He received the NRO’s Silver Medal and the Department of Justice Civil Division’s Perseverance Award. His team was awarded the Excellence in Technology Transfer by the Federal Laboratory Con- sortium. Mr. Bozada started his career as a device research engineer responsible for basic, exploratory, and advanced development of militarily essential electronic

Appendix I 97 devices, where he spent most of his time in the RY Device Fabrication Facility. As a hands-on bench-level device researcher, he was part of the team that invented and demonstrated world-record electronic devices, some of which still hold world records. One of his most enjoyable roles was as the leader for a highly successful R&D team focusing on electronic material design; device design; and physics, fabrication, and characterization and technology transfer. His roles evolved as a technical advisor, first at the branch and then at the division level. Mr. Bozada is also currently the subject matter expert for the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD)’s Advanced Electronics Community of Interest (CoI), the current DoD reliance organization responsible for ensuring coordination of R&D activities within the Department of Defense.

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High-performance electronics are key to the U.S. Air Force’s (USAF’s) ability to deliver lethal effects at the time and location of their choosing. Additionally, these electronic systems must be able to withstand not only the rigors of the battlefield but be able to perform the needed mission while under cyber and electronic warfare (EW) attack. This requires a high degree of assurance that they are both physically reliable and resistant to adversary actions throughout their life cycle from design to sustainment.

In 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop titled Optimizing the Air Force Acquisition Strategy of Secure and Reliable Electronic Components, and released a summary of the workshop. This publication serves as a follow-on to provide recommendations to the USAF acquisition community.

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