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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Strengthening Post-Hurricane Supply Chain Resilience: Observations from Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25490.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Strengthening Post-Hurricane Supply Chain Resilience: Observations from Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25490.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Strengthening Post-Hurricane Supply Chain Resilience: Observations from Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25490.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Strengthening Post-Hurricane Supply Chain Resilience: Observations from Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25490.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Strengthening Post-Hurricane Supply Chain Resilience: Observations from Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25490.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Strengthening Post-Hurricane Supply Chain Resilience: Observations from Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25490.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Strengthening Post-Hurricane Supply Chain Resilience: Observations from Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25490.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Strengthening Post-Hurricane Supply Chain Resilience: Observations from Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25490.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Strengthening Post-Hurricane Supply Chain Resilience: Observations from Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25490.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Strengthening Post-Hurricane Supply Chain Resilience: Observations from Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25490.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Strengthening Post-Hurricane Supply Chain Resilience: Observations from Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25490.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Strengthening Post-Hurricane Supply Chain Resilience: Observations from Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25490.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Strengthening Post-Hurricane Supply Chain Resilience: Observations from Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25490.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Strengthening Post-Hurricane Supply Chain Resilience: Observations from Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25490.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

PREPUBLICATION COPY Strengthening Post-Hurricane Supply Chain Resilience: Observations from Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria Committee on Building Adaptable and Resilient Supply Chains After Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria Office of Special Projects Policy and Global Affairs This prepublication version of Strengthening Post-Hurricane Supply Chain Resilience: Observations from Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria has been provided to the public to facilitate timely access to the report. Although the substance of the report is final, editorial changes may be made throughout the text and citations will be checked prior to publication. The final report will be available through the National Academies Press in early 2020. A Consensus Study Report of

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by contract number 10003990 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25490 Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2020 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Strengthening Post-Hurricane Supply Chain Resilience: Observations from Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25490. PREPUBLICATION COPY

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY

A valued member of this committee, Dr. M. Sam Mannan passed away unexpectedly during the course of this study. His untimely death was a deeply felt loss to this study, the staff, and the committee members as we all miss his intellectual contributions and his great enthusiasm for this work. Sam brought his many years of experience and vast expertise as a chemical engineer and a dedicated professional to the committee process to enrich and shape the study and its approach, and quickly became an invaluable member of this group. He is remembered as a friend of this committee and a guiding force for supply chain resilience to come. As the committee and staff, we hope that this study does him and his memory proud. We dedicate this volume to his memory. PREPUBLICATION COPY

COMMITTEE ON BUILDING ADAPTABLE AND RESILIENT SUPPLY CHAINS AFTER HURRICANES HARVEY, IRMA, AND MARIA JAMES FEATHERSTONE (Chair), Los Angeles Homeland Security Advisory Council ÖZLEM ERGUN, Northeastern University KATHY FULTON, American Logistics Aid Network WALLACE HOPP, University of Michigan PINAR KESKINOCAK, Georgia Institute of Technology BRYAN KOON, IEM ALICE LIPPERT, Energy Analyst / Independent Consultant SAM MANNAN, Texas A&M University (deceased, September 11, 2018) CRAIG PHILIP, Vanderbilt University KEVIN SMITH, Sustainable Supply Chain Consulting Staff SHERRIE FORREST, Senior Program Officer LAURIE GELLER, Senior Program Officer LAUREN ALEXANDER-AUGUSTINE, Program Director DANIELLE GOLDSMITH, Senior Program Assistant PREPUBLICATION COPY vii

Preface In the third quarter of 2017, Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria revealed some significant vulnerabilities in the national and regional supply chains of Texas, Florida, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico. This trifecta of disasters tested the capacities of these supply chains and their ability to provide essential goods and services. The broad impacts and quick succession of the three hurricanes also shed light on the effectiveness of the nation’s disaster logistics efforts during response through recovery. Resilient supply chains are crucial to maintaining the consistent delivery of goods and services to the American people. The modern economy has made supply chains more interconnected than ever, while also expanding both their range and fragility. Every day, we move and consume a staggering number of pounds of groceries, gallons of freshwater, tons of fuel, kilowatt-hours of electricity, and myriad pharmaceutical products and medical goods. The procurement and distribution of these materials and capabilities depends on supply chains that are effective and efficient for most consumers. This efficiency is the result of complex and well-ordered networks that, in normal times, are balanced but also vulnerable to a network disruption occurring many miles or days distal to the point of consumption that can be both catastrophic and long-lasting. Many of the challenges that emerged in 2017 were the result of prior policy and planning strategies that created problems within essential supply chain sectors. Hurricane Harvey revealed how Houston’s land use patterns affected supply chain operations; Hurricane Irma brought visibility to the limited number of major transit corridors, which impeded the availability of fuel in South Florida; the U.S. Virgin Islands faced import and reconstruction disruptions from Hurricanes Irma and Maria due a lack of buffer or alternative capabilities; and the weak pre- storm state of infrastructure exacerbated Puerto Rico’s power and communications capacity, which was devastated for months following Hurricane Maria. Lessons were learned during the 2017 hurricanes that can inform future strategies to improve supply chain management. For instance, it became clear that a working knowledge of the fundamentals and realities of critical supply chains are necessary for crisis logisticians. A number of efforts begun in the wake of these storms will help to ensure that essential supply chains remain operational in the next major disaster, including continuity planning, partnerships between civic and business leaders, mechanisms for more effective communication and information sharing, and investments in critical infrastructure. This report represents two years of research and collaboration across several regions with a committee representing both academic and applied expertise. Each member provided information, perspective, and context to this issue of growing importance, and their work is much appreciated. We hope that the effort put into this report will result in more adaptive and resilient strategies for addressing the supply chain challenges our nation will face in future disasters. James Featherstone, Committee Chair PREPUBLICATION COPY ix

Acknowledgment of Reviewers This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: David Alderson, Naval Postgraduate School; Nezih Altay, DePaul University; Héctor Carlo Colón, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez; Ann-Margaret Esnard, Georgia State University; Bradley Ewing, Texas Tech University; Erica Gralla, George Washington University; Stephen Graves, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Gregory Guannel, University of the Virgin Islands; and Jose Holguin- Veras, Renssalaer Polytechnic Institute. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Susan Hanson, Clark University and Sridhar Tayur, Carnegie Mellon University. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. PREPUBLICATION COPY xi

Contents Summary 1 1 Introduction 9 1.1 Study Motivation and Charge to the Committee, 9 1.2 The Study Process, 11 1.3 Organization of the Report, 12 2 Critical Concepts of Supply Chain Flow and Resilience 13 2.1 Matching Supply with Demand, 13 2.2 Types of Supply Chain Disruptions, 16 3 Overview of Supply Chain Impacts from the 2017 Hurricanes 21 3.1 Overview of Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, And Maria, 21 3.2 Supply Chain Characteristics that Influence Disruption Vulnerability, 23 3.3 Comparison of the Hurricane Impacts on Supply Chains in the Four Study Areas, 28 4 Strategies to Foster More Effective Conveyance and Distribution of Critical Relief and Recovery 43 Supplies 4.1 Shifting the Focus, 43 4.2 Building System-Scale Understanding, 47 4.3 Advancing Preparedness, Coordination, and Information Sharing, 56 4.4 Providing Essential Training, 67 5 The Federal Emergency Management Agency’s Current Progress, Opportunities, and Challenges 71 5.1 Key Advances, 71 5.2 The Larger Political and Policy Context, 73 5.3 Critical Leadership Roles for FEMA, 74 5.4 Conclusion, 74 References 77 Appendixes A Speakers from the Committee Meetings 81 B Overview of the CNA Analyses 85 C Resources and Tools to Support Information Sharing 89 D Regulatory Assistance and Relevant Authorities for Disaster Relief by Federal Agencies 93 E Committee Biographies 103 PREPUBLICATION COPY xiii

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Resilient supply chains are crucial to maintaining the consistent delivery of goods and services to the American people. The modern economy has made supply chains more interconnected than ever, while also expanding both their range and fragility. In the third quarter of 2017, Hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Maria revealed some significant vulnerabilities in the national and regional supply chains of Texas, Florida, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico. The broad impacts and quick succession of these three hurricanes also shed light on the effectiveness of the nation's disaster logistics efforts during response through recovery.

Drawing on lessons learned during the 2017 hurricanes, this report explores future strategies to improve supply chain management in disaster situations. This report makes recommendations to strengthen the roles of continuity planning, partnerships between civic leaders with small businesses, and infrastructure investment to ensure that essential supply chains will remain operational in the next major disaster. Focusing on the supply chains food, fuel, water, pharmaceutical, and medical supplies, the recommendations of this report will assist the Federal Emergency Management Agency as well as state and local officials, private sector decision makers, civic leaders, and others who can help ensure that supply chains remain robust and resilient in the face of natural disasters.

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