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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Literature Search Strategy." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Promoting Positive Adolescent Health Behaviors and Outcomes: Thriving in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25552.
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Appendix A

Literature Search Strategy

A professional research librarian from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine conducted a comprehensive literature search for this study based on the statement of task and reference interviews with program staff to identify relevant research on optimal adolescent health. Electronic literature searches of systematic reviews and meta-analyses published between 2009 and 2019 were conducted in the following electronic bibliographic databases: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Campbell Collaboration Library, PubMed, and PsycINFO. The inclusion/exclusion criteria for the search are shown in Table A-1.

The search terms were adapted to each database, and separate searches were conducted around the different domains of optimal adolescent health. Generally, three blocks of terms were used: one describing the sample or population of interest (e.g., teens, adolescents), one describing the optimal adolescent health domain or subdomain of interest (e.g., sexual risk behavior, pregnancy), and one identifying meta-analyses and systematic reviews. Table A-2 lists the literature search topics; Table A-3 provides the search terms used; and Table A-4 gives an example of search term combinations from the search of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Literature Search Strategy." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Promoting Positive Adolescent Health Behaviors and Outcomes: Thriving in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25552.
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TABLE A-1 Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria

Inclusion Criteria Exclusion Criteria
Publication year: 2009–present Publication year: Before 2009
Available in English: Yes Unavailable in English
Peer-reviewed articles: Yes Publications other than peer-reviewed articles
Age range: 10–19 Age range: other than 10–19

TABLE A-2 Search Topics

Topic Date Literature Date Range Databases
Physical Health
  • Substance Use
  • Sexual Behavior
04/15/2019 Systematic Reviews, Meta-analysis 2009-Present Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Campbell Collaboration Library, PubMed, and PsycINFO
Emotional Health 05/07/2019 Systematic Reviews, Meta-analysis 2009-Present Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Campbell Collaboration Library, PubMed, and PsycINFO
Social Health 05/07/2019 Systematic Reviews, Meta-analysis 2009-Present Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Campbell Collaboration Library, PubMed, and PsycINFO
Spiritual Health 05/07/2019 Systematic Reviews, Meta-analysis 2009-Present Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Campbell Collaboration Library, PubMed, and PsycINFO
Intellectual Health 05/07/2019 Systematic Reviews, Meta-analysis 2009-Present Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Campbell Collaboration Library, PubMed, and PsycINFO
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Literature Search Strategy." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Promoting Positive Adolescent Health Behaviors and Outcomes: Thriving in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25552.
×

TABLE A-3 Search Terms

Preliminary Terms Indexing Terms
1. Teenagers

1.1 adolescent

1.2 age range: 10 to 19

1.3 teen

1.4 teenager

adolescent (MeSH)
KEYWORDS
adolescent
teen
teenager
youth
2. Teenage Pregnancy

2.1 abstinence

2.2 comprehensive sexual education

2.3 youth development

2.4 teenage pregnancy prevention

sexual abstinence (MeSH)

sex education (MeSH)

pregnancy in adolescence/prevention & control (MeSH)

KEYWORDS
celibacy
comprehensive sexual education
youth development
adolescent pregnancy prevention
teen pregnancy prevention
teenage pregnancy prevention
3. Reproductive Health

3.1 contraception

3.2 STI screening and treatment

3.3 healthy pregnancy care and services

3.4 hpv vaccination

3.5 general preventive healthcare

contraception (MeSH)

sexually transmitted diseases/prevention & control (MeSH)

sexually transmitted diseases/therapy (MeSH)

pregnancy in adolescence (MeSH)

adolescent health services (MeSH)

health services (MeSH)

papillomavirus vaccines (MeSH)

preventive health services (MeSH)

preventive medicine (MeSH)

KEYWORDS
hpv vaccines
human papilloma virus vaccines
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Literature Search Strategy." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Promoting Positive Adolescent Health Behaviors and Outcomes: Thriving in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25552.
×

TABLE A-3 Continued

Preliminary Terms Indexing Terms
4. Substance Use Prevention

4.1 alcohol

4.2 tobacco

4.2.1 e-cigarettes

4.3 illicit drugs

4.3.1 cannabis

alcohol drinking/prevention & control (MeSH)

binge drinking/prevention & control (MeSH)

underage drinking/prevention & control (MeSH)

alcohol abstinence (MeSH)

temperance (MeSH)

cigarette smoking/prevention & control (MeSH)

smoking/prevention & control (MeSH)

vaping/prevention & control (MeSH)

anti-smoking campaign (MeSH)

anti-smoking education (MeSH)

smoking cessation (MeSH)

smoking prevention (MeSH)

tobacco use cessation (MeSH)

marijuana smoking/prevention & control (MeSH)

street drugs/prevention & control (MeSH)

substance-related disorders/prevention & control (MeSH)

risk reduction behavior (MeSH)

KEYWORDS

teenage drinking

smoking

vaping

cannabis smoking

drug abuse

drug addiction

illicit drugs

recreational drugs

substance abuse

5. Emotional Health

5.1 resilience

5.2 mental health

5.3 emotion regulation

5.4 self-regulation

5.5 stress management

mental health (MeSH)

relaxation therapy (MeSH)

KEYWORDS
emotional well-being
psychological well-being
social well-being
mental hygiene
mental health
emotional resilience
emotional self-regulation
emotion regulation
stress management
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Literature Search Strategy." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Promoting Positive Adolescent Health Behaviors and Outcomes: Thriving in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25552.
×

TABLE A-3 Continued

Preliminary Terms Indexing Terms
6. Social Health

6.1 social emotional learning

6.2 conflict resolution

6.3 assertiveness

6.4 social skills

social learning (MeSH)
assertiveness (MeSH)
negotiating (MeSH)
social skills (MeSH)
KEYWORDS
social health
social and emotional learning
conflict resolution
mediation
interpersonal skills
social abilities
social competence
7. Intellectual Health

7.1 academic achievement

7.2 afterschool

7.3 academic performance

7.4 learning

7.5 mentoring

academic success (MeSH)
academic performance (MeSH)
achievement (MeSH)
learning (MeSH)
mentoring (MeSH)
KEYWORDS
intellectual health
academic achievement
afterschool
academic test scores
educational test performance
educational test scores
coaching
8. Spiritual Health

8.1 mindfulness

8.2 character education

8.3 values education

mindfulness (MeSH)
moral development (MeSH)
KEYWORDS
spiritual health
character education
values education
9. Intervention

9.1 program(s) (programme(s))

9.2 intervention(s)

9.3 treatment(s)

9.4 therapy (therapies)

government programs (MeSH)
therapeutics (MeSH)
KEYWORDS

intervention

program

programmes

treatment

therapy

10. Type

10.1 meta-analysis

10.2 systematic review

meta-analysis (MeSH)
systematic review (MeSH)
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Literature Search Strategy." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Promoting Positive Adolescent Health Behaviors and Outcomes: Thriving in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25552.
×

TABLE A-4 Example of Search Combinations

1 (adolescent$1 or teen$1 or teenager$1 or youth or underage or young).ti. or (adolescent$1 or teen$1 or teenager$1 or youth or underage or young).ab. or (adolescent$1 or teen$1 or teenager$1 or youth or underage or young).kw.
2 (smoking or vaping or tobacco).ti. or (smoking or vaping or tobacco).ab. or (smoking or vaping or tobacco).kw.
3 (“cannabis smoking” or “drug abuse” or “drug addiction” or “illicit drugs” or “recreational drugs” or “substance abuse”).ti. or (“cannabis smoking” or “drug abuse” or “drug addiction” or “illicit drugs” or “recreational drugs” or “substance abuse”).ab. or (“cannabis smoking” or “drug abuse” or “drug addiction” or “illicit drugs” or “recreational drugs” or “substance abuse”).kw.
4 (prevent$3 or anti?smoking or cessation).mp.
5 2 and 3
6 4 and 5
7 1 and 6
8 limit 7 to last 10 years
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Literature Search Strategy." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Promoting Positive Adolescent Health Behaviors and Outcomes: Thriving in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25552.
×
Page 157
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Literature Search Strategy." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Promoting Positive Adolescent Health Behaviors and Outcomes: Thriving in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25552.
×
Page 158
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Literature Search Strategy." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Promoting Positive Adolescent Health Behaviors and Outcomes: Thriving in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25552.
×
Page 159
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Literature Search Strategy." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Promoting Positive Adolescent Health Behaviors and Outcomes: Thriving in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25552.
×
Page 160
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Literature Search Strategy." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Promoting Positive Adolescent Health Behaviors and Outcomes: Thriving in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25552.
×
Page 161
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Literature Search Strategy." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Promoting Positive Adolescent Health Behaviors and Outcomes: Thriving in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25552.
×
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Adolescence is a critical growth period in which youth develop essential skills that prepare them for adulthood. Prevention and intervention programs are designed to meet the needs of adolescents who require additional support and promote healthy behaviors and outcomes. To ensure the success of these efforts, it is essential that they include reliably identifiable techniques, strategies, or practices that have been proven effective.

Promoting Positive Adolescent Health Behaviors and Outcomes: Thriving in the 21st Century identifies key program factors that can improve health outcomes related to adolescent behavior and provides evidence-based recommendations toward effective implementation of federal programming initiatives. This study explores normative adolescent development, the current landscape of adolescent risk behavior, core components of effective programs focused on optimal health, and recommendations for research, programs, and policies.

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