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Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts (2019)

Chapter: References

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Page 94
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25609.
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Page 94
Page 95
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25609.
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Page 95
Page 96
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25609.
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Page 96

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

94 Ahn, J., and S. Cho. Energy Performance Benchmark Model for Airport Terminal Buildings. Proceedings of BS2015: 14th Conference of International Building Performance Simulation Association, Hyderabad, India, Dec. 7–9, 2015. Airport Carbon Accreditation. Airports and CO2 Results, n.d. https://airportco2.org. Airport Carbon Accreditation. Possible Sources of Emissions at an Airport. 2019. https://airportco2.org/possible- sources-of-emissions-at-an-airport.html. Austin Energy. Austin Energy Load Cooperative Program—Customer Report for Austin-Bergstrom Inter- national Airport. 2017. Barrett, S., P. DeVita, J. Kenfield, B. Jacobsen, and D. Bannard. ACRP Report 151: Developing a Business Case for Renewable Energy at Airports. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 2016. Baxter, G., P. Srisaeng, and G. Wild. An Assessment of Airport Sustainability, Part 2—Energy Management at Copenhagen Airport. Resources, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2018, p. 32. Buchholz, T., J. Gunn, and D. Saah. Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Local Wood Pellet Heat from Northeastern U.S. Forests. Energy, Vol. 141, (C), 2017, pp. 483–491. Bureau of Transportation Statistics. 2017 Traffic Data for U.S. Airlines and Foreign Airlines U.S. Flights, Release No.: BTS 16-18, Mar. 22, 2018. https://www.bts.gov/newsroom/2017-traffic-data-us-airlines- and-foreign-airlines-us-flights. Burns, J., C. Dennie, S. Elshetwy, D. Lean, and J. Vigilante. ACRP Report 148: LED Airfield Lighting System Operation and Maintenance. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 2015. Center for Sustainable Energy. Zero Net Energy Buildings: How California’s Local Jurisdictions Can Lead the Way. San Diego Regional Energy Partnership, 2015. Clean Energy Fuels. Redeem, Renewable Natural Gas (RNG). 2019. https://www.cleanenergyfuels.com/fuels/ redeem-renewable-natural-gas-rng/. Climate Solutions. Sustainable Aviation Fuels Northwest. 2019. https://www.climatesolutions.org/programs/saf/ resources/safn. Cooper, C., D. Arthur, A. Epstine, C. Poe, and A. Brecher. U.S. Airport Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories: State of the Practice and Recommendations for Airports. Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-16-06. U.S. Depart- ment of Transportation Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, Mass., 2015. https:// rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/12264. Energy Star. Furnaces Key Product Criteria, n.d. https://www.energystar.gov/products/heating_cooling/furnaces/ key_product_criteria. FAA. Interim Policy, FAA Review of Solar Energy System Projects on Federally Obligated Airports, 2013. https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2013/10/23/2013-24729/interim-policy-faa-review-of-solar- energy-system-projects-on-federally-obligated-airports. FAA. Airport Improvement Program Handbook. U.S. Department of Transportation, 2014. https://www.faa.gov/ airports/aip/aip_handbook/. FAA. Airport Carbon Emissions Reduction: Airports. U.S. Department of Transportation, 2017. https:// www.faa.gov/airports/environmental/air_quality/carbon_emissions_reduction/. Fitzgerald, G., and C. Nelder. From Gas to Grid: Building Charging Infrastructure to Power Electric Vehicle Demand. Rocky Mountain Institute, 2017. https://rmi.org/insight/from_gas_to_grid./ GreenAir. Converting Airport Equipment to Electric at Sea-Tac to Save $2.8 Million of Fuel and 10,000 Tons of Emissions Annually. GreenAir Online, March 25, 2014. https://www.greenaironline.com/news. php?viewStory=1840. GreenAir. Global CO2 Emissions from Airlines Expected to Rise 4.4% this Year as Fuel Consumption Continues to Grow. GreenAir Online, June 4, 2018. http://www.greenaironline.com/news.php?viewStory=2490. References

References 95 Grey, Eva. Should Green Bonds Be Used to Finance Airport Projects? Airport Technology: Airport News and View, Nov. 6, 2017. https://www.airport-technology.com/features/green-bonds-used-finance-airport-projects. International Air Transport Association (IATA). “Reducing Aviation’s Carbon Footprint.” Cargo Tracker News­ letter, 2018. International Air Transport Association (IATA). Sustainable Aviation Fuels Fact Sheet, May 2019. https:// www.iata.org/pressroom/facts_figures/fact_sheets/Documents/fact-sheet-alternative-fuels.pdf. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Special Report: Global Warming of 1.5°C. 2018. http:// www.ipcc.ch/report/sr15/. Katz, B., and J. Nowak. Guiding Principles for Opportunity Zones. Policy Brief. The Governance Project, 2018. https://www.thenewlocalism.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Guiding-Principles-for-Opportunity-Zones_ TheNewLocalism_March92018.pdf. Kim, B., I. Waitz, M. Vigilante, and R. Bassarab. ACRP Report 11: Guidebook on Preparing Airport Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2009. Klauber, A., A. Benn, C. Hardenbol, C. Schiller, I. Toussie, M. Valk, and J. Waller. Innovative Funding for Sustain­ able Aviation Fuel at U.S. Airports. Rocky Mountain Institute, SkyNRG, July 2017. https://www.rmi.org/ insight/innovative-funding-sea-tac-2017/. Kodsi, K. Personal communication. Federal Aviation Administration. January 30, 2019. Kouril, G., and J. May. LED Lighting at Port Columbus Airport. Journal of Airport Management, Vol. 9, No. 1 (Winter 2014/2015): 60–75. Landrum & Brown, Hirsh Associates, Ltd., Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc., Jacobs Consultancy, The S-A-P Group, TranSecure, Inc., Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Star Systems, LLC, and Presentation & Design, Inc. ACRP Report 25: Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design. 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Energy Efficiency as a Low­Cost Resource for Achieving Carbon Emissions Reductions. No. 1219670. Prepared by William Prindle, ICF International, 2009. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Electric Ground Support Equipment at Airports, FS-5400-70359, Dec. 2017. Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Port Authority Embraces Paris Climate Agreement, Adopting Aggressive Measures to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Press release No. 165-2018, Oct. 25, 2018. https:// www.panynj.gov/press-room/press-item.cfm?headLine_id=3016. Port of Seattle. Sustainable Aviation Fuels Strategic Plan, No. 8b, attach_1, § Port Commission (July 24, 2018). https://meetings.portseattle.org/portmeetings/attachments/2018/2018_7_24_RM_8b_attach_1.pdf. Port of Seattle. Sustainable Aviation Fuels. 2019. https://www.portseattle.org/page/sustainable-aviation-fuels. Port of Seattle, Alaska Airlines, Boeing Company. 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96 Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts Tierney, J. Oregon Picks Prime Portland Real Estate for “Opportunity Zone” Program. KGW8, May 21, 2018. https://www.kgw.com/article/money/business/oregon-picks-prime-portland-real-estate-for-opportunity- zone-program/283-556720559. Tomberlin, G. Wood Pellet­Fired Biomass Boiler Project at the Ketchikan Federal Building. Technical Report No. 1171779, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, June 2014. https://doi.org/10.2172/1171779. U.S. Department of Energy. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas (Biomethane) Production, n.d. https://afdc.energy.gov/fuels/natural_gas_renewable.html. U.S. Department of Energy. Energy 101: Geothermal Heat Pumps. 2019. https://www.energy.gov/eere/videos/ energy-101-geothermal-heat-pumps. U.S. Energy Information Administration. How Much Carbon Dioxide Is Produced when Different Fuels Are Burned? n.d. https://www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.php?id=73&t=11. USGCRP (U.S. Global Change Research Program). Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume II: Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States. USGCRP, Washington, D.C., 2018. https://nca2018.globalchange.gov/. U.S. Green Building Council. Benefits of Green Building. May 2016. https://www.usgbc.org/articles/ green-building-facts. We Are Still In. Signatories, n.d. https://www.wearestillin.com/signatories. Winkler, A. Policy Check-in: Status of Airport P3s in the U.S. Bipartisan Policy Center, June 20, 2017. https:// bipartisanpolicy.org/blog/policy-check-in-status-of-airport-p3s-in-the-u-s/. Woods, P. “Ready for Takeoff.” Electrical Contractor, May 2004. https://www.ecmag.com/section/lighting/ ready-takeoff.

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Airports in the United States are responding to the demand for increased air travel with sustainable development that incorporates more energy-efficient and lower-emission technologies. Funding for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions-reducing technologies, such as electrification, alternative fuels, and renewable energy, has also become more accessible as technologies are proven to be safe, reliable, and cost-effective.

Newer strategies and programs to reduce GHG emissions reach beyond airport operations to incorporate the traveling public. These are among the findings in the TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Synthesis 100: Airport Greenhouse Gas Reduction Efforts. The report assesses (1) the state of practice of GHG emissions reduction initiatives at airports, and (2) the lessons learned to support the successful implementation of future GHG reduction projects.

The report also finds that large airports are taking the lead in moving beyond reduction strategies for their own emissions and tackling those produced by tenants and the traveling public by supporting the use of alternative fuels and directing passengers to airport carbon offset platforms.

It is clear that airports regard energy-efficiency measures to be the most effective practice to reducing GHG emissions. Smaller airports, in particular, are adopting new technologies associated with more efficient heating and cooling infrastructure and lighting systems because they decrease energy consumption and make economic sense. GHG reduction projects are being implemented by different types of airports across the industry because of the cost savings and the environmental benefits of the new technology.

Airports are actively benchmarking emission-reduction progress in comparison with similar efforts at airports around the world by using frameworks employed by the industry globally, such as the Airport Carbon Accreditation Program and the airport carbon emissions reporting tool (ACERT), to measure their GHG emissions.

Innovative approaches are allowing airports to address rapidly changing consumer behaviors, like those presented in recent years by transportation network companies (TNCs) such as Uber and Lyft. These policy-based solutions offer the potential for wider adoption as they enable airports to act without significant capital expenditures.

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