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2020 N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 923 Workforce Optimization Workbook for Transportation Construction Projects Timothy Taylor Roy Sturgill Steve Waddle Ying Li KentucKy transportation center Lexington, KY Paul Goodrum Keith Molenaar Sara Al-Haddad university of colorado Boulder Boulder, CO Subscriber Categories Highways â¢ Administration and Management â¢ Construction Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration
NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local or regional interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transporta- tion results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to high- way authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniquesâthe National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRBâs recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRBâs relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transportation departments, by committees of AASHTO, and by the Federal Highway Administration. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Special Committee on Research and Innovation (R&I), and each year R&Iâs recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Direc- tors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published research reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 923 Project 20-107 ISSN 2572-3766 (Print) ISSN 2572-3774 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-48112-0 Library of Congress Control Number 2020931407 Â© 2020 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 923 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs William C. Rogers, Senior Program Officer Jarrel McAfee, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Doug English, Senior Editor NCHRP PROJECT 20-107 PANEL Field of Special Projects Michael S. Fleming, Washington State DOT, Olympia, WA (Chair) Duane H. Maas, Michigan DOT (retired), Saginaw, MI Wade N. Allen, Idaho Transportation Department, Rigby, ID Amitabha Bandyopadhyay, State University of New York, Holbrook, NY Ronald L. Johnston, J. Lee Milligan, Amarillo, TX Mandley Ray Johnston, Virginia DOT, Richmond, VA M. Lamar Sylvester, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh, NC Connie Yew, FHWA Liaison
NCHRP Research Report 923 provides state transportation agencies with guidance to identify their construction staffing needs and how to best allocate their state or consultant engineering and inspection staff and consultant resources to highway construction projects. The guidance provides 35 specific staffing strategies that may help alleviate construction staff challenges. These strategies are linked by work type and staffing function to assist agency personnel with selection of specific strategies. The electronic version of the Work Optimi- zation Workbook (e-WOW) allows users to input project information and automatically calculate staffing needs as well as highlight strategies to alleviate staffing challenges. Transportation agencies continue to struggle with constrained staff resources and are challenged to ensure that legal, environmental, and other requirements are met and docu- mented for all federal- and state-funded construction projects. As a result, many agencies have decided to hire full- or part-time consultants, create limited-term positions, or recruit co-op (e.g., college students) or similar staff in order to supplement their workforce. In order to provide more unified and efficient use of resources, there is a need to analyze current staffing practices, the use of supplemental resources, and the type of work that is outsourced. Under NCHRP Project 20-107, the University of Kentucky was asked to develop guidance to aid state transportation agencies in adequately staffing their transportation construction projects. The research team was asked to (1) identify current contracting methods and associated staffing that transportation agencies use; (2) identify staffing strategies; (3) identify knowledge, skills, abilities, and qualifications required for project inspection and testing staff; and (4) recommend best practices for balancing project oversight responsibilities using agency staff, consultants, and contractors. Among the results of the research are (1) staffing-level recommendations based on project type, work type risk projections, and use of consultant engineering and inspection staff; (2) methods for planning project staffing allocation at the project, district, or agency level; (3) current contracting methods and associated staffing used by transportation agencies; and (4) required knowledge, skills, and abilities for construction administration, engineering, inspection, and human resources. The e-WOW spreadsheet and user guide can be found by going to www.TRB.org and searching for âNCHRP Research Report 923.â F O R E W O R D By William C. Rogers Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
1 Summary 3 Chapter 1 Introduction 3 1.1 The Staffing Challenge 4 1.2 Guidebook Objectives 4 1.3 Guidebook Development 5 1.4 Guidebook Organization 6 1.5 How to Use the e-Workforce Optimization Workbook 9 Chapter 2 Construction Staff Positions 14 Chapter 3 Risk-Based Work Types 17 Chapter 4 Construction Staffing Strategy Matrix 21 Chapter 5 The e-Workforce Optimization Workbook 24 Appendix Construction Staffing Strategies 79 References C O N T E N T S