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14 The NCHRP Project 20-107 team identified 14 common work types associated with highway construction: â¢ Excavation/embankment, â¢ Pipe/drainage, â¢ Utilities (in contract relocations), â¢ Roadway base, â¢ Pavement base, â¢ Pavement surface, â¢ Structural foundation, â¢ Substructure, â¢ Superstructure, â¢ Intelligent transportation system (ITS), â¢ Strips/signs/signals, â¢ Roadway lighting, â¢ Roadside (seeding, landscaping, guardrail, fencing, etc.), and â¢ Temporary traffic control. In the project-based staffing survey, project engineers were asked to indicate how critical each work type was to the success of the entire project as well as to provide feedback on the level of direct field involvement required for each work type from different staffing positions (resident engineer, surveyor, inspector and administrative staff). These ratings are an indicator of practitionersâ perceptions of the probabilities and consequences of failure across different project risks (including safety, quality, cost, and schedule). In this sense, the risk is a measure of the level of effort that would be required to rework specific work types. Results from the survey were used to calculate risk scores for each work type within one of the five project types: â¢ Road â new construction/expansion â¢ Road â rehabilitation/resurfacing â¢ Bridge â new bridge/replacement â¢ Bridge â rehabilitation â¢ Other projects (curbs, sidewalks, shoulders, guardrails, signs, lighting, signals, striping, landscaping, etc.) Tables 3.1 and 3.2 show the rank-ordered work types in order of decreasing risks if not adequately staffed for each of the project types. Table 3.1 contains rank-ordered work types for the position of resident engineer (project engineer or equivalent) while Table 3.2 shows the results for the position of construction inspector. Since the project-based survey results indicated that surveyors and administrative staff were not considered to be in shortage, this guidebook does not include similar tables for those two types of staff. C H A P T E R 3 Risk-Based Work Types
Constant Direct Field Involvement RequiredÃ Ã No Direct Field Involvement Required Road â New Construction/Expansion Road â Rehabilitation/ Resurfacing Bridge â New/Replacement Bridge â Rehabilitation Other Projects Superstructure Pavement surface Structural foundation Structural foundation Structural foundation Substructure Temporary traffic control Superstructure Superstructure Intelligent transportation system Pavement surface Strips/signs/signals Substructure Utilities (in contract relocations) Temporary traffic control Structural foundation Superstructure Temporary traffic control Substructure Pavement surface Temporary traffic control Pavement base Pavement surface Strips/signs/signals Strips/signs/signals Pavement base Roadway base Excavation/embankment Pavement surface Roadside Pipe/drainage Excavation/embankment Pipe/drainage Excavation/embankment Excavation/embankment Roadway base Utilities (in contract relocations) Pavement base Pavement base Utilities (in contract relocations) Excavation/embankment Pipe/drainage Utilities (in contract relocations) Temporary traffic control Pipe/drainage Strips/signs/signals Roadside Roadway base Roadside Pavement base Utilities (in contract relocations) Intelligent transportation system Strips/signs/signals Pipe/drainage Roadway base Roadside Roadway lighting Roadside Roadway base Roadway lighting Roadway lighting Roadway lighting Intelligent transportation system Table 3-1. Risk-based ranking of work types for resident engineer.
Constant Direct Field Involvement Required No Direct Field Involvement Required Road - New Construction/Expansion Road - Rehabilitation/Resurfacing Bridge - New/Replacement Bridge - Rehabilitation Other Projects Pavement surface Pavement surface Superstructure Excavation/embankment Intelligent transportation system Superstructure Pavement base Structural foundation Structural foundation Temporary traffic control Excavation/embankment Temporary traffic control Substructure Substructure Structural foundation Pipe/drainage Roadway base Pavement surface Superstructure Pipe/drainage Roadway base Excavation/embankment Excavation/embankment Pavement surface Excavation/embankment Pavement base Strips/signs/signals Temporary traffic control Pavement base Roadway base Substructure Pipe/drainage Roadway base Roadway base Pavement surface Temporary traffic control Superstructure Pavement base Temporary traffic control Utilities (in contract relocations) Structural foundation Roadside Pipe/drainage Roadside Strips/signs/signals Strips/signs/signals Utilities (in contract relocations) Utilities (in contract relocations) Pipe/drainage Pavement base Roadside Intelligent transportation system Strips/signs/signals Strips/signs/signals Roadside Utilities (in contract relocations) Roadway lighting Roadside Utilities (in contract relocations) Roadway lighting Roadway lighting Roadway lighting Intelligent transportation system Ã Ã Table 3-2. Risk-based ranking of work types for construction inspector.