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Suggested Citation:"Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26061.
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Page 171
Suggested Citation:"Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26061.
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Page 172
Suggested Citation:"Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26061.
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Page 173
Suggested Citation:"Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26061.
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Page 174
Suggested Citation:"Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26061.
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Page 175
Suggested Citation:"Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26061.
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Page 176

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PREPUBLICATION COPY | UNCORRECTED PROOFS Glossary Academic productivity Contributions to higher education and scholarship, typically organized into three categories: Research, which includes scholarly productivity, is the generation of scientific papers, citations, grants, patents, and scholarly awards (Way et al., 2019). Teaching, which includes creative activities associated with education and teaching; authoring textbooks; development of learning modules and tools; scheduled teaching obligations and course load; and informal tutoring, mentoring, and sponsorship of students and trainees. Service, which includes internal service to one’s department, school, or university in activities related to faculty governance, recruitment, student admissions, and program development; and external service to the profession and to local, state, national, or international communities, such as service on review committees, advisory boards, and editorial boards, as well as review of publications (Guarino and Borden, 2017). Academic STEMM For purposes of this report, all individuals in a STEMM field workforce employed at a college or university in an academic position including tenure track and non-tenure-track faculty, among others, with teaching, research, clinical, outreach, extension, or other “engagement” activities responsibilities. Where noted, this may also include postdoctoral researchers and graduate students. Boundary control An employee’s ability to manage the distinctions between work and nonwork roles. Boundary control includes employees’ ability to maintain the boundary according to their personal and professional preferences (Kossek et al., 2012; Wotschack et al., 2014). Burnout “A syndrome conceptualized as resulting from chronic workplace stress that has not been successfully managed. It is characterized by three dimensions: (1) feelings of energy depletion or 171

172 THE IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON THE CAREERS OF WOMEN IN ACADEMIC STEMM exhaustion; (2) increased mental distance from one’s job, or feelings of negativism or cynicism related to one’s job; and (3) reduced professional efficacy. Burnout refers specifically to phenomena in the occupational context and should not be applied to describe experiences in other areas of life” (WHO, 2019). Collaboration An act of engagement with individuals from one’s network toward the pursuit of a shared or common research, teaching, or educational agenda, such as when a group of at least two scholars author academic papers together. Collaborators are a subset of one’s professional network and, most often, are those with the closest shared interest to the individual researcher (Newman, 2000). Contingent staff Outsourced and nonpermanent workers who are hired on a per- project basis. Salary may or may not be guaranteed depending on the state of the project. Crisis leadership The process by which an entity (individual, organization, etc.) responds to a major unpredictable event that is threatening to cripple an organization, by employing practices that connect with people broadly as individuals and establishing mutual trust, distributing leadership throughout the organization, and communicating clearly and often with all stakeholders (Fernandez and Shaw, 2020). Employee well-being A characterization of quality of life with respect to the work- related environmental, organizational, and psychosocial factors that influence an individual’s health. “Well-being is the experience of positive perceptions and the presence of constructive conditions at work and beyond that enables workers to thrive and achieve their full potential” (Chari et al., 2018, 590). Equity A solution for addressing imbalanced social systems that recognizes that each person has different circumstances and allocates the exact resources and opportunities needed to reach an equal outcome. The World Health Organization defines equity as “the absence of avoidable or remediable differences among groups of people, whether those groups are defined socially, economically, demographically or geographically” (WHO, 2021). PREPUBLICATION COPY | UNCORRECTED PROOFS

GLOSSARY 173 Equity-minded Being evidence based (i.e., using data), race conscious, leadership institutionally focused, systemically aware, and equity advancing (Dowd and Bensimon, 2014). Extensions Additional time granted to complete expected tasks. For faculty, extensions might be provided during their probationary period (pre-tenure) to meet the demands of scholarship required by promotion and tenure policies or by a funding agency to meet the agreed-upon terms of a grant. For graduate students, extensions might be provided to allow for additional time to complete a milestone, such as degree completion. Finally, extensions can be awarded to accommodate special circumstances (e.g., childbirth or adoption). Gender A nonbinary social construct that refers to social and cultural differences rather than biological differences. Gender interacts with but is different from sex, which is a biological trait (Butler, 2004; Laner, 2000; Pichevin and Hurtig, 2007). Gig academy A term to describe how corporate gig economy practices, such as hiring contingent labor or outsourcing, have been adopted by colleges and universities across the country (Kezar, DePoala, and Scott, 2019) Institution type Refers to both Carnegie Classifications of Institutions of Higher Education (e.g., doctoral universities, master’s colleges and universities) and categories of Minority-Serving Institutions (MSIs) such as Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), Hispanic-Serving Institutions, or Tribal Colleges and Universities. Intersectionality A field of study and an analytic lens that makes visible the mutually constructive and reciprocal relationship among race, ethnicity, sexuality, class, and other social positions that influence one’s experiences (Collins, 2015). In this report, it is used as a lens to help understand how social identities, especially for marginalized groups, relate to systems of authority and power. Intersectionality is rooted in Black feminism and Critical Race Theory: in reference to historic exclusion of Black women, legal PREPUBLICATION COPY | UNCORRECTED PROOFS

174 THE IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON THE CAREERS OF WOMEN IN ACADEMIC STEMM scholar Kimberlé Williams Crenshaw used intersectionality to describe the intersection of gender and race discrimination, arguing that treating them as exclusive, and not intertwined, renders the multiple marginalities faced by Black women invisible to antidiscrimination law (Carbado, 2013; Crenshaw, 1989, 1991, 2014). Mentor A person who provides both career and psychosocial support to help guide personal and professional growth over time. Mentorship A professional, working alliance in which individuals work together over time to support the personal and professional growth, development, and success of the relational partners through the provision of career and psychosocial support (NASEM, 2019b). Networking The act of growing one’s connections and visibility within a field through formal and informal interactions with new colleagues who share similar research interests. Networking includes, but is not limited to, the act of engaging in professional organization conferences, academic seminars, and other related activities (Mickey, 2019). People of Color An evolving term that emerged in the 1960s, that now includes a broader group of individuals such as Black, Latinx, Asian, Mexican, Japanese, Chinese, and other groups that share a common societal place of either feeling or actually being marginalized (Pérez, 2020). For purposes of this report, People of Color refers to all individuals specifically identifying as Black, Latinx, and American Indians/Alaska Natives. Professional societies Organizations that facilitate networking and collaboration by providing a shared or common space for people in similar disciplines to interact, share information, and learn about each other’s research through conferences and other society-sponsored activities. They may also be organized around nondisciplinary interests or demographic affinity (NAE, 2017). As such, these bodies play a pivotal role in facilitating mentorship and sponsorship programs for individuals within the same professional fields and serve as the primary source of postcollegiate education and skills training for the workforce (ASAE, 2020; Cree-Green et PREPUBLICATION COPY | UNCORRECTED PROOFS

GLOSSARY 175 al., 2020). STEMM-based societies and organizations are critical to maintaining strong networks and systems of collaboration, as they provide an opportunity for academics and scientists with shared interests to interact, learn about each other’s research, spark ideas for future collaborations, and lend assistance in moments of great need, such as after natural disasters (Cree-Green et al., 2020). Sex Sex refers to the different biological and physiological characteristics of males, females, and intersex persons (Butler, 2004; Laner, 2000; Pichevin and Hurtig, 2007) Shared leadership A leadership style characterized by four key elements (Kezar and Holcombe, 2017): • A greater number of individuals take on leadership roles than in traditional models. • Leaders and followers are seen as interchangeable. In some cases this may mean that leadership occurs on a flexible and emergent basis, while in others it rotates more formally. • Leadership is not based on position or authority. Rather, individuals with the expertise and skills needed for solving the problem at hand are those that lead. To that end, multiple perspectives and expertise are capitalized on for problem- solving, innovation, and change. • Collaboration and interactions across the organization are typically emphasized. Sponsor Someone with power or in a leadership position who can use their resources (e.g., financial, professional), power, influence, or stature to advocate for the advancement or visibility of an individual (Catalyst, 2020b; Rockquemore, 2015). Sponsorship An act involving a senior person publicly acknowledging the achievements of and advocating for a mentee (Kram, 1985; Ragins and McFarlin, 1990) Woman Any person who identifies as a woman, including, but not limited to, cisgender women, transgender women, and nonbinary women. Woman refers to a person’s gender, whereas female refers to a person’s sex. Although these terms are often used interchangeably and can be related, they are discrete concepts. PREPUBLICATION COPY | UNCORRECTED PROOFS

176 THE IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON THE CAREERS OF WOMEN IN ACADEMIC STEMM Work-family enrichment The positive transfer of knowledge, skills, and emotions from work experiences to family experiences or reverse (Greenhaus and Powell, 2006) Work-life boundary The control held between work and nonwork roles that can be management reinforced or weakened cognitively, physically, and emotionally (Allen et al., 2014; Ashforth et al., 2000; Kossek et al., 2012). Work-life integration Also referred to as “work-life balance,” the incorporation of work and nonwork demands. This involves subjective assessments of balance and satisfaction in both work and nonwork roles (e.g., Greenhaus and Allen, 2011) and structural or organizational factors that affect this integration or balance, such as flexibility in work schedules and tenure assessments (e.g., Kossek and Lambert, 2005; Moss et al., 2005). Workplace diversity The demographic variation within an organization’s staff and leadership. PREPUBLICATION COPY | UNCORRECTED PROOFS

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The spring of 2020 marked a change in how almost everyone conducted their personal and professional lives, both within science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM) and beyond. The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted global scientific conferences and individual laboratories and required people to find space in their homes from which to work. It blurred the boundaries between work and non-work, infusing ambiguity into everyday activities. While adaptations that allowed people to connect became more common, the evidence available at the end of 2020 suggests that the disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic endangered the engagement, experience, and retention of women in academic STEMM, and may roll back some of the achievement gains made by women in the academy to date.

Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic STEMM identifies, names, and documents how the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted the careers of women in academic STEMM during the initial 9-month period since March 2020 and considers how these disruptions - both positive and negative - might shape future progress for women. This publication builds on the 2020 report Promising Practices for Addressing the Underrepresentation of Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine to develop a comprehensive understanding of the nuanced ways these disruptions have manifested. Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic STEMM will inform the academic community as it emerges from the pandemic to mitigate any long-term negative consequences for the continued advancement of women in the academic STEMM workforce and build on the adaptations and opportunities that have emerged.

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