National Academies Press: OpenBook

Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (2021)

Chapter: Appendix B: Methodology and data sources for the "Academic STEMM Labor Market, Productivity, and Institutional Responses" by Felicia A. Jefferson, Matthew T. Hora, Sabrina L. Pickens, and Hal Salzman.

« Previous: Appendix A: Literature Review Terms and Survey Methodology for "Boundaryless Work: The Impact of COVID-19 on Work-Life Boundary Management, Integration, and Gendered Divisions of Labor for Academic Women in STEMM," by Ellen Ernst Kossek, Tammy Allen, Tracy L. Dumas
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Methodology and data sources for the "Academic STEMM Labor Market, Productivity, and Institutional Responses" by Felicia A. Jefferson, Matthew T. Hora, Sabrina L. Pickens, and Hal Salzman. ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26061.
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Page 217
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Methodology and data sources for the "Academic STEMM Labor Market, Productivity, and Institutional Responses" by Felicia A. Jefferson, Matthew T. Hora, Sabrina L. Pickens, and Hal Salzman. ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26061.
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Page 218

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PREPUBLICATION COPY | UNCORRECTED PROOFS APPENDIX B METHODOLOGY AND DATA SOURCES FOR THE “ACADEMIC STEMM LABOR MARKET, PRODUCTIVITY, AND INSTITUTIONAL RESPONSES” BY FELICIA A. JEFFERSON, MATTHEW T. HORA, SABRINA L. PICKENS, AND HAL SALZMAN To understand the COVID-19 pandemic’s potential effects on women in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM), the authors of the paper “Academic STEMM Labor Market, Productivity, and Institutional Responses” that provided much of the information for Chapter 3, compiled two bodies of evidence. First, existing empirical literature concerning women in STEMM informed the pre-COVID-19 pandemic background. This literature is situated in many academic disciplines and addresses gendered and racialized barriers, among others, that are unique to STEMM (e.g., field or laboratory-related work pressures) and some that are relevant to the academic workforce as a whole (e.g., the utility of tenure clock extensions). Second, recent stories and emerging studies provide understanding of the COVID-19 pandemic’s emerging effects. This work was conducted in fall 2020, within the first 9 months of the COVID-19 pandemic, which began in winter 2019. Given this time line, much of the evidence used to assess how women academics are experiencing the COVID-19 pandemic and how it is affecting their careers is emergent. Additionally, it is important to stress that evidence of the impacts of the pandemic on some topics for particular groups (e.g., views of academic productivity for Black, Indigenous, and People of Color scholars) were not yet available and thus are not included in this chapter. In other cases, such as for academic productivity for women, considerable evidence exists, but does not account for racial and ethnic diversity. 217

218 THE IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON THE CAREERS OF WOMEN IN ACADEMIC STEMM To identify the literature, the authors of this chapter conducted a search of Google Scholar and PubMed using combinations of the following search terms: “STEMM,” “careers,” “pandemic,” “intersectionality” and “women.” The authors then reviewed the papers and conference presentations identified and further limited the search using the following criteria: the manuscripts had to be in English, the materials had to be peer reviewed, and the content of the materials had to address the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on STEMM careers, the unique or disproportionate impact of the pandemic on women and/or Black, Indigenous, and People of Color researchers in the STEMM disciplines, and institutional responses to the pandemic. The authors then analyzed the materials using thematic analysis techniques, which in this case included taking notes about recurring topics, data points, or arguments in articles, papers, and reports. The topics, data points, and arguments that were most frequently noted and/or were considered salient to the topic of this report were included in the submitted paper (Ryan and Bernard, 2003). These results served as the raw material for preparing this chapter, which is laid out in three parts related to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on (1) the STEMM landscape (or STEMM educational attainment and STEMM occupations), (2) Notions of Academic Productivity, and (3) Institutional Responses. Each part provides information as available about researchers at different career stages; Scholars of Color; effects by gender, specifically on women; and discipline and institution type. PREPUBLICATION COPY | UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Next: Appendix C: Material Selection Process FOR "The Impact of COVID-19 on Collaboration, Mentorship and Sponsorship, and Role of Networks and Professional Organizations," by Misty Heggeness and Rochelle Williams »
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The spring of 2020 marked a change in how almost everyone conducted their personal and professional lives, both within science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM) and beyond. The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted global scientific conferences and individual laboratories and required people to find space in their homes from which to work. It blurred the boundaries between work and non-work, infusing ambiguity into everyday activities. While adaptations that allowed people to connect became more common, the evidence available at the end of 2020 suggests that the disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic endangered the engagement, experience, and retention of women in academic STEMM, and may roll back some of the achievement gains made by women in the academy to date.

Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic STEMM identifies, names, and documents how the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted the careers of women in academic STEMM during the initial 9-month period since March 2020 and considers how these disruptions - both positive and negative - might shape future progress for women. This publication builds on the 2020 report Promising Practices for Addressing the Underrepresentation of Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine to develop a comprehensive understanding of the nuanced ways these disruptions have manifested. Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic STEMM will inform the academic community as it emerges from the pandemic to mitigate any long-term negative consequences for the continued advancement of women in the academic STEMM workforce and build on the adaptations and opportunities that have emerged.

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