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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26061.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26061.
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PREPUBLICATION COPY | UNCORRECTED PROOFS References AAMC (Association of American Medical Colleges) (2016). Diversity in medical education. AAMC Facts and Figures. https://www.aamcdiversityfactsandfigures2016.org. AAMC (2020). Affinity Groups. https://www.aamc.org/professional-development/affinity-groups. AAUP (American Association of University Professors) (2007). Report of an AAUP Special Committee: Hurricane Katrina and New Orleans Universities. Academe: AAUP Bulletin: 60-126. https://www.aaup.org/report/report-aaup-special-committee-hurricane-katrina-and-new-orleans- universities. AAUP (2017). Data visualization of faculty by contract type and institutional type. https://www.aaup.org/data- visualizations-contingent-faculty-us-higher-education. AAUP (2018). The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 2017-18. https://www.aaup.org/sites/default/files/ARES_2017-18.pdf. AAUP (2020a). Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 2019–2020. https://www.aaup.org/sites/default/files/2019-20_ARES.pdf. AAUP (2020b). Full-Time Women Faculty and Faculty of Color, December 9, 2020 https://www.aaup.org/news/data-snapshot-full-time-women-faculty-and-faculty-color. ACE (American Council on Education) (2017). Pipelines, Pathways, and Institutional Leadership: An Update on the Status of Women in Higher Education. http://www.acenet.edu/news-room/Documents/HES-Pipelines- Pathways-and-Institutional-Leadership-2017.pdf. Adams, S. (2020). ASEE Annual Conference: Financial Support Available (email to membership). May 1, 2020. Ahlers-Schmidt, C. R., Hervey, A. M., Neil, T., Kuhlmann, S., and Kuhlmann, Z. (2020). Concerns of women regarding pregnancy and childbirth during the COVID-19 pandemic. Patient Education and Counseling. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2020.09.031. Ahmed, S. (2012). On Being Included: Racism and Diversity in Institutional Life. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Akkermans, J., Richardson, J., and Kraimer, M. (2020). The COVID-19 crisis as a career shock: Implications for careers and vocational behavior. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2020.103434. Alexander, B. (2020). How the coronavirus will change faculty life forever: As the pandemic wears on, expect heavier teaching loads, more service requirements, and more time online. Chronicle of Higher Education, May 11, 2020. https://www.chronicle.com/article/how-the-coronavirus-will-change-faculty-life-forever/. Allan, E. J. (2011). Women’s Status in Higher Education: Equity Matters [Special Issue]. ASHE (Association for the Study of Higher Education) Higher Education Report, 37(1), 1–163. Allegretto, S. A., and Cooper, D. (2014). Twenty-Three Years and Still Waiting for Change: Why It’s Time to Give Tipped Workers the Regular Minimum Wage. Briefing Paper No. 379, July 10, 2014. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute. http://www.epi.org/publication/waiting-for-change-tipped-minimumwage/.. Al-Omoush, K. S., Simón-Moya, V., and Sendra-García, J. (2020). The impact of social capital and collaborative knowledge creation on e-business proactiveness and organizational agility in responding to the COVID-19 crisis. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, Forthcoming. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jik.2020.10.002. Alon, T., Doepke, M., Olmstead-Rumsey, J., and Tertilt, M. (2020a). The Impact of COVID-19 on Gender Equality (NBER Working Paper Series No. 26947). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 177

178 THE IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON THE CAREERS OF WOMEN IN ACADEMIC STEMM Alon, T., Doepke, M., Olmstead-Rumsey, J., and Tertilt, M. (2020b). This Time It’s Different: The Role of Women’s Employment in a Pandemic Recession. Working Paper Series No. 27660. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Amano-Patino, N., Faraglia, E., Giannitsarou, C., and Hasna, Z. (2020). Who is doing new research in the time of COVID-19? Not the female economists. VoxEU, May 2, 2020. https://voxeu.org/article/who-doing-new- research-time-COVID-19-not-female-economists. Andersen, J. P., Nielsen, M. W., Simone, N. L., Lewiss, R. E. and Jagsi, R. (2020). Meta-Research: COVID-19 medical papers have fewer women first authors than expected. eLife, Sciences. 2020;9:e58807. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.58807. Antecol, H., Bedard, K., and Stearns, J. (2018). Equal but inequitable: Who benefits from gender-neutral tenure clock stopping policies? American Economic Review, 108(9), 2420–2441. https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.20160613. Anwer, M. (2020). Academic labor and the global pandemic: Revisiting life-work balance under COVID-19. Working Paper Series, Navigating Careers in the Academy: Gender, Race, and Class, 3(2), 5–13. https://www.purdue.edu/butler/documents/WPS-Special-Issue-Higher-Education-and-COVID-19---2020- Volume-3-Issue-2.pdf#page=8. APM (American Public Media) Research Lab Staff (2020). The color of coronavirus: COVID-19 deaths by race and ethnicity in the U.S. Updated regularly; accessed November, 2020. https://www.apmresearchlab.org/covid/deaths-by-race. Apuzzo, M., and Kirkpatrick, D. D. “COVID-19 Changed How the World Does Science, Together.” New York Times, April 14, 2020. https://nyti.ms/2Uy7HRD. ARC (ADVANCE Research and Coordination [ARC] Network) (2020). Ensuring Equity in COVID-19 Institutional Responses (webinar notes and transcripts). Armstrong, M. A., and Jovanovic, J. (2017). The intersectional matrix: Rethinking institutional change for URM women in STEM. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 10(3), 216–231. Armstrong, M. A., and Jovanovic, J. (2015). Starting at the crossroads: Intersectional approaches to institutionally supporting underrepresented minority women STEM faculty. Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, 21(2), 141-157. ASAE (American Society of Association Executives) (2020). Association Impact Snapshot March/April 2020: Trending Report. Washington, DC: ASAE Research Foundation. ASEE (American Society for Engineering Education) (2020). COVID-19 & Engineering Education: An Interim Report on the Community Response to the Pandemic and Racial Justice. Washington, DC: American Society for Engineering Education. Ashforth, B. E., Kreiner, G. E., and Fugate, M. (2000). All in a day’s work: Boundaries and micro role transitions. Academy of Management Review, 25, 472–491. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2000.3363315. ASM (American Society for Microbiology) (2020). Press Release. ASM COVID-19 Initiatives. https://asm.org/Press-Releases/2020/ASM-Initiatives-for-COVID-19. Aspire, The National Alliance for Inclusive and Diverse STEM Faculty (2020). COVID-19 Resources. https://www.aspirealliance.org/national-change/COVID-19-resources. Attridge, M. (2007). Making the business case. Plenty of studies prove that employers should invest in their workers’ mental well-being. Behavioral Healthcare, 27(11):31–3. PMID: 18293789. Attridge, M. (2009). Measuring and managing employee work engagement: A review of the research and business literature. Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health, 24, 383–398. https://doi.org/10.1080/15555240903188398. Aubry, L., Laverty, T., and Ma, Z. (2020). Impacts of COVID-19 on Ecology and evolutionary biology faculty in the United States. Ecological Applications, November 23, 2020. https://esajournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/eap.2265. Avery-Gomm, S., Hammer, S., Humphries, G. (2016). The age of the Twitter conference. Science 352(6292), 1404– 1405. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.352.6292.1404-b. PREPUBLICATION COPY | UNCORRECTED PROOFS

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180 THE IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON THE CAREERS OF WOMEN IN ACADEMIC STEMM Bixler, D. (2020). SARS-CoV-2–Associated Deaths Among Persons Aged 21 Years—United States, February 12– July 31, 2020. MMWR: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 69. Black in Engineering (2020). On Becoming an Anti-Racist Institution. https://blackinengineering.org/action-item- list/. Blair-Loy, M., and Cech, E. A. (2017). Demands and devotion: Cultural meanings of work and overload among women researchers and professionals in science and technology industries. Social Forces, 32, 5–-27. https://doi.org/10.1111/socf.12315. Blevins, C. A., Weathers, F. W., Davis, M. T., Witte, T. K., and Domino, J. L. (2015). The posttraumatic stress disorder checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5): Development and initial psychometric evaluation. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 28(6), 489–98. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.22059. Epub 2015 Nov 25. PMID: 26606250. Boland, W., and Gasman, M. (2014). America’s Public HBCUs: A Four State Comparison of Institutional Capacity and State Funding Priorities. Penn Center for Minority Serving Institutions. http://repository.upenn.edu/gse_pubs/340. Boserup, B., McKenney, M., and Elkbuli, A. (2020). Alarming trends in US domestic violence during the COVID-19 pandemic. American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 38(12), 2753-2755. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2020.04.077. Boswell, W. R., Olson-Buchanan, J. B., Butts, M. M., and Becker, W. J. (2016). Managing “after hours” electronic work communication. Organizational Dynamics, 45, 291–297. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orgdyn.2016.10.004. Bovin, M. J., Marx, B. P., Weathers, F. W., Gallagher, M. W., Rodriguez, P., Schnurr, P. P., and Keane, T. M. (2016). Psychometric properties of the PTSD Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–Fifth Edition (PCL-5) in veterans. Psychological Assessment, 28(11), 1379-–1391. https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000254. Epub 2015 Dec 14. PMID: 26653052. Bracke, P., Delaruelle, K., Dereuddre, R., and Van de Velde, S. (2020). Depression in women and men, cumulative disadvantage and gender inequality in 29 European countries. Social Science & Medicine, 113354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113354. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32980172. Breslau, J., Cefalu, M., Wong, E. C., Burnam, M. A., Hunter, G. P., Florez, K. R., and Collins, R. L. (2017). Racial/ethnic differences in perception of need for mental health treatment in a US national sample. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology,52, 1–9. Brockmeier, E. K. (2020). Research returns to campus. Penn Today, June 8, 2020, University of Pennsylvania. https://penntoday.upenn.edu/news/phase-i-research-resumption. Brookings Institution (2017). Black women are earning more college degrees, but that alone won’t close race gaps. Social Mobility Memos (blog), posted December 4, 2017. https://www.brookings.edu/blog/social-mobility- memos/2017/12/04/black-women-are-earning-more-college-degrees-but-that-alone-wont-close-race-gaps/. Brooks, S. (2020). “Housing challenges and Black faculty.” Inside Higher Education, July 16, 2020. https://www.insidehighered.com/views/2020/07/16/black-tenure-track-faculty-members-face-challenges- looking-housing-near-their. Buckee, C., Hedt-Gauthier, B., Mahmud, A., Martinez, P., Tedijanto, C., Murray, M., Khan, R., Menkir, T., Li, R., Suliman, S., Fosdick, B. K., Cobey, S., Rasmussen, A., Popescu, S., Cevik, M., Dada, S., Jenkins, H., Clapham, H., Mordecai, E., Hampson, K., Majumder, M. S., Wesolowski, A., Kuppalli, K., Rodriguez Barraquer, I., Smith, T. C., Hodcroft, E. B., Christofferson, Re. C., Gerardin, J., Eggo, R., Cowley, L., Childs, L. M., Keegan, L. T., Pitzer, V., Oldenburg, C., and Dhatt, R. (2020). Women in science are battling both COVID-19 and the patriarchy. Times Higher Education, May15, 2020. https://www.timeshighereducation.com/blog/women-science-are-battling-both-COVID-19-and-patriarchy. Butler, J. (2004). Undoing Gender. New York: Routledge. Buysse, D. J., Reynolds, C. F. III, Monk, T. H., Berman, S. R., and Kupfer, D. J. (1989). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Research, 2(May 28), 193–213. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1781(89)90047-4. PMID: 2748771. PREPUBLICATION COPY | UNCORRECTED PROOFS

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The spring of 2020 marked a change in how almost everyone conducted their personal and professional lives, both within science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM) and beyond. The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted global scientific conferences and individual laboratories and required people to find space in their homes from which to work. It blurred the boundaries between work and non-work, infusing ambiguity into everyday activities. While adaptations that allowed people to connect became more common, the evidence available at the end of 2020 suggests that the disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic endangered the engagement, experience, and retention of women in academic STEMM, and may roll back some of the achievement gains made by women in the academy to date.

Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic STEMM identifies, names, and documents how the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted the careers of women in academic STEMM during the initial 9-month period since March 2020 and considers how these disruptions - both positive and negative - might shape future progress for women. This publication builds on the 2020 report Promising Practices for Addressing the Underrepresentation of Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine to develop a comprehensive understanding of the nuanced ways these disruptions have manifested. Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic STEMM will inform the academic community as it emerges from the pandemic to mitigate any long-term negative consequences for the continued advancement of women in the academic STEMM workforce and build on the adaptations and opportunities that have emerged.

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