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Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (2021)

Chapter: Appendix A: Literature Review Terms and Survey Methodology for "Boundaryless Work: The Impact of COVID-19 on Work-Life Boundary Management, Integration, and Gendered Divisions of Labor for Academic Women in STEMM," by Ellen Ernst Kossek, Tammy Allen, Tracy L. Dumas

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Literature Review Terms and Survey Methodology for "Boundaryless Work: The Impact of COVID-19 on Work-Life Boundary Management, Integration, and Gendered Divisions of Labor for Academic Women in STEMM," by Ellen Ernst Kossek, Tammy Allen, Tracy L. Dumas ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26061.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Literature Review Terms and Survey Methodology for "Boundaryless Work: The Impact of COVID-19 on Work-Life Boundary Management, Integration, and Gendered Divisions of Labor for Academic Women in STEMM," by Ellen Ernst Kossek, Tammy Allen, Tracy L. Dumas ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26061.
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Page 210
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Literature Review Terms and Survey Methodology for "Boundaryless Work: The Impact of COVID-19 on Work-Life Boundary Management, Integration, and Gendered Divisions of Labor for Academic Women in STEMM," by Ellen Ernst Kossek, Tammy Allen, Tracy L. Dumas ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26061.
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Page 211
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Literature Review Terms and Survey Methodology for "Boundaryless Work: The Impact of COVID-19 on Work-Life Boundary Management, Integration, and Gendered Divisions of Labor for Academic Women in STEMM," by Ellen Ernst Kossek, Tammy Allen, Tracy L. Dumas ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26061.
×
Page 212
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Literature Review Terms and Survey Methodology for "Boundaryless Work: The Impact of COVID-19 on Work-Life Boundary Management, Integration, and Gendered Divisions of Labor for Academic Women in STEMM," by Ellen Ernst Kossek, Tammy Allen, Tracy L. Dumas ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26061.
×
Page 213
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Literature Review Terms and Survey Methodology for "Boundaryless Work: The Impact of COVID-19 on Work-Life Boundary Management, Integration, and Gendered Divisions of Labor for Academic Women in STEMM," by Ellen Ernst Kossek, Tammy Allen, Tracy L. Dumas ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26061.
×
Page 214
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Literature Review Terms and Survey Methodology for "Boundaryless Work: The Impact of COVID-19 on Work-Life Boundary Management, Integration, and Gendered Divisions of Labor for Academic Women in STEMM," by Ellen Ernst Kossek, Tammy Allen, Tracy L. Dumas ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26061.
×
Page 215
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Literature Review Terms and Survey Methodology for "Boundaryless Work: The Impact of COVID-19 on Work-Life Boundary Management, Integration, and Gendered Divisions of Labor for Academic Women in STEMM," by Ellen Ernst Kossek, Tammy Allen, Tracy L. Dumas ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26061.
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Page 216

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PREPUBLICATION COPY | UNCORRECTED PROOFS APPENDIX A LITERATURE REVIEW TERMS AND SURVEY METHODOLOGY FOR “BOUNDARYLESS WORK: THE IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON WORK-LIFE BOUNDARY MANAGEMENT, INTEGRATION, AND GENDERED DIVISIONS OF LABOR FOR ACADEMIC WOMEN IN STEMM,” BY ELLEN ERNST KOSSEK, TAMMY ALLEN, AND TRACY L. DUMAS Survey Methodology We 1 designed a survey to ask women in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM) faculty to compare how COVID-19 has affected them over a 6-month period, from March 2020 to October 2020. Using a mixed-methods approach including qualitative and quantitative formats, the survey asked respondents to indicate their work-location preferences and boundary control; changes in work-life coping strategies, childcare and eldercare, and other domestic demands; and preferences for university support. The survey was publicized on the ADVANCE grant listserv and listservs of academic women in scientific specialties (see Table A-1). TABLE A-1 Listservs that Posted the Anonymous Survey Link for the Work-Life Boundaries Paper American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) list of Engineering Deans Big Ten+ Associate Deans of Engineering for Academic Affairs 1 In this appendix, Kossek, Allen, and Dumas use the first person plural. 209

210 THE IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON THE CAREERS OF WOMEN IN ACADEMIC STEMM ASEE Women in Engineering Division Women in Engineering Pro-Active Network (WEPAN) Computing Research Association Committee on Widening Participation (CRA-WP) Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) website ACM Council on Women in Computing (ACM-W) National Academy of Engineering list of women members Purdue Women Faculty in Engineering (a) WFEC mailing list; (b) Dean of Engineering Thursday Memo; Deans of the Colleges of (a) Agriculture, (b) Pharmacy, (c) Purdue Polytechnic Institute, and (d) Veterinary Medicine & Purdue AAUP Twitter We present here the results of 933 faculty who identified themselves as STEMM faculty and provided usable data. The final sample included 763 respondents; other respondents who were omitted were not women (25), not in STEMM (190), did not indicate STEMM status (286), or had other incomplete data. We focused our report on the results from 733 tenured or tenure- stream faculty, since these individuals, in addition to teaching and service roles, were juggling research demands that may have results in significant career setbacks that could harm tenure, research funding and implementation, and promotion. We have also included some data from the 170 non-tenure-stream respondents. Many of their concerns mirrored those of tenure-stream faculty. Table A-2 shows sample demographic breakouts. Survey Sample Data and Analytical Approach Nearly all (98 percent) of the 763 tenure-track or tenured women faculty in STEMM fields were from 202 U.S. institutions, and a small number (a little more than 2 percent or n= 20) participants were from non-U.S. institutions. The survey was distributed on PREPUBLICATION COPY | UNCORRECTED PROOFS

APPENDIX A 211 TABLE A-2 Sample Description for October 2020 Survey of Women in Academic Science STEMM Faculty Tenured or on the Tenure Track (n = 763) Non-Tenure-Track (n = 170) Study N (%) N (%) Sample Characteristics Assistant Associate Full Total Faculty Researcher Postdocs Total Total (n = 258, (n = 236, (n = 263, (n = 763) (n = 155, (n = 10, (n = 5, (n = 170) (n = 933) (34.1) 31.2) 34.7) 91.2) 5.9) 2.9) Ethnicity White 172 (66.7) 171 (72.5) 209 (88.9) 556 (72.9) 116 (74.8) 10 (100) 2 (40.0) 128 (75.3) 684 (73.3) Hispanic 20 (7.8) 17 (7.2) 13 (4.9) 50 (6.6) 12 (7.7) 0 1 (20.0) 13 (7.6) 63 (6.8) Black 6 (2.3) 4 (1.7) 1 (0.4) 11 (1.4) 7 (4.5) 0 0 7 (4.1) 18 (109) Asian/Pacific Is. 31 (12.0) 23 (9.7) 16 (6.1) 70 (9.2) 7 (4.5) 0 1 (20.0) 8 (4.7) 78 (8.4) Multi-Racial/Other 11 (4.3) 8 (3.4) 9 (3.4) 28 (3.7) 7 (4.5) 0 1 (20.0) 8 (4.7) 36 (3.9) Relationship Married 198 (76.7) 183 (77.5) 215 (81.7) 601 (80.2) 120 (77.4) 7 (70.0) 3 (60.0) 130 (76.5) 731 (78.3) Living with a 23 (8.9) 16 (6.8) 9 (3.4) 49 (6.3) 9 (5.8) 0 1 (20.0) 10 (5.9) 59 (6.3) Romantic Partner Single 28 (10.9) 34 (14.4) 33 (12.5) 95 (12.9) 24 (15.5) 3 (30.0) 1 (20.0) 28 (16.5) 123 (13.2) Widowed 1 (0.4) 1 (0.4) 3 (1.1) 5 (0.7) 1 (0.6) 0 0 1 (0.6) 6 (0.6) Long-Distance 18 (7.0) 14 (5.9) 12 (4.6) 44 (5.8) 8 (5.2) 2 (20.0) 0 10 (5.9) 54 (5.8) Married Relationship Long-Distance 5 (1.9%) 1 (0.4) 0 6 (0.7) 1 (0.6) 0 0 1 (0.6) 7 (0.8) Romantic Relationship Care Childcare 148 (57.4) 168 (71.2) 124 (47.1) 444 (58.2) 89 (41.3) 5 (50.0) 3 (60.0) 97 (57.1) 541 (58.0) Eldercare 23 (8.9) 24 (10.2) 32 (12.2) 79 (10.4) 14 (9.0) 3 (30.0) 0 17 (10.0) 96 (10.3) Sandwiched care 10 (3.9) 12 (5.1) 9 (3.4) 31 (3.9) 5 (3.2) 2 (20.0) 0 7 (4.1) 38 (4.1) Long-Distance care 39 (15.1) 36 (15.3) 60 (22.8) 136 (17.8) 28 (18.1) 3 (30.0) 1 (20.0) 3 (18.8) 139 (14.9) PREPUBLICATION COPY | UNCORRECTED PROOFS

212 THE IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON THE CAREERS OF WOMEN IN ACADEMIC STEMM U.S. listservs. About half the respondents, or 326, people were from 77 R1 institutions. The sample had representation from many disciplines with representation as follows: industrial, material, and general engineering, (n = 129, 16.9 percent); chemistry, chemical engineering, biology, and biochemistry (n= 102, 13.9 percent); health sciences (n = 56, 7.3 percent); electrical and mechanical engineering (n = 48, 6.3 percent); mathematics and statistics (n = 27, 3.5 percent); atmospheric, earth, and ocean sciences (n = 25, 3.3 percent); agriculture and natural resources (n = 17, 2.2 percent); physics (n = 9, 1.2 percent); and other disciplines. For rank, the sample was evenly distributed with about one-third (34.1 percent) untenured assistant professors, one-third associate professors (31.2 percent), and one-third (34.7 percent) full professors. Approximately three-fourths of the sample was white (72.9 percent) and married or living with a romantic partner (86.5 percent). A little less than one-tenth (7.3 percent) of married women faculty lived apart from their spouse or one of the spouses lived far from work because of the other’s work. More than half (58.2 percent) provided care for children under the age of 18, 10.4 percent provided eldercare, 3.9 percent provided sandwiched care (i.e., both child and eldercare). Nearly one-fifth, or 17.8 percent, provided care for family members who do not live with them. The sample of women faculty in STEMM fields who are not on the tenure track included 170 participants predominantly from 62 U.S. institutions. The survey population was composed of faculty (91.2 percent), researchers (5.9 percent), and postdocs (2.9 percent). Three-fourths were white (76.3 percent) and most (82.4 percent) were married or living with a romantic partner. A little less than one-tenth (7.7 percent) of married women faculty lived apart from their spouse or one of the spouses lived far from work because of the other’s work. More than half (57.1 percent) provided care for children under the age of 18, 10 percent provided eldercare, 7 percent provided sandwiched care (i.e., both childcare and eldercare). Nearly one-fifth, or 18.8 PREPUBLICATION COPY | UNCORRECTED PROOFS

APPENDIX A 213 percent provided care for family members who do not live with them. While most of the concerns of non-tenure-track faculty mirrored those of tenured and tenure-track faculty, we did notice some unique challenges, which we focus on here. Most of the survey responses were qualitative, and were analyzed using a content analysis method developed by Schreier (Schreier, 2012). First, we created our main coding frame, challenges and coping strategies, for each topics (e.g., childcare, eldercare, boundary management, work and nonwork, and effects) based on the literature review. Next, subcategories were created under each main category. They were defined to make sure each category was mutually exclusive and were continuously reexamined through discussion. After the coding was completed, we obtained final counts for each category. The full list of survey topics is provided in Table A-3. TABLE A-3 Survey Topics for the October 2020 Survey Quantitative questions Work location The number of days of working at home (out The preferred number of days of working at of 3 working days) before and after the home pandemic Boundary control The actual and preferred levels of boundary control before and after the pandemic, using a boundary control measure by Kossek, Ruderman, Braddy, and Hannum (2012) Qualitative questions The positive and negative impact of COVID-19 on personal and career well-being Boundary management The challenges of boundary Examples of boundary-setting Differences in boundary management between work practices (physical, temporal, management between work and family due to COVID-19 mental, and technological) and family after the pandemic Support from the university Examples of university support for work-life What needs to be improved integration PREPUBLICATION COPY | UNCORRECTED PROOFS

214 THE IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON THE CAREERS OF WOMEN IN ACADEMIC STEMM Housework demands The positive and negative impact of The negotiation of nonwork responsibilities COVID-19 on nonwork responsibilities during the pandemic Care demands The positive and negative impact of COVID-19 on: Long-distance romantic Childcare Eldercare Sandwiched care Long-distance care relationship Background information Race/ Academic affiliation Tenure status (tenured, tenure-track Gender Rank ethnicity (university / department) but not yet tenured, non-tenure-track) The several quantitative items from the survey were analyzed using SPSS 26 (IBM Corp, 2019). Means and standard deviations were obtained for the boundary-control measure to assess changes in boundary control. Using paired t tests, we also compared changes in prepandemic and postpandemic location preferences assessing the number of preferred and actual days working on and off campus over a 5-day week. For example, paired t-tests results revealed that, across the sample of women STEMM faculty, all reported significantly lower levels of boundary control after the pandemic than before the pandemic (t = 33.42, p < .001; 3.98 and 2.33 respectively). In order to examine care responsibilities impacts on the changes in the numbers of days working at home and boundary management, we used a general linear mixed model (Cnaan, et al., 1997; Krueger and Tian, 2004) approach. For example, a general linear mixed-model analysis was conducted to examine whether the magnitude of the increase in the number of days working at home post-COVID-19 was different between faculty with and without children. The result revealed that the increase in the number of days working at home post-COVID-19 pandemic was significantly greater for faculty with children than faculty without children (F (1, 753) = 11.58). PREPUBLICATION COPY | UNCORRECTED PROOFS

APPENDIX A 215 Literature Review Search Terms To inform the literature review summarized in the commissioned paper, “Boundaryless Work: The Impact of COVID-19 on Work-Life Boundary Management, Integration, and Gendered Divisions of Labor for Academic Women in STEMM,” Ellen Ernst Kossek, Tammy Allen, and Tracy L. Dumas used the search criteria, and obtained the number of results presented in Table A-4. To note, the authors found that, at the time of writing, few empirical papers focused specifically on COVID-19 and women in STEMM. TABLE A-4 Search Terms and Numbers of Results for the Literature Review Conducted by Kossek, Dumas, and Allen Kossek Search Psychinfo Academic search complete 1. COVID-19 and Leadership 51 367 2. COVID-19 and HR 6 72 3. COVID-19 and organizational support 2 3 4. COVID-19 and faculty 148 21 5. COVID-19 and women faculty 2 4 1,17 6. COVID-19 and university 5 108 7. COVID-19 and higher education 22 24 8. COVID-19 and professors 11 0 9. COVID-19 and coping 108 1 10. COVID-19 and faculty stress 1 0 11. COVID-19 and faculty well-being 0 0 12. COVID-19 and faculty coping 0 0 13. COVID-19 and faculty eldercare 0 0 14. COVID-19 and faculty childcare 2 0 15. COVID-19 and faculty parenting 0 0 16. COVID-19 and faculty sandwiched care 0 0 17. COVID-19 and eldercare 5 0 PREPUBLICATION COPY | UNCORRECTED PROOFS

216 THE IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON THE CAREERS OF WOMEN IN ACADEMIC STEMM 18. COVID-19 and childcare 20 21 19. COVID-19 and STEM 10 122 20. COVID-19 and STEMM 0 0 1,56 Total (Kossek) 3 743 769 3,075 Chronicle of Higher Education COVID 19 used as search term Dumas Search 1. “COVID-19” “women” “faculty’ “stem” 3,290 2. “COVID-19” “women” “faculty” “stem” “U.S.” 2,890 Allen Search () USF library 1. COVID-19 AND academic women 1,149 2. COVID-19 AND academic women AND division of labor 108 3. COVID-19 AND STEM 138,794 4. COVID-19 AND STEMM 105 SocArXIC Papers website 1. COVID academic women 74 PREPUBLICATION COPY | UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Next: Appendix B: Methodology and data sources for the "Academic STEMM Labor Market, Productivity, and Institutional Responses" by Felicia A. Jefferson, Matthew T. Hora, Sabrina L. Pickens, and Hal Salzman. »
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The spring of 2020 marked a change in how almost everyone conducted their personal and professional lives, both within science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM) and beyond. The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted global scientific conferences and individual laboratories and required people to find space in their homes from which to work. It blurred the boundaries between work and non-work, infusing ambiguity into everyday activities. While adaptations that allowed people to connect became more common, the evidence available at the end of 2020 suggests that the disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic endangered the engagement, experience, and retention of women in academic STEMM, and may roll back some of the achievement gains made by women in the academy to date.

Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic STEMM identifies, names, and documents how the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted the careers of women in academic STEMM during the initial 9-month period since March 2020 and considers how these disruptions - both positive and negative - might shape future progress for women. This publication builds on the 2020 report Promising Practices for Addressing the Underrepresentation of Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine to develop a comprehensive understanding of the nuanced ways these disruptions have manifested. Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic STEMM will inform the academic community as it emerges from the pandemic to mitigate any long-term negative consequences for the continued advancement of women in the academic STEMM workforce and build on the adaptations and opportunities that have emerged.

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