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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 226 2021 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation • Design • Terminals and Facilities Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces Jens Vange Shane Wirth AlliiAnce Minneapolis, MN Kerry Cooley Bruggemann Ken Kindvall MichAud cooley erickson Minneapolis, MN Rose Agnew AviAtion innovAtion, llc St. Paul, MN Laurel Van Horn open doors orgAnizAtion Chicago, IL

AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100— Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 226 Project 07-16 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-67364-8 Library of Congress Control Number 2020950328 © 2021 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.nationalacademies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 226 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Joseph D. Navarrete, Senior Program Officer Hana Vagnerova, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Ellen M. Chafee, Senior Editor ACRP PROJECT 07-16 PANEL Field of Design Casey Martin, Jacobs, Cedar City, UT (Chair) Larry Ferrigno, Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority, Dulles, VA Alan W. Howell, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Rohini Kumarage, City of Austin, Austin, TX Steve Mayers, City of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA Bess J. Pierce, Lincoln Memorial University, Harrogate, TN William Reinhardt, FAA Liaison Mark Sedarous, FAA Liaison Christopher M. Blasie, Collins Aerospace Liaison Raechel Rucker, Airports Council International–North America Liaison Christine L. Gerencher, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported in ACRP Research Report 226 was performed under ACRP Project 07-16 by Alliiance as the prime contractor with subcontractors Michaud Cooley Erickson; Aviation Innovation, LLC; and Open Doors Organization. Jens Vange, AIA, LEED AP, CDT, of Alliiance, was principal investigator. Other authors of this report were Shane Wirth, LEED AP BD+C, of Alliiance; Kerry Cooley Bruggemann, PE, LEED AP, and Ken Kindvall of Michaud Cooley Erickson; Rose Agnew of Aviation Innovation, LLC; and Laurel Van Horn of Open Doors Organization. The research conducted under ACRP Project 07-16 updates work previously conducted under ACRP Project 07-12 and published as ACRP Report 130. The authors of ACRP Research Report 226 would like to thank participants in and contributors to the ACRP Project 07-12 research. The authors would also like to thank the ACRP Project 07-16 panel for their continuous support and engagement. A special thank you goes to Joel Hirsh of Hirsh Associates for providing valuable insight for the planning calculations rationale in the original guidebook. The authors would like to thank the following participants for their contribution to the research: Amenities Case Studies Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) Jonathan DeJesus, Senior Customer Experience Development Manager, Dallas Fort Worth International Airport

AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS (Continued) Orlando International Airport (MCO) Mark W. Birkbak AIA, Director of Engineering, Greater Orlando Aviation Authority Mike Rodriguez, AIA, Associate, Schenkel Shultz Architecture Toronto Pearson International Airport (YYZ) Stuart Bricknell, Director, Engineering & Architectural Services, Toronto Pearson International Airport Jonathan Lock, Manager Structural Integrity, Airport Planning and Technical Services, Toronto Pearson International Airport Hasan Wahab, Manager Architectural Services, Airport Planning and Technical Services, Toronto Pearson International Airport Giovanna Verrilli, Assoc. Director Retail & Passenger Development, Airport Planning and Technical Services, Toronto Pearson International Airport Dimitri Xourafas, Manager Commercial Activations, Airport Planning and Technical Services, Toronto Pearson International Airport Clarence Walters, Manager Mechanical Systems, Airport Planning and Technical Services, Toronto Pearson International Airport McCarran International Airport (LAS) Ralph LaPore, Assistant Director, Terminal Operations Division, McCarran International Airport San Francisco International Airport (SFO) Chris Birch IAP, Director Guest Experience, Chief Operating Officer’s Office, San Francisco Inter- national Airport Vancouver International Airport (YVR) Reg Krake, Director, Customer Experience Cathy Nyfors, Manager, Customer Care–Guest Relations Elaine Fisher, Manager, Customer Care Programs James Blake, Manager, Engineering Services Nancy Stern, Architect Alex Thureau, Contract Services Gatwick Airport (LGW) Sara Marchant, Accessibility Manager (currently Customer Relations Manager–Care, Customer Relations & Service, London Heathrow Airport) Ruth Rabbet, Head of Assisted Services, Wilson James London Heathrow Airport (LHR) Roberto Castiglioni, Chair, Access Advisory Group, London Heathrow Airport Nicole Day, Passenger Service Manager, Performance, London Heathrow Airport Claire Milburn, Passenger Experience Manager, London Heathrow Airport Minneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport (MSP) Phil Burk, Assistant Director, Customer Experience, Metropolitan Airports Commission Scott Skramstad, Manager, Terminal 2 Operations/Facilities, Metropolitan Airports Commission Steven Gentry, Customer Research Analyst, Metropolitan Airports Commission Hamad International Airport (DOH) Sujata Kumar Suri, Vice President, Strategy & Development, Hamad International Airport Varun Kapur, Manager Customer Service, Hamad International Airport Vivek V. Agarwal, Development Planning Project Manager, Strategy & Development, Hamad Inter- national Airport Razwan Hussain, Operations Planning & Quality, Assurance Manager, Hamad International Airport Erico Santana, Manager, Standards & Procedures, Operations, Hamad International Airport Stakeholder Outreach University of Minnesota Roberta Kehne, M.S., Physical Access Coordinator, University of Minnesota Disability Resource Center, Office for Equity and Diversity Mall of America, Bloomington, Minnesota Daniel Jasper, Vice President Communications, Mall of America Management Offices Minneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport (MSP) Travelers with Disabilities Advisory Committee Phil Burke, Assistant Director, Customer Experience, Metropolitan Airports Commission

ACRP Research Report 226 provides a thoughtful, step-by-step process to help airport industry practitioners plan, design, and implement terminal restroom and other ancillary amenity projects. It is an updated and expanded version of ACRP Report 130 and reflects the latest thinking in this quickly evolving topic. The guidebook effectively uses graphics, icons, and callouts to help readers quickly find the information they need to develop facilities that balance cost, aesthetics, space limitations, and day-to-day maintenance requirements. It will be of interest to anyone whose goal is to meet customer expectations for airport restrooms and related facilities. Customer satisfaction has become one of the primary drivers for the success of an air- port, and restrooms and ancillary facilities often provide the first and last impression of a destination. Since the publication of ACRP Report 130 in 2015, design requirements and customer expectations have continued to evolve. Examples of activities and services that are now being accommodated at airports include service animal relief, lactation/nursing, companion care, children’s play areas, sensory rooms, meditation, worship, ablution, sleeping, fitness, showers, and health/urgent care. Research was needed to provide the industry with guidelines to create facilities to meet these activities and services. The research, led by Alliiance, began with a review of current restroom and amenities planning and design resources. The team then gathered extensive input from key stake- holder groups, airport staff, product developers, and representatives from other entities with facilities of similar scale and scope. Detailed case studies were conducted for restrooms and amenities at U.S. and international airports to review recent layouts and designs. The research team then used their findings and expertise to develop the guidebook. The guidebook’s recommendations are presented in three sections: planning, design, and implementation. One innovative and broad-ranging recommendation in the planning section (Chapter 2) is for airports to form a “restroom team” consisting of representatives from key stakeholder groups. This team would not only lead restroom projects but also serve as a forum for addressing the occasional stakeholder conflicts that can arise. Chapter 3 presents an updated “restroom of the future” prototype that addresses timely concerns regarding accessibility, gender, communal hygiene, and maintenance. The design section (Chapter 4) features steps for evaluating options based on considerations for initial cost, life-cycle cost, warranty, maintenance, and sustainability. Next, in the implementation section (Chapter 5), the guidebook gives practitioners suggestions for project phasing, delivery methods, and maintaining standards for various products (e.g., fixtures and finishes). Appendices A through I of this report and interactive versions of worksheets presented in Tables 4-1 through 4-3 are available on the TRB website by searching on “ACRP Research Report 226”. F O R E W O R D By Joseph D. Navarrete Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

1 Summary 4 Chapter 1 Introduction 4 1.1 How to Use This Guidebook 6 1.2 Research Approach 6 1.3 State of the Industry 7 1.4 Attributes of Successful Airport Restrooms and Amenities 8 Chapter 2 Planning 8 2.1 Drivers and Goals 9 2.2 The Restroom and Amenities Team 10 2.3 Existing Restroom Evaluation 12 2.4 Quantity of Spaces Needed 19 2.5 Restroom Prototypes 35 2.6 Amenity Prototypes and Considerations 43 2.7 Restroom and Amenity Space Locations 49 2.8 The Restroom Master Plan 50 2.9 Restroom Renovation versus Building a New Restroom 52 Chapter 3 Airport Restroom of the Future 52 3.1 Introduction 52 3.2 The Issues 54 3.3 The Restroom of the Future Prototype 58 3.4 What Would Be Solved 58 3.5 What Would Remain to Be Solved 59 3.6 What Next? 60 Chapter 4 Design 60 4.1 Process 63 4.2 Standardization 63 4.3 Restroom Components 88 4.4 Components of Regulated/Essential Amenities 95 4.5 Considerations for Waiting- and Layover-Related Amenities 98 4.6 Cost Analysis 99 4.7 Prioritization 104 Chapter 5 Implementation 104 5.1 Construction 106 5.2 Post-Occupancy Evaluation 107 Abbreviations 109 Appendices A Through I C O N T E N T S

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Customer satisfaction has become one of the primary drivers for the success of an airport, and restrooms and ancillary facilities often provide the first and last impression of a destination. The real challenge for airports is to provide restrooms with enough space for people to move around in and offer secure, clean, and dry places for their belongings.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Research Report 226: Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces provides a thoughtful, step-by-step process to help airport industry practitioners plan, design, and implement terminal restroom and other ancillary amenity projects. It is an updated and expanded version of ACRP Report 130: Guidebook for Airport Terminal Restroom Planning and Design and reflects the latest thinking in this quickly evolving topic.

Supplemental materials to the report include:

Appendix A: Component Comparison Matrix

Appendix B: Existing Restroom Evaluation Forms

Appendix C.1: Case Studies—Restrooms

Appendix C.2: Case Studies—Amenities

Appendix D.1: Stakeholder Outreach—Restrooms

Appendix D.2: Stakeholder Outreach—Amenities

Appendix E: Surveys

Appendix F: Restroom Design Guidelines/Standards Sample

Appendix G: Restroom Standard Operating Procedures Sample

Appendix H: Bibliography

Appendix I: Glossary

Tables 4-1 & 4-2 Worksheets

Table 4-3 Worksheet

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