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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1995. Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4761.
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References

OVERVIEW

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CHAPTER 2: THE VISUAL CHANNEL

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CHAPTER 3: THE AUDITORY CHANNEL

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CHAPTER 5: POSITION TRACKING AND MAPPING

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Maeda, T., and S. Tachi 1992 Development of light-weight binocular head-mounted displays. Pp. 281-288 in Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Measurement and Control in Robotics, Tsukuba Science City, Japan.

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Zhuang, H., B. Li, Z.S. Roth, and X. Xie 1992 Self-calibration and mirror center offset elimination of a multi-beam laser tracking system. Robotics and Autonomous Systems 9:255-269.

CHAPTER 6: WHOLE-BODY MOTION, MOTION SICKNESS, AND LOCOMOTION INTERFACES

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Lackner, J.R., and P. DiZio 1984 Some efferent and somatosensory influences on body orientation and oculomotor control. Pp. 283-301 in L. Spillman and B.R. Wooten, eds., Sensory Experience, Adaptation, and Perception. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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Lackner, J.R., and A. Graybiel 1981 Illusions of postural, visual, and aircraft motion elicited by deep knee bends in the increased gravitoinertial force phase of parabolic flight. Experimental Brain Research 44:312-316.

1984a Elicitation of motion sickness by head movements in the microgravity phase of parabolic flight maneuvers. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine 55:513-520.

1984b Influence of gravitoinertial force level on apparent magnitude of Coriolis cross-coupled angular accelerations and motion sickness. NATOAGARD Aerospace Medical Panel Symposium on Motion Sickness: Mechanisms, Prediction, Prevention and Treatment AGARD-CP-372, 22:1-7.

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1985 Head movements elicit motion sickness during exposure to microgravity and macrogravity acceleration levels. Pp. 170-176 in M. Igarashi and F.O. Black, eds., Proceedings of the VII International Symposium: Vestibular and Visual Control on Posture and Locomotor Equilibrium. Basel, Switzerland: Krager.

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1987 Head movements in low and high gravitoinertial force environments elicit motion sickness: Implications for space motion sickness. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine 58:A212-A217.

Lackner, J.R., and M.S. Levine 1979 Changes in apparent body orientation and sensory localiztion induced by vibration of postural muscles: Viratory myesthetic illusions. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine 50:346-354.

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Lackner, J.R., and R.A. Teixeira 1977 Optokinetic motion sickness: Continuous head movements attenuate the visual induction of apparent self-rotation and symptoms of motion sickness. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine 48:248-253.

Lackner, J.R., A. Graybiel, and P. DiZio 1991 Altered sensory-motor control of the body as an etiological factor in space motion sickness. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine 62:765-771.

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Previc, F.H., R.V. Kenyon, and K.K. Gillingham 1991 The Effects of Dynamic Visual Roll on Postural and Manual Control and Self-motion Perception. Paper presented at the 2nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Society, Cincinnati, Ohio.


Reason, J.T., and J.J. Brand 1975 Motion Sickness. New York: Academic Press.

Robinson, D.A. 1977 Linear addition of optokinetic and vestibular signals in the vestibular nucleus. Experimental Brain Research 30:447-450.


Stern, R.M., K.L. Koch, W.R. Stewart, and I.M. Lindbland 1987 Spectral analysis of tachygastria recorded during motion sickness. Gastroenterology 92:92-97.


Teixeira, R.A., and J.R. Lackner 1979 Optokinetic motion sickness: Attenuation of visually-induced apparent self-rotation by passive head movements. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine 50:264-266.


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Welch, R.B., B. Bridgeman, S. Anand, and K.E. Browman 1993 Alternating prism exposure causes dual adaptation and generalization to a novel displacement. Perception and Psychophysics 54:195-204.

CHAPTER 7: OTHER INTERFACE COMPONENTS: SPEECH, PHYSIOLOGY, SMELL, AND TASTE

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Kramer, A. 1993 Event Related Potentials and Mental Workload. Unpublished paper presented at the Workshop on Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Technology, February 26-27, 1993, to the Committee on Virtual Reality Research and Development, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.

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Makhoul, J., and R. Schwartz 1994 State of the art in continuous speech recognition. Pp. 165-198 in Voice Communication Between Humans and Machines. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

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Martin, J.H., J.C.M. Brust, and S. Hilal 1991 Imaging the living brain. Pp. 309-324 in Eric R. Kandel, James H. Schwartz, and Thomas M. Jessell, eds., Principles of Neural Science, Third Edition. New York: Elsevier.

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Nguyen, L., R. Schwartz, F. Kubala, and P. Placeway 1993 Search algorithms for software-only real-time recognition with very large vocabularies. Pp. 91-95 in Proceedings of the ARPA Human Language Technology Workshop, Plainsboro, N.J., March. San Mateo, Calif.: Morgan-Kaufmann.


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Pallett, D., J. Fiscus, W. Fisher, J. Garafolo, B. Lund, and M. Pryzbocki 1994 1993 Benchmark tests for the ARPA spoken language program. Proceedings of the ARPA Human Language Technology Workshop, Plainsboro, N.J., March. San Mateo, Calif.: Morgan-Kaufmann.


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Schwartz, R., and S. Austin 1991 A comparison of several approximate algorithms for finding multiple (n-best) sentence hypotheses. Pp. 701-704 in Proceedings of ICASSP, Toronto, Canada.

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Warner, D., T. Anderson, and J. Johanson 1994 Bio-Cybernetics: A biologically responsive interactive interface--The next paradigm of human computer interaction. Pp. 237-241 in Proceedings of Medicine and Virtual Reality. San Diego, Calif.

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Wierwille, W.W. 1979 Physiological measures of aircrew mental workload. Human Factors 21(5):579-594.

Zeffiro, T. 1993 Brain Imaging Technology. Unpublished paper presented at the Workshop on Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Technology, February 26-27, 1993, to the Committee on Virtual Reality Research and Development, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.

CHAPTER 8: COMPUTER HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE FOR THE GENERATION OF VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS

Airey, J.M., J.H. Rohlf, and F.P. Brooks, Jr. 1990 Towards image realism with interactive update rates in complex virtual building environments. Computer Graphics 24(2):41.

Akeley, K. 1993 RealityEngine Graphics. Paper submitted to SIGGRAPH.


Badler, N.I., B.L. Webber, J.K. Kalita, and J. Esakov 1991 Animation from instructions. Pp. 51-93 in N.I. Badler, B.A. Barsky, and D. Zeltzer, eds., Making Them Move: Mechanics, Control, and Animation of Articulated Figures. San Mateo, Calif.: Morgan-Kaufmann.

Badler, N.I., C. Phillips, and B.L. Webber 1993 Simulating Humans: Computer Graphics, Animation, and Control. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

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Baraff, D., and A. Witkin 1992 Dynamic simulation of non-penetrating flexible bodies. Computer Graphics 26:303-308. (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 1992.)

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Beckett, W., and N. Badler 1993 Integrated Behavioral Agent Architecture. Proceedings of the Workshop on Computer Generated Forces and Behavior Representation, Orlando, Fla.

Bhargava, H.K., and W.C. Branley, Jr. 1993 What would Agax have observed? Or, introducing imperfections in the belief systems of autonomous agents. Proceedings of the Twenty-sixth Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences Vol. III, January, Kauai, Hawaii. (Los Alamitos, Calif: IEEE Computer Society Press.)

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1995. Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4761.
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Blanchard, C., S. Burgess, Y. Harvill, J. Lanier, A. Lasko, M. Oberman, and M. Teitel 1990 Reality built for two: A virtual reality toolkit. Computer Graphics 24(2):35-36.

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Brooks, R.A. 1989 The whole iguana. Pp. 432-456 in M. Brady, ed., Robotics Science. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Bryson, S.

1992a Paradigms for the shaping of surfaces in a virtual environment. Proceedings of HICSS, Kauai, Hawaii.

1992b Virtual space-time. In Proceedings of Visualization 92, Boston.

Bryson, S., and M. Gerald-Yamasaki 1992 The distributed virtual wind tunnel. In Proceedings of Supercomputing, Minneapolis, Minn.

Bryson, S., and C. Levit 1992 Virtual wind tunnel: An environment for the exploration of three dimensional unsteady flows. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 12(4):25-34.

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Celniker, G., and D. Gossard 1992 Deformable curve and surface finite elements for free-form shape design. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 25(4):257-66.

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Cohen, M.F. 1992 Interactive space-time control for animation. In IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation 26(2):293-303.

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DeHaemer, M.J., Jr., and M.J. Zyda 1991 Simplification of objects rendered by polygonal approximations. Computers and Graphics 15(2):175-184.

de Mey, V., and S. Gibbs 1993 A multimedia testbed. In Proceedings of ACM Multimedia, Anaheim, Calif.


Ellis, S.R., M.K. Kaiser, and A.J. Grunwald, eds. 1991 Pictorial Communication in Virtual and Real Environments. London: Taylor and Francis.

Esakov, J., and N.I. Badler 1991 An architecture for high-level human task animation control. In P.A. Fishwick and R.B. Modjeski, eds., Knowledge-Based Simulation. New York: Springer-Verlag.


Fisher, S.S., M. McGreevy, J. Humphries, and W. Robinett 1986 Virtual environment display system. Pp. 77-87 of Proceedings ACM Workshop on Interactive Graphics.

Ford, L. 1985 Intelligent computer aided instruction. Pp. 106-126 in M.Y.a.A. Narayanan, ed., Artificial Intelligence: Human Effects. New York: Wiley Halsted Press.

Frisch, U., D. d'Homieres, B. Hasslacher, P. Lallemand, Y. Pomeau, and J.-P. Rivet 1987 Lattice gas hydrodynamics in two and three dimensions. Complex Systems 1:649-701.

Fuchs, H., J. Goldfeather, J. Hultquist, S. Spach, J. Austin, F. Brooks, J. Eyles, and J. Poulton 1985 Fast spheres, shadows, textures, transparencies, and image enhancements in pixel planes. Pp. 111-120 in SIGGRAPH '89 23(3).

Fuchs, H., J. Poulton, J. Eyles, T. Greer, J. Goldfeather, D. Ellsworth, S. Molnar, G. Turk, B. Tebbs, and L. Israel 1989 Pixel planes 5: A heterogeneous multiprocessor graphics system using processor-enhanced memories. Pp. 79-88 in SIGGRAPH '89 23(3).

Fuchs, H., G. Bishop, K. Arthur, L. McMillan, R. Bajcsy, S.W. Lee, H. Farid, and T. Kanade 1994 Virtual space teleconferencing using a sea of cameras. Robotic Applications in Telemedicine, September.

Funkhouser, T.A., C.H. Sequin, and S. Teller 1992 Management of large amounts of data in interactive building walk-throughs. P. 11 of Proceedings of the Computer Graphics Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics.


Geib, C. 1993 A consequence of incorporating intentions in means-end planning. AAAI Spring Symposium Series, Foundations of Automatic Planning: The Classical Approach and Beyond, Stanford, Calif.


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Held, R., and N. Durlach 1991 Telepresence, time delay, and adaptation. In S.R. Ellis, M.K. Kaiser, and A.C. Grunwald, eds., Pictorial Communication in Real and Virtual Environments. Bristol, Penn.: Taylor and Francis.

Holloway, R., H. Fuchs, and W. Robinett 1992 Virtual-worlds research at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Course notes, Course #9: Implementation of Immersive Virtual Environments, SIGGRAPH '92, Chicago, July.

Jacoby, R.H. 1992 Using virtual menus in a virtual environment. Proceedings of the Symposium on Electronic Imaging Science and Technology, Vol. 1668. International Society for Optical Engineering/Society for Imaging Science and Technology .


Kramer, G. 1992 Some organizing principles for representing data with sound. In G. Kramer, ed., Auditory Display: Proceedings of ICAD '92, First International Conference on Auditory Display. SFI Studies in the Sciences of Complexity, Proceedings Volume 18. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley.


Lin, M.C., and F.C. Canney 1992 Efficient Collision Detection for Animation. Proceedings of the Third Eurographics Workshop on Animation and Simulation. Cambridge, England: Eurographics Workshop on Animation and Simulation.


Maes, P. 1990 Situated agents can have goals. Journal of Robotics and Autonomous Systems 6(1&2):49-70.

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1991 Complex models for animating synthetic actors. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 11(5):32-44.

Maiocchi, R., and B. Pernici 1990 Directing an animated scene with autonomous actors. Pp. 41-60 in N. Magnenat-Thalmann and D. Thalmann, eds., Computer Animation. Tokyo, Japan: Springer-Verlag.

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Metaxas, D. 1992 Physics-Based Modeling of Nonrigid Objects for Vision and Graphics. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto.

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Metaxas, D., and D. Terzopoulos 1992a Dynamic deformation of solid primitives with constraints. Computer Graphics 26(2):309-312.

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1992b Flexible multibody dynamics techniques for shape and nonrigid motion estimation and synthesis. Pp. 147-155 in Proceedings of ASME Symposium on the Dynamics and Control of Flexible Multibody Systems, Anaheim, Calif.

1993 Shape and nonrigid motional estimation through physics-based synthesis. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 15(6):580-591.

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Molnar, S., J. Eyles, and J. Poulton 1992 PixelFlow: High-speed rendering using image composition. Pp. 231-240 in SIGGRAPH '92 26(2).

Moore, M., and J. Wilhelms 1988 Collision detection and response for computer animation. Computer Graphics 22:289-298.

Ohya, J., Y Kitamura, H. Takemura, F. Kishino, and N. Terashima 1993 Real-time reproduction of 3D human images in virtual space teleconferencing. Pp. 408-414 in IEEE Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium, September 18-22.


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Platt, J., and A. Barr 1988 Constraint methods for flexible models. Computer Graphics 22:279-288.


Raibert, M.H., and J.K. Hodgkins 1992 Animation of dynamic legged locomotion. Computer Graphics 25(4)349-58.

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Robinett, W., and R. Holloway 1992 Implementation of flying, scaling and grabbing in virtual worlds. Computer Graphics 26(3):189.


Schroeder, P., and D. Zeltzer 1990 The virtual erector set: Dynamic simulation with linear recursive constraint propagation. Computer Graphics 24(2):23-32.

Schroeder, W.J., J.A. Zarge, and W.E. Lorensen 1992 Decimation of triangle meshes. Computer Graphics 26(2):65-69.

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Snibbe, S.S., K.P. Herndon, D.C. Robbins, D.B. Conner, and A. van Dam 1992 Using deformations to explore 3D widget design. Pp. 351-352 in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH '92, Chicago, Ill.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1995. Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4761.
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Szeliski, R., and D. Tonnesen 1992 Surface modeling with oriented particle systems. Computer Graphics 26(2):185-94.

Teller, S.J., and C.H. Sequin 1991 Visibility preprocessing for interactive walkthroughs. Computer Graphics 25(4):61-69.

Terzopoulos, D., and D. Metaxas 1991 Dynamic 3D models with local and global deformations: Deformable superquadrics. IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 13(7):703-714.

Toffoli, T. 1983 Cellular automata as an alternative to differential equations in modeling physics. Interdisciplinary Workshop, Los Alamos, N.M. March. p. 117.

Turk, G. 1992 Retiling polygonal surfaces. Computer Graphics 26(2):55-64.


Van de Panne, M., E. Fiume, and Z. Vranesic 1990 Reusable motion synthesis using state-space controllers. Computer Graphics 24(4):225-234.


Webber, B., N. Badler, F.B. Baldwin, W. Becket, B. DiEugenio, C. Geib, M. Jung, L. Levison, M. Moore, and M. White 1993 Doing what you're told: Following task instructions in changing, but hospitable environments. Submitted to AI Journal.

Welch, W., and A. Witkin 1992 Variational surface modeling. Computer Graphics 26(2):157-166.

Wilson, K., M. Zyda, and D. Pratt 1992 NPSGDL: An object oriented graphics description language for virtual world appplication support. In Proceedings of the Third Eurographics Workshop on Object-Oriented Graphics, Champery, Switzerland.

Witkin, A., M. Gleicher, and W. Welch 1990 Interactive dynamics. Computer Graphics 2:11-24.

Witkin, A., and M. Kass 1988 Space-time constraints, computer graphics. Computer Graphics 22:159-168.

Witkin, A., and W. Welch 1990 Fast animation and control of nonrigid structures. Computer Graphics 24(4):243-252.


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Zyda, M.J., J.G. Monahan, and D.R. Pratt 1992 NPSNET: Physically-based modeling enhancements to an object file format. Pp. 35-52 in Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann and Daniel Thalmann, eds., Creating and Animating the Virtual World. Tokyo, Japan: Springer-Verlag.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1995. Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4761.
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Zyda, M.J., K.P. Wilson, D.R. Pratt, J.G. Monahan, and J.S. Falby 1993a NPSOFF: An object description language for supporting virtual world construction. Computers and Graphics 17(4):457-464.

Zyda, M.J., D.R. Pratt, W.D. Osborne, and J.G. Monahan 1993b NPSNET: Real-time collision detection and response. The Journal of Visualization and Computer Animation 4(1):13-24.

CHAPTER 9: TELEROBOTICS

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CHAPTER 11: EVALUATION OF SYNTHETIC ENVIRONMENT SYSTEMS

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Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges Get This Book
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Despite widespread interest in virtual reality, research and development efforts in synthetic environments (SE)--the field encompassing virtual environments, teleoperation, and hybrids--have remained fragmented.

Virtual Reality is the first integrated treatment of the topic, presenting current knowledge along with thought-provoking vignettes about a future where SE is commonplace.

This volume discusses all aspects of creating a system that will allow human operators to see, hear, smell, taste, move about, give commands, respond to conditions, and manipulate objects effectively in a real or virtual environment. The committee of computer scientists, engineers, and psychologists on the leading edge of SE development explores the potential applications of SE in the areas of manufacturing, medicine, education, training, scientific visualization, and teleoperation in hazardous environments.

The committee also offers recommendations for development of improved SE technology, needed studies of human behavior and evaluation of SE systems, and government policy and infrastructure.

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