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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4761.
×

Index

A

Abdominal simulators and models, 397, 398, 400, 401

Acoustetron, 148

Acoustic trackers, 51, 199-200, 203

Actuators, 6, 63, 80, 81, 310-313

Adaptation and readaptation, 43-44, 71, 102, 103, 104, 112, 143-144, 147-148, 159, 207, 219

Additive synthesis, 154-155

Adoptive Control of Thought (ACT) theory, 106

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), 235, 363, 385, 390

Advanced Technology Program, 84

Advanced Unmanned Search System (AUSS), 323

Aerospace applications, 389, 392-395, 435

Airline Travel Information Service (ATIS), 235-236

American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 366

American Textile Partnership (AMTEX), 390

Anatomical modeling, 38, 69-70, 395, 396-397, 398-399, 400-401, 404-405

Anchored instruction, 424n, 429, 431

Apparel CIM Center, 391

Applications, 3-4, 15, 35-37, 68-71, 381-385.

See also Defense applications;

Design, manufacturing, and marketing;

Education applications;

Entertainment and games;

Hazardous operations;

Information visualization;

Medical and health care applications;

Scientific visualization;

Telecommunications;

Teletravel;

Training applications

Architectural visualization, 57, 251, 271, 388, 389

aerospace applications, 394-395

for disabled persons, 403-404

Argonne National Laboratory, 176, 406

Argo submersible vehicle, 412

Arm movements, 188-189, 209-210

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4761.
×

Artistic expression, 382, 383-384

Ascension Bird sensor, 193, 194

Astrophysics, 436

Asynchronous mode technology (ATM), 364, 367

Atomic force microscopes (AFMs), 313

AT&T, 175, 364, 365, 439

Attitudes, 45, 108, 109

Auditory channel, 23, 46, 48-50, 79, 80, 82, 134-144, 248, 249

in anatomical modeling, 70

in augmented-reality systems, 145, 153

display and hardware, 23, 47, 48-49, 134, 136-137, 141, 144-153, 159

information transfer rates, 96, 135-136

movement and directional cues, 214, 225-226, 229, 442

resolution, 94, 135

scene analysis, 50, 141-143

and sensory substitution, 50, 95, 100, 143-144, 159

synthetic display, 49, 50, 153-159, 160

in training applications, 415

Augmented-reality systems, 2, 19-21, 95, 145, 153, 432

image registration and alignment, 5, 15, 48, 74, 75, 79, 404

medical applications, 38, 397, 398-399, 400-401, 404, 436

in production line, 37, 393-394

software, 5, 60, 79, 275-276, 295-296

AutoCAD, 273

AutoDesk Cyberspace project, 426-427

Automobile industry, 389-390, 394

Autonomic nervous system, 240-243

Autonomous agents, 5, 22, 60, 77, 79-80, 281-286, 413

in teleoperations, 306, 354, 361

AUTOSEVOCOM network, 439

Autostereoscopic displays, 121, 124-128, 132

B

Behavioral therapy, 404

Binocular vision, 118

Biocybernetic controllers, 402

Boeing, 392, 393-394

BOOM viewers, 130, 132, 192

Boston Computer Museum, 426

Brain activity, 243-245

Bulk transport, 411-412

Bulletin board systems, 427

C

CAD, see Computer-aided design

CAE Electronics, 128

CAM, see Computer-aided manufacturing

Canada, 355, 383, 408, 417

Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), 324

Cathode ray tubes (CRTs), 122, 123, 124, 132

CAVE display system, 152-153, 428, 442

Celesco Transducer Products, 200

Charged-couple device (CCD) arrays, 194, 197, 204

Children's Hospital, Boston, 403

Chrysler Corp., 389

CIM, see Computer-integrated manufacturing

Circuit design, 436, 440

Circular vection, 213

Clean-room operations, 408

Coding systems, 96-97

Cognitive function, 99, 243

Cognitive models, 4, 44-45, 71, 72, 93, 99, 105-107, 110

training applications, 45, 71, 106, 110, 418-419

Collaboration, 97

in design and manufacturing, 387, 388, 389, 392, 393, 437

distributed, 42, 437-441

interdisciplinary, 13-14, 65, 85-86, 375

learning, 425

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4761.
×

Collision, 156-157, 185, 326-328, 394, 407

Color Sim Eye, 129

Comfort, see Ergonomics and comfort issues

Communications, see Networks and distributed systems;

Telecommunications

Competition and market forces, 8-9, 86, 88

Compression algorithms, 256-257

Computer-aided design (CAD), 59, 273, 295, 384, 387

aerospace, 392-394

Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), 37, 387

Computer-assisted tomography (CT), 397, 400

Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM), 387, 391

Computers, see Hardware technologies;

Software

Concurrent model, 259

Consortia, 64, 389-390

Constructionism, 424-425

Continuous motion illusion, 94-95

Contrast sensitivity function (CSF), 117-118

Convolvotron, 148, 149

Coriolis forces, 208, 209, 210, 221

Cost-effectiveness, 36, 37, 65, 67, 374, 375

educational applications, 41, 429-430

and human performance characteristics, 43, 94, 110

medical applications, 405

teleoperator systems, 39, 412-413

training applications, 40, 70, 415, 416, 422

Crossover model, 98

Cruise missiles, 411

CURV remote vehicle, 412

CyberFace, 128, 129, 130

D

DataGlove, 177, 242, 314, 403-404, 463

DataSuit, 177, 403

Decision-making, 432

modeling, 45, 98-99

Defense applications, 36, 73, 87, 128-129, 382, 384-385

networks, 36, 63-64, 83, 363, 369-370, 385, 439

teleoperator systems, 36, 305, 320-321, 384, 411, 438

Defense Simulation Internet, 363, 370

Definitions, see Terminology and definitions

Deleterious effects, see Motion sickness;

Psychological issues, side effects;

Sopite syndrome

Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA), 390

Department of Defense (DOD), 87, 320, 363, 384-385

Department of Energy (DOE), 86, 87, 390, 406

Depth perception, 118, 119-120

Design, manufacturing, and marketing, 3, 37-38, 68, 384, 387-395

collaboration and data sharing, 387, 388, 389, 392, 393, 437

shopping vignette, 26-28

see also Aerospace applications;

Production lines;

Prototypes;

Textile industry

Dextrous Arm, 309, 312

Dextrous Hand, 177, 242, 313, 314, 315

Dextrous Teleoperation System Master, 176

Disability and rehabilitation, 38-39, 100, 402-404

education applications, 107, 431n

physiological interfaces, 239, 242, 245, 402-403

psychological, 39, 404

tactile communication aids, 169, 177

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4761.
×

Discomfort, see Ergonomics and comfort issues

Displays, see Auditory channel;

Force-feedback display systems;

Graphical displays and imaging;

Haptic channel;

Head-mounted display systems;

Off-head displays;

See-through displays;

Spatial display and resolution;

Tactile information and feedback;

Visual channel

Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS), 64, 385

Distributed systems, see Networks and distributed systems

Dynamic time warping (DTW), 232-233

E

Earphones, 23, 47, 49, 138-139, 145-149

Education applications, 3-4, 40-41, 68-69, 423-432

cognitive modeling, 45, 71, 110

in entertainment domain, 41, 69, 107, 423, 427, 430, 431

medical, 69-70, 395, 396-397

networks, 40, 69, 107, 425-426, 438

research agenda, 430-432

vignette, 28-32

see also Training applications

Electrochromic polymers, 124

Electrodermal activity (EDA), 242-243

Electromagnetic sensors, 317

Electromyography (EMG), 242

Electronic Visualization Laboratory, 152, 436

Electrostatic actuators, 312

Electrotactile displays, 177

Emotional response, 240-241

Emu Morpheus Synthesizer, 158

Endoscopy, 398, 399

Engineering applications, 387, 394, 434-435

Enhancing distortions, 44, 48, 71, 93, 103, 119-120, 409

Entertainment and games, 3, 4, 15, 35-36, 46, 67, 381, 382-383

education applications, 41, 69, 107, 423, 427, 430, 431

networks, 63, 88, 363, 365, 372, 383

role-playing, 45, 109, 427, 431

violence in, 45, 109, 383

Ergonomics and comfort issues, 3, 47, 67, 94, 110, 239-240

haptic interfaces, 175-176, 186

head-mounted displays, 47, 73, 104-105, 121, 131, 437

Ethernet, 64, 366

Europe, 16, 383

Evaluation and testing, 7, 65-66, 83-84, 373-378

cost-effectiveness, 37, 65, 374, 375

interfaces, 75, 375, 376-378

position-tracking devices, 204

standardization, 7, 83, 84, 378

teleoperations, 337-338, 345-346

training applications, 70, 374, 375, 415, 416, 420, 421-422

Evans & Sutherland, 299, 302

Event-driven model, 258-259

Event-related potentials (ERPs), 243

EXOS, 177, 242, 314

Exoskeleton, 52, 172, 173-174, 176-177, 178, 180

Explosive ordnance disposal, 411

EYEGEN3, 129

EyePhone, 128, 129, 417

Eyes, see Visual channel

F

Facilities design, see Production lines

Fake Space labs, 128, 130, 192

Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET), 387-388

Federal research and development, 8, 16, 76-77, 79, 86-87, 381-382

Fiber Channel, 367

Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI), 64-65, 366

Fidelity, 45, 376, 419, 421

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4761.
×

Field of view, 73, 117, 121, 132

Firefighting and fire rescue, 246, 410-411, 413, 420-421

Fixation point, 112, 113

Flicker, 117

Flight simulators, 210, 220-222, 251, 271-272, 414, 416, 420

Force-feedback display systems, 16, 23-24, 52-53, 172, 173-176, 178, 184, 394, 436

sensory substitution in, 100

in teleoperator systems, 332, 333-334, 355-356, 409

tracking in, 189, 193

Ford Motor Co., 389

Fovea, 48, 112, 114, 115

Frame rates, 57, 117, 249-250, 287-288

Freedom graphics hardware, 299, 302

Frequency modulation (FM), 155, 157

Functional fidelity, 419

G

Galvanic skin reflex (GSR), 242

Games, see Entertainment and games

GAMS tracker, 199-200

General Electric, 128

General Motors, 389

General relativity, 435-436

Geometric modeling, 273-275, 294-295

Georgia Institute of Technology, 404

Germany, 16, 408, 409

Glasses, see Head-mounted display systems

Gloves, 52, 177, 180, 191-193, 199, 417, 421

DataGlove, 177, 242, 314, 403-404, 463

Goniometers, 51, 191-192, 202

Government policy and infrastructure, 8-9, 84-88

GP8-3D tracker, 199, 200

Graphical displays and imaging, 42, 56, 77, 111, 249-250

hardware, 57-58, 251-261, 296-303, 394, 430

medical applications, 38, 395, 398, 404

in teleoperation systems, 81-82, 344-345, 407, 409

see also Augmented-reality systems;

Information visualization

Graphics, Visualization, and Usability Center, 404

Graphic user interface (GUI), 264, 265, 266

Greenleaf Medical Systems, 403

Green Telepresence system, 401-402

GROPE project, 176, 436

Ground-based linkage devices, 51, 52, 173-174, 175-176, 192-193, 203

in robotics, 309

Gustatory channel, 23, 55, 245

GyroChip, 200

GyroEngine, 200

H

Hand tracking, 188-189, 192, 193, 266-267

Haptic channel, 5, 16, 23, 46, 52-53, 72, 74, 161-174, 248-249

hand and arm tracking, 188-189, 192, 193, 266-267

hardware development, 53, 174-177, 180-182, 184-185, 186, 394

illusions, 95, 166, 209

information transfer rates, 96-97

in medical applications, 70, 398, 399, 404

sensorimotor resolution, 94, 177

and sensory substitution, 100, 186

software development, 53, 79, 80, 178-180, 185

in telecommunications, 42

teleoperator systems, 52, 62, 81, 176, 177, 179-180, 189, 304, 305, 315-317, 345

see also Augmented-reality systems;

Information visualization

Hardware technologies, 3, 5, 57-58, 67, 75-76, 251-261, 289-290

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4761.
×

auditory channel, 23, 47, 48-49, 134, 136-137, 141, 144-153, 159

computation and data management capability, 254-260, 290

graphics, 57-58, 251-261, 296-303, 394, 430

haptic, 53, 174-177, 180-182, 184-185, 186, 394

networks, 367, 370-371

telerobotics, 6, 62-63, 80-81, 349-353, 359-360

training applications, 415, 421

Hazardous operations, 39, 100, 405-412

research agenda, 3, 68, 412-413

telerobotics, 4, 39, 46, 102, 304, 305, 381, 405-413, 438, 441

see also Firefighting and fire rescue;

Security applications;

Space applications;

Underwater applications

Hazardous waste disposal, 406-407

Head-mounted display (HMD) systems, 23, 47-48, 73, 104, 120-121, 123, 128-130, 131, 426

auditory, 23, 47, 49, 138-139, 145-149

in augmented-reality systems, 47, 73, 121, 393, 394, 397

comfort issues, 47, 73, 104-105, 121, 131, 437

in entertainment, 35-36, 47, 73

ergonomics issues, 47, 73, 104-105, 121, 131, 437

and motion sickness, 208-209, 215

in scientific visualization, 436, 437

see-through glasses, 47, 73, 119, 440, 441, 442

Head movement and tracking, 47, 59, 121, 131, 151, 189-190, 193, 201, 207-209, 912

Head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), 147-148, 159

Health care, see Medical and health care applications;

Telemedicine

Heat, 55, 245, 246

Heavy machinery, 305, 409

HELIOS, 353

Hidden Markov modeling (HMM), 232-233, 234, 235, 236-237

High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) program, 15, 64, 84, 364-365

High-performance parallel interface (HPPI), 366-367

Holographic displays, 124, 125, 127-128

Hubbell telescope, 420

Human Interface Technology (HIT) Laboratory, 124, 426

Human-machine interface, 1, 4-5, 21, 46-47, 72-75

in production lines, 389

in rehabilitation systems, 38-39, 402-403

in teleoperator systems, 17-18, 21-22, 305-307, 329-330

in virtual environment systems, 2, 18, 21-22

see also Auditory channel;

Gloves;

Haptic channel;

Head-mounted display systems;

Locomotion interfaces;

Multimodal interfaces;

Off-head displays;

Visual channel

Human operator models, 43, 97-100

Human performance characteristics, 3, 15, 43, 65, 67, 375, 376-378, 392, 393

information transfer rates, 43, 95-97

manual control, 43, 93, 97-99

research needs, 4, 71, 110, 422

sensorimotor resolution, 43, 94-95, 99-100, 104

see also Illusions;

Sensorimotor loop alterations

Humidity, 55, 245

Hydraulic actuators, 312

Hypermedia integration, 61, 286-287

I

IC Sensors, 200

Identical elements, 418

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4761.
×

Illusions, 43, 94-95, 264

haptic channel, 95, 166, 209

whole-body motion, 95, 206-207, 213-215

Imaging, see Augmented-reality systems;

Graphical displays and imaging;

Information visualization

Incarceration, 43, 441

Inertial tracking, 51, 74, 200-201, 203-204

Information transfer rates, 43, 95-97

auditory channel, 96, 135-136

visual channel, 96, 112

Information visualization, 3, 4, 41-42, 68, 69, 251, 254, 256, 384, 432-433

cognitive modeling, 45, 71, 110

scientific, 42, 45, 433-437

Infrared light emitting diodes (IREDS), 194, 195

Integrated Services Local Area Network Interface, 65

Intel Corporation, 426

Intelligent tutors, 106, 282

Interdisciplinary cooperation, 13-14, 65, 85-86, 375

and communication difficulties, 2, 14, 17, 86

Interface, see Force-feedback display systems;

Human-machine interface;

Locomotion interfaces

Interior design, 388, 389

International competition, 15-17, 390

Internet, 64, 364, 365, 368, 427

J

Japan, 16-17, 128, 176, 383, 408

Jason remote vehicle, 412, 425-426

Joints, 165-167, 171, 191-192, 202

robotic, 6, 81, 308-310, 314-316, 360

Joysticks, 23, 52, 172, 173, 175-176, 180

K

Kaiser Electronics, 128, 129

KEMAR mannequin, 148

Kinematics, 308-310

Kinesthetics and proprioception, 100, 163-164, 165-167, 170, 171, 226-227

Knowledge, see Cognitive models

Kopin, Inc., 123-124

L

Laparoscopic surgery, 38, 398, 400

Laser interferometers, 198-199, 203

Laser radar (LADAR), 194, 197-198, 203, 327

Laser scanning, 60, 124, 194, 196-199, 203, 274, 295

Learning, see Cognitive models;

Education applications;

Training applications

LEEP Optics Systems, 128, 130

Lenticular displays, 124-125

Libraries and data bases, 85, 261-262, 362, 399

Limb position and motion, 99, 165-167, 171, 202

Linear operator models, 98

Linear vection, 213-214

Link Trainer, 414

Liquid crystal displays (LCDs), 122, 123, 124

Loading equipment, 409, 411-412

Local-area networks (LANs), 64-65, 366-367

Locomotion interfaces, 5, 54-55, 72, 74, 205, 206, 211-212, 223-224, 228-229

Loma Linda University Medical Center, 402, 403

Loudspeakers, 49, 145, 151-153

Lunakhod lunar rover, 407-408

Lunar operations, 407-408

M

Magnetic bearings and levitation, 311-312

Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), 245

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4761.
×

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 243, 244-245, 397, 400

Magnetic tracking, 51, 193-194, 203

Magnification, 44, 103, 116-117, 144

Manipulation, 52, 162-163, 172, 207

Manipulators, robotic, 20, 307-317, 347-348, 406, 407, 408, 409-410, 413, 436

Manual control and tracking, 43, 93, 97-101

Manufacturing, see Design, manufacturing, and marketing

Marker systems, 194-195

Marketing, see Design, manufacturing, and marketing

Massachusetts General Hospital, 245

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 123, 127, 128, 175, 176, 178, 201

Measurement Systems Inc., 175

Mechatronics, 334

Medical and health care applications, 38-39, 395-405

accreditation, 399-400

computational models, 85

imaging, 38, 395, 397, 398, 398-399, 400-401, 404, 436

planning, 400

research agenda, 3, 68, 69-70, 404-405

training, 38, 69-70, 395, 396-400, 414, 416

see also Disability and rehabilitation;

Telemedicine

Medical College of Georgia, 401

Merged display effects, 73, 95

Meta-modeling, 78

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), 6, 63, 180, 185, 312-313

Microrobotics, 63, 80, 81, 176, 312-313, 402

MIDI (musical instrument digital interface) technology, 157, 158

Military uses, see Defense applications

Millimeter wave (MMW) radar, 326-327

Mining applications, 409, 413

Mobile Detection Assessment and Response System (MDARS), 322-323

Mobile robots, 317-330, 406

Mock-ups, see Prototypes;

Simulator systems

Modeling software, 5, 59-60, 77, 78, 85, 272-281, 294-296, 369

Molecular modeling, 436

MOOs (MUD, object-oriented), 427

Motion blur, 113

Motion sickness, 94, 103, 104, 110, 121, 206, 207-209, 215-220, 229-230

Motivation, 107-108, 424, 429

MUDs (multi-user dungeons), 109, 427

Muller-Lyer illusion, 95

Multiaxis high-resolution tactile sensors, 6, 80, 80-81, 359

Multimedia, see Hypermedia integration

Multimodal interfaces, 3, 37, 53, 67, 71, 72, 76, 77, 78, 82, 133, 247-249, 287-289

merged display effects, 73, 95

modeling of, 179-181, 185

in telerobotics, 61

MUSE (multi-user simulation environment), 427

Music, 135-136, 154, 157-158

N

Nanomanipulator, 436

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 64, 87, 128, 140, 222, 362, 401, 420, 427

National Board of Medical Examiners, 400

National Center for Supercomputing Applications, 428, 436

National Council for Teachers of Mathematics, 431

National defense, see Defense applications

National information infrastructure, 8, 84-85

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4761.
×

National Institute of Standards and Technology, 84

National Institutes of Health, 244, 396

National Research and Education Network (NREN), 64, 364-365, 366-367

National Science and Technology Council, 84

National standards and regulations, 8, 87-88

National Television Standard Code (NTSC), 129

Naval Ocean Systems Center, 128, 176

Navigation, 5, 59, 77, 79, 267-272, 293-294, 324-326

Navlab, 324

Negative transfer, 418, 420

Networks and distributed systems, 15, 63-65, 362-363

collaborative, 42, 384, 437-441, 439, 440-441

defense applications, 36, 63-64, 83, 363, 369-370, 385, 439

education applications, 40, 69, 107, 425, 425-426, 438

entertainment, 63, 88, 363, 365, 372, 383

hardware, 367, 370-371

research agenda, 6-7, 82-83, 370-372

software, 64, 369-370, 371-372

standards, 7, 64, 65, 82, 82-83, 364, 366, 368, 372

telerobotics, 6, 62, 63, 64, 80, 81-82

vignette, 32-33

see also Telemedicine

Neural stimulation, 56, 239

Noise, see Signal variation and noise

Nonanthropomorphic robots, 44, 71, 93, 103

Northern Digital, 195

NPSNET system, 274, 284-286, 370, 371

Nuclear power facilities, 406, 416, 441

Nuclear waste disposal, 406

O

Ocean, see Underwater applications

Odetics 3D Laser Imaging System, 198

Off-ground environments, 409-410

Off-head displays (OHDs), 47-48, 49, 73, 104, 120, 121-122, 130, 131, 132, 151-153

Off-shore oil operations, 412

Olfactory channel, 23, 55, 245, 246

Open-system environment, 79

Operating systems, 61, 77, 78-79, 291-292

telerobotics, 353-354

Optical technologies, 51, 60, 74, 75, 124, 194-199, 203, 274, 295, 317.

See also Visual channel

Optic nerve model, 396-397

Optimal control model, 98

Optotrak, 195-196

Orientation (body), 212-213

P

Pacific Science Center, 426

Packet switching, 363, 365, 371

Parallax barrier displays, 124-126

Parallel computing, 58, 257-258, 260, 290

in teleoperations, 81-82, 351-353, 358

Paramount Communication, 383

Passive stereo vision systems, 194

Patient counseling, 38, 69, 70

PER-Force hand controller, 176

Personal computers (PCs), 260-261, 350-351

PHANTOM interface device, 176, 178

Photodiodes, 194, 195

Physical fidelity, 419

Physiological responses and interfaces, 56, 75, 99, 239-245

PixelFlow, 299, 302-303

Pixel Planes, 299, 302

Play facilities, 41, 404, 427

Pneumatic actuators, 312

Polhemus Fastrak, 193, 246

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4761.
×

Police operations, 411

Polygon flow minimization, 269-272

Polygon processing, 58

Position mapping, 50, 190, 262-264, 392

Position-sensing detectors (PSDs), 194, 195

Position-tracking systems, 5, 50-51, 59, 74-75, 188-204, 262-263

acoustic, 51, 199-200, 203

in augmented-reality production line, 394

eye movements, 48, 51-52, 112-113, 115, 117, 132, 189, 201, 204

head movements, 47, 121, 131, 151, 189-190, 193, 201, 912

inertial, 51, 74, 200-201, 203-204

magnetic, 51, 193-194, 203

mechanical, 51, 74, 190-193, 202-203

optical sensing, 51, 74, 75, 194-199, 203

in teleoperation systems, 62, 411-412

Positron emission tomography (PET), 243, 244-245

Power line maintenance, 409-410

Predictive displays, 6, 19, 80, 355-356, 371, 408-409

Production lines, 388, 389-390

augmented-reality systems, 37, 393-394

textile industry, 391

Proprioception, see Kinesthetics and proprioception

Prostheses, 242

Prototypes, 37-38, 388-389

aerospace, 392-395

Psychological issues, 4, 40, 43-46, 71-72, 93-110

side effects, 4, 33-35, 45-46, 66, 71, 72, 108-109, 110, 377-378

see also Cognitive models;

Human performance characteristics;

Motivation;

Sensorimotor loop alterations

Public opinion and support, 84-85

educational applications, 41, 430

hazardous operations applications, 39

medical applications, 405

Pupil dilation, 241, 243

Pursuit tracking, 98, 99

R

Rasterization, 253-254

Reality Built for Two (RB2) system, 274, 402

RealityEngine (RE2), 58, 254, 298-301

Real-time interaction, 2, 18, 77, 250, 254-260, 408, 434-435

haptic interfaces, 78, 185

in teleoperations, 6, 62-63, 80, 346-354, 357-358

Registration and alignment, 5, 15, 48, 74, 75, 79, 275-276, 295-296, 404

Rehabilitation, see Disability and rehabilitation

Remote Manipulator System (RMS), 308, 332, 408, 409

Remote operations, see Teleoperator systems and telerobotics

Representation, simulation, and rendering (RSR) techniques, 272-273

Research agenda, 2-3, 66-68

applications, 3-4, 68-71

computer generation, 5-6, 75-80, 289-296

evaluation, 83-84

human-machine interfaces, 4-5, 72-75

networks, 6-7, 82-83, 370-372

psychological issues, 4, 71-72, 110

telerobotics, 6, 80-82, 354-361

Response bias, 95, 104

Risk tolerance, 108-109

Robotics, see Teleoperator systems and telerobotics

Rockwell International, 392

Rocky III, 322

Role-playing games, 45, 109, 427, 431

ROTEX, 311, 315, 317, 355, 408, 409

Run-time software architecture, 258-260

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4761.
×

S

Sand play, 404

Sarcos, Inc., 176, 309, 312

Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), 313, 436

SCARA robot, 308

Scientific visualization, 42, 45, 433-437

Security applications, 63, 322-323, 411, 441

See-through displays, 20, 47, 73, 117, 119, 404, 440, 441, 442

Self-image, 108-109, 378

Selspot, 195

Sense8, 262, 426

Sensorimotor loop alterations, 43-44, 103-104

adaptation and readaptation, 43-44, 71, 102, 103, 104, 147-148, 159

enhancing distortions, 44, 71, 93, 103

multimodal interfaces, 71, 72

research needs, 4, 71, 72, 110

subjective telepresence, 22, 44, 45, 71, 101-103, 181

technology deficiency and distortions, 44, 71, 94, 103-104, 230

see also Illusions;

Sopite syndrome

Sensors (telerobotic), 6, 17-18, 62-63, 80-81, 313-317, 407, 409, 413

force, 6, 80, 81, 315-316, 317, 360

joint motion and torque, 314-315

navigational, 324-326

proximity, 6, 80, 359

Sensory modeling, 99-100

Sensory substitution, 44, 50, 71, 100-101, 159

auditory, 50, 95, 100, 143-144, 159

haptic channel, 100, 186

Sentry robots, 411

Shape memory alloys (SMAs), 180, 185, 313

Shared workspaces, 440-441

Sherlock computer system, 106

SIGGRAPH conference, 199, 383-384

Signal variation and noise, 43, 44, 48, 77, 95-96, 103-104, 230

haptic channel, 172, 178

Silicon Graphics, 58, 254, 261, 298, 299, 300

SIMNET battle simulation, 63-64, 274, 282, 363, 369-370, 372, 385

Simulation frameworks, 5, 78, 294

Simulation loops, 258

Simulator systems, 2, 14, 22-23

educational applications, 427-428

training applications, 40, 356, 413-414, 415, 416, 420, 421-422

Situated cognition, 424n

Slice-stacking displays, 125, 126-127

Social and ethical issues, 9, 43, 88, 378

Social interaction and influence, 108, 109, 440

Software, 3, 5-6, 67, 76-80, 261, 291-296

augmented-reality systems, 5, 60, 79, 275-276, 295-296

autonomous agents, 5, 22, 60, 77, 79-80, 281-286, 413

communications, 64, 369-370, 371-372

hypermedia integration, 61, 286-287

interaction, 58-59, 261-267, 292-293

modeling, 5, 59-60, 77, 78, 85, 272-281, 294-296, 369

navigation, 5, 59, 77, 79, 267-272, 293-294

operating system, 61, 77, 78-79, 291-292

training applications, 415, 421

Sonet standard, 364

Sonification, 136, 158

Sopite syndrome, 44, 47, 48, 71, 116, 220, 377

Sound, see Auditory channel

Space applications, 87, 308, 332, 354, 362, 407-409

Space Automation/Robotics Consortium, 64

Spatial display and resolution, 37, 44, 94, 116, 265, 426-427

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4761.
×

auditory, 49-50, 137-140, 144, 146-151, 159

tactile, 169-170, 171, 172, 184-185

Spatiotemporal blur, 113

Speech, 75, 96, 135-136, 142

recognition, 55-56, 231, 232-237

synthesis, 20, 55, 56, 154, 231-232, 237-238, 403

SRI International, 401

Standards, 8, 87-88

networks, 7, 64, 65, 82-83, 364, 366, 368, 372

Star Trek game, 383

Statistical variation, see Signal variation and noise

Stereo displays, 48, 117, 119-120, 121, 133, 194, 196, 203, 275, 442

Stereographics Corp., 128, 130

Structured light systems, 196-197

Subtractive synthesis, 155, 156

Supervisory control, 6, 80, 81, 306, 307, 338-346, 354, 413

Surgery

and anatomical modeling, 69-70, 396, 397, 398-399, 400-401, 404

planning, 38, 400-401

training, 25-26, 38, 395, 398-399, 405

Surveyor lunar rover, 407-408

Switched multimegabit data service (SMDS), 364

Sympathetic nervous response, 240

Synthetic environment (SE) systems, definition, 1n, 2, 13, 21

Systron Donner, 200

T

Tactile information and feedback, 99-100, 163-164, 165, 167-171, 177, 179, 180, 184-185, 392

communication aids, 169, 177

robotic sensors, 316-317, 359

see also Force-feedback display systems;

Haptic channel

Technology Academy Program, 426

Technology Innovation Group, 128, 129

Technology Reinvestment Program (TRP), 292

Telecommunications, 3, 4, 42, 43, 68, 69, 437-443

research agenda, 442-443

see also Networks and distributed systems

Telecommuting, 438, 439

Teleconferences, 42, 439, 440, 442

Telemedicine, 38, 395

communication networks, 38, 64, 395, 401, 405, 437-438

surgical applications, 38, 80, 305, 308, 381, 395, 401-402, 405, 437

TeleOperated Vehicle (TOV), 320-321

Teleoperator systems and telerobotics, 6, 14, 21-22, 42-43, 61-63, 304-307, 441-442

autonomous agents, 306, 354, 361

cost-effectiveness, 39, 412-413

defense applications, 36, 305, 320-321, 384, 411, 438

definition, 1-2, 13, 17-19

distributed and networked, 6, 62, 63, 64, 80, 81-82

haptic interfaces, 52, 62, 81, 176, 177, 179-180, 189, 304, 305, 315-317, 345

hardware development, 6, 62-63, 80-81, 349-353, 359-360

in hazardous operations, 4, 39, 46, 102, 304, 305, 381, 405-413, 438, 441

low-level control, 330-338, 347-348

microrobotics, 63, 80, 81, 176, 312-313, 402

nonanthropomorphic models, 44, 71, 93, 103

remote vehicles, 317-330, 406

research agenda, 6, 80-82, 354-361

tracking, 62, 411-412

see also Sensors (telerobotic);

Telemedicine

Telepresence, 22, 44, 45, 71, 101-103, 181, 377

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4761.
×

Teletravel, 3, 4, 42-43, 68, 69, 437-443

and distributed collaboration, 439, 440-441

educational applications, 40, 107, 425-426, 438

Terminology and definitions, 13, 17-24

difficulties with, 2, 14, 17

Testing, see Evaluation and testing

Texas Instruments, 126

Textile industry, 389, 390-392

shopping vignette, 26-28

Time delays, 44, 57, 58, 77-78, 103-104, 250, 288

in auditory channel systems, 140

intermodal, 288

position tracking, 205-206

in scientific visualization, 436-437

in telerobotics, 6, 62, 80, 335-336, 344, 355-356, 408

in visual channel systems, 48, 117-118

Tonic vibration reflex, 214

Tool-handle interfaces, 52, 74, 173, 180-181

Touch, see Force-feedback display systems;

Haptic channel;

Tactile information and feedback

Toxic materials and environments, 406-407

Training applications, 39-40, 87, 384-385, 392, 413-418

cognitive modeling, 45, 71, 106, 110, 418-419

evaluation, 70, 374, 375, 415, 416, 420, 421-422

hazardous operations, 39, 415

medical, 38, 395, 398-400, 414, 416

research agenda, 3, 4, 68, 69, 70-71, 422-423

transfer, 40, 45, 69, 70-71, 385, 417-422

see also Education applications;

Flight simulators

Transport delays, see Time delays

Treadmills, 55, 211, 223-224, 228-229

U

Ultrasonic technology, 199-200, 317, 397, 436

Underground storage facilities, 406-407

Underwater applications, 304, 319, 321, 323, 327-328, 355, 362, 409

educational, 425-426

military, 411

United Technologies, 390

University of Illinois, 152, 428, 436

University of Michigan, 390

University of Minnesota, 417

University of North Carolina (UNC), 128, 176, 290, 299, 302, 389, 397, 436

University of Washington, 128, 426

UNIX, 61, 78, 291, 293, 353, 354, 368, 371

Unmanned Ground Vehicle Program, 320

Update rates, 117, 140, 287-288

User interface, see Ergonomics and comfort issues;

Human-machine interface

V

Variable gravity displays, 222-223

Velocity storage, 218

Vertigo, 212-213

Very large scale integrated (VLSI) technologies, 123, 236

Vestibular displays, 226

Vibration, 169, 170-171, 177, 184

Viking deep-space probe, 408

Violence, 45, 109, 383

Virtex CyberGlove, 177

Virtual actor, 60, 282

see also Autonomous agents

Virtual environment (VE) systems, definition, 1-2, 13, 18-19, 22-23

Virtual reality (VR) systems, definition, 1n, 13

Virtual Research, 128, 129

Virtual Spacetime, 435-436

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4761.
×

Visible Human, 396

Visual channel, 5, 23, 46, 47-48, 57, 70, 72, 73-74, 91, 95, 111-120, 415

ambient system, 115-116

in augmented-reality systems, 48, 95, 117, 118-119

color, 113-114, 392

display resolution and distortion, 47, 48, 57, 73, 94, 113-114, 116-118, 119-120, 132

display technologies, 122-131, 276-281

eye movement and tracking, 48, 51-52, 112-113, 115, 117, 132, 189, 201, 204

in head-mounted displays, 23, 47-48, 73, 120-121

illusions, 94-95, 264

information transfer rates, 96, 112

line of sight, 264

and movement, 213-214, 215, 224-225, 229

and sensory substitution, 50, 100

see also Information visualization

VPL Research, Inc., 128, 129, 158, 177, 274, 314, 396, 402, 403, 417

VxWorks, 353

W

Whole-body motion, 53-54, 55, 205-206

illusions, 95, 206-207, 213-215

inertial displays, 54, 220-222, 228

motion sickness, 215-220

noninertial displays, 54, 224-227

stability, 95, 206-207

see also Locomotion interfaces

Wide-area networks (WAN), 7, 64, 65, 363-365, 405

Windows NT, 61, 78

Wind tunnels, 255-256, 435

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 412

World ToolKit, 262

Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, 128, 148, 222

X

Xerox PARC, 440

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4761.
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Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges Get This Book
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Despite widespread interest in virtual reality, research and development efforts in synthetic environments (SE)--the field encompassing virtual environments, teleoperation, and hybrids--have remained fragmented.

Virtual Reality is the first integrated treatment of the topic, presenting current knowledge along with thought-provoking vignettes about a future where SE is commonplace.

This volume discusses all aspects of creating a system that will allow human operators to see, hear, smell, taste, move about, give commands, respond to conditions, and manipulate objects effectively in a real or virtual environment. The committee of computer scientists, engineers, and psychologists on the leading edge of SE development explores the potential applications of SE in the areas of manufacturing, medicine, education, training, scientific visualization, and teleoperation in hazardous environments.

The committee also offers recommendations for development of improved SE technology, needed studies of human behavior and evaluation of SE systems, and government policy and infrastructure.

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