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Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances (1996)

Chapter: Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
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Appendix B
Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence in the Diet

This appendix is a compilation of all agents classified by IARC as known (1), probable (2A), or possible (2B) human carcinogens, or by the NTP as known or reasonably anticipated to be carcinogenic to humans. The appendix is subdivided into four tables in terms of dietary occurrence as follows:

  • Table B-1: Agents That Might Be Encountered in U.S. Diets
  • Table B-2: Agents Formerly Encountered in U.S. Diets
  • Table B-3: Agents Rarely or Accidentally Encountered in U.S. Diets
  • Table B-4: Agents Unlikely to Have Ever Been Present in U.S. Diets

Caveats and Disclaimers

The classification of these agents as potential carcinogens is based on epidemiological data in only 20% of the cases. In most cases, the classification is based on findings in high-dose animal experiments, usually conducted in more than one species. The IARC 2B classification typically signifies sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from animal studies. Limited evidence in animals, without other highly suggestive data from human or mechanistic studies would not result in a 2B rating. The committee relied on IARC and NTP classifications of potential carcinogens as a means of obtaining a large set of agents of potential concern that have been systematically and rigorously evaluated by the same criteria.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

The carcinogenic risk posed by a substance is a function of its exposure and potency, which in some cases can differ dramatically for different routes of exposure. Listings in this table should not be interpreted as indicating that the actual risk to humans is significant. In some cases, it is possible that there is no risk under the conditions of human exposure. Definitive conclusions regarding human risk are difficult to reach, as discussed in Chapter 5. The primary purpose of this table is to provide a collection of substances that form the basis for the risk comparisons made in Chapter 5.

For the majority of agents listed, the IARC monographs, FDA tabulations, NRC reports, and assistance from several groups provided enough information to unequivocally assign agents to one of the four tables. In a few cases, the assignment of agents to a given table was difficult (e.g., agents with past exposures, several dyes, drugs, and chemical intermediates). For example, before passage of the first Food and Drug Act of 1906, many unevaluated substances, many of them harmful, found their way into the food supply. Table B-2 (Agents Formerly Encountered in U.S. Diets), therefore, covers only the period since 1906. Even today, occurrences of exposure to trace levels of chemical intermediates and dyes used in food packaging are difficult to establish. A food packaging component often can be regarded as an indirect additive. A component is virtually never used in all types of packaging. Constituents that are used in the manufacture of food packaging components are generally present, if at all, as unwanted impurities, typically at very low levels. Also, veterinarians have considerable latitude in prescribing drugs in treating livestock and poultry. Thus, parallel problems are encountered with drug residues and with pesticide residues as well. The number of all these is large, and establishing exposure with any accuracy to a quantitatively minor substance in our complex food supply entails major problems of surveillance, sampling, and analysis.

Inadvertent accidental exposures can be difficult to anticipate or

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
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recognize. The PBB contamination of animal feed and resulting human exposure in Michigan is an obvious case that the committee noted. However, other cases suggest that our assessment of such exposures may be too limited, and thus the list in Table B-3 might well be inappropriately short. These include the use of phenobarbital to increase the metabolic elimination of chlordane in cattle feeding on contaminated pineapple leaves, illegal use of anabolic steroids in European meat production (Daeseleire, 1992), and related precautionary notes of Truhaut et al. (1985).

Td01Estimation

As indicated by the TD01 values listed, the carcinogenic activity of these substances spans at least eight orders of magnitude, and human exposures perhaps even a wider range, starting in some cases at infinitesimal levels. Thus, although TD01 values and related risk numbers present the appearance of accuracy, it is inappropriate in general to treat the results as providing for actual predictions of health risks.

TD01 values are derived from cancer potency or unit risk values available from U.S. EPA or Cal/EPA, using the approximation

TD01 = 0.01 · qhuman

where qhuman is an upper bound estimate of the slope of the cancer dose-response curve in humans. In general, an upper confidence limit on the value qhuman estimates was obtained by fitting the multistage model to dose-response data from animal cancer bioassays, thereby providing a lower confidence limit on the TD01. This procedure included corrections for differences in pharmacokinetics at high and low doses, study length, and animal body size. Time-dependent forms of the multistage model were used for cases of poor survival in some study groups, provided sufficient data were

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

available. In a few cases, the estimate of potency was derived directly from human data. For a large number of agents, potency was derived by systematically applying the data selection criteria of regulatory agents to the Canrcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) of Gold and colleagues. These criteria have been described by Hoover et al. (1995) and Cal/EPA (1992) and are highlighted below:

  • Data sets showing statistically significant dose-related increases in cancer incidence were used, unless the CPDB indicated that the authors considered the results unrelated to exposure to the carcinogen.
  • Data sets were excluded from consideration if the end point was specified as all tumor bearing animals or combined unrelated tumors.
  • When several studies were available, the highest quality study was selected. The quality of the study was judged on the basis of such factors as the numbers of animals, dose selection, duration, etc.
  • Where there were multiple studies of similar quality conducted in the most sensitive species, the geometric mean of potencies derived from these studies was calculated. When both sexes of the same species/strain were tested under the same laboratory conditions, and no other adequate studies were available for that species, the data set for the more sensitive sex was selected.
  • Potency was derived from data sets for malignant tumors, combined malignant and benign tumors, or tumors that would have likely progressed to malignancy.

In a few cases, the committee derived cancer potency values directly from bioassay data using the data selection criteria and techniques described above.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

Table B-1 Agentsa That Might Be Encountered in U.S. Diets

Agent

IARC Classificationb

Occurrencec

TD01d (mg/kg-d)

A-alpha-C (2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole)

2B

N: Derived (cooking)

2.50E-02

Acetaldehyde

2B

N: Constitutive, derived and added. Also S (synthesized for food additive use)

Carcinogenicity by oral route uncertain

Acrylamide

2A

S: Tap water; constituent of food packaging

2.22E-03

Acrylonitrile

2A

S: constituent of food packaging; pesticide

1.00E-02

Aflatoxins

1

N: Acquired (mycotoxin)

 

Aflatoxin B1

1

N: Acquired (mycotoxin)

2.17E-04

Aflatoxin M1

2B

N: Acquired (mycotoxin)

 

Alcoholic beverages

1

N and S

 

p-Aminoazobenzene

2B

S: food color trace impurity

 

4-Aminobiphenyl

1

S: food color impurity

4.76E-04

Amitrole

2B

S: pesticide

1.06E-02

Androgenic (anabolic) steroids

2A

N: Constitutive S: veterinary product and food residue

 

Aramite

2B

S: pesticide

3.33E-01

Arsenic

1

N: Pass-through. Also, indirect additive from tap water and previously through pesticidal use

1.89E-03

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

Agent

IARC Classificationb

Occurrencec

TD01d (mg/kg-d)

Asbestos

1

N: Added through tap water.

Carcinogenicity by oral route uncertain

Atrazine

2B

S: pesticide

 

Benz(a)anthracene

2A

N: Derived (cooking)

5.00E-04

Benzene

1

N: Constitutive; derived (cooking); added (food packaging constituent, tap water)

1.00E-01

Benzidine

1

S: trace food color impurity

2.00E-05

Benzo(b)fluoranthene

2B

N: Derived (cooking); pass-through

5.56E-04

Benzo(j)fluoranthene

2B

N: Derived (cooking); pass-through

1.30E-03

Benzo(k)fluorathene

2B

N: Derived (cooking); pass-through

 

Benzo[a]pyrene

2A

N: Derived (cooking); pass-through

8.33E-04

Beryllium and beryllium compounds

2A

N: Pass-through and added (tap water)

 

Betel quid with tobacco

1

N: Direct

 

Bracken fern

2B

N: Direct; a food

 

Bromodichloromethane

2B

S: In tap water; N: Present in marine microalgae (non-food occurrence)

7.69E-02

1,3-Butadiene

2A

S: Food packaging constituent

5.56E-03

Butylated hydroxyanisole

2B

S: Direct and indirect food additive

5.00E+01

Cadmium and cadmium compounds

1

N: Pass-through and added (tap water)

Carcinogenicity by oral route uncertain

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

Caffeic acid

2B

N: Constitutive

5.88E-01

Captafol

2A

S: pesticide

6.67E-02

Carbon tetrachloride

2B

S: Pesticide; tap water contaminant

5.56E-02

Chlordane

2B

S: pesticide

7.69E-03

Chlordecone (Kepone)

2B

S: pesticide

6.25E-04

Chlorinated paraffins (Ave. chain length C12; approx. 60% chlorine by weight)

2B

S: General industrial use

1.12E-01

-Chlorinated toluenes

2B

S:pesticides

 

Chloroform

2B

S: insecticide; tap water contaminant

3.23E-01

3-Chloro-2-methylpropene

 

S: plastics and pesticides intermediate

7.14E-02

Chlorophenols

2B

S: general industrial use

 

2,4,6-Trichlorophenol

2B

S: pesticide

1.43E-01

p-Chloro-o-toluidine and its strong acid salts

2A

S: pesticide

3.70E-02

Chromium (VI) compounds

1

N: Pass-through and added (tap water)

2.44E-01

Citrus Red No. 2

2B

S: orange skin colorant

 

Cobalt and cobalt compounds

2B

N: Constitutive (essential in B12); pass-through. Also indirect additive

 

Coffee (urinary bladder)

2B

N: Traditional food beverage

 

p-Cresidine

2B

S: food color intermediate

6.67E-02

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

Agent

IARC Classificationb

Occurrencec

TD01d (mg/kg-d)

Danthron (Chrysazin; 1,8-Dihydroxyanthraquinone)

2B

N: plant constituent drug; S: Synthesized for use as drug

1.32E-01

DDD

 

S: persistent lipophilic pesticide

2.94E-02

DDE

 

S: Metabolite of DDT

2.94E-02

DDT

2B

S: persistent lipophilic pesticide

2.94E-02

2,4-Diaminotoluene

2B

S: food packaging constituent

2.50E-03

Dibenz(a,h)acridine

2B

N: Derived (cooking)

 

Dibenz(a,j)acridine

2B

N: Derived (cooking)

 

Dibenz(a,h)anthracene

2A

N: Derived (cooking); pass-through (plant uptake fuel combustion byproducts)

2.44E-03

7H-Dibenzo(c,g)carbazole

2B

N: Derived

1.32E-05

Dibenzo(a,e)pyrene

2B

N: Derived

 

Dibenzo(a,h)pyrene

2B

N: Derived

3.23E-05

Dibenzo(a,i)pyrene

2B

N: Derived

3.45E-05

Dibenzo(a,l)pyrene

2B

N: Derived and added (tap water)

 

1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane

2B

S: pesticide; persistent in groundwater

1.43E-03

p-Dichlorobenzene

2B

S: indirect additive (pesticide and other)

2.50E-01

1,2-Dichloroethane (Ethylene dichloride)

2B

S: pesticide fumigant; general industrial use

1.43E-01

Dichloromethane

2B

S: used in food processing; fumigant

7.14E-01

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

1,3-Dichloropropene

2B

S: soil fumigant

2.33E-01

Dichlorvos (DDVP)

2B

S: insecticide

3.45E-02

Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate

2B

S: plasticizer

1.19E+00

Diethylstilbesterol

1

S: growth promoter in cattle production

2.86E-05

Diethyl sulfate

2A

S: general industrial use

1.03E-02

Dimethylformamide

2B

S: food packaging constituent

 

Dimethyl sulfate

2A

S: indirect food additive

7.69E-04

1,6-Dinitropyrene

2B

S: Diesel combustion; assume uptake by food plants

2.22E-04

1,8-Dinitropyrene

2B

S: Diesel combustion; assume uptake by food plants

1.32E-04

1,4-Dioxane

2B

S: food packaging constituent

3.70E-01

Epichlorohydrin

2A

S: food packaging constituent

1.25E-01

Estrogen, non-steroidal

1

 

 

Estrogen, steroidal

1

N: Constitutive and added (drug residues)

 

 

 

S: synthetic growth promoters

 

Estradiol 17 (and esters)

2B

N: Constitutive and added (drug residues)

2.56E-04

Estrone (and estrone benzoate)

(Steroidal estrogens, group 1; estrone - sufficient in animals)

N: Constitutive

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

Agent

IARC Classificationb

Occurrencec

TD01d (mg/kg-d)

Ethinyl estradiol

(Steroidal estrogens, group 1; ethinyl estradiol - sufficient in animals)

S: Added (meat residues)

 

Ethyl acrylate

2B

N: Constitutive; S: Food packaging constituent; added flavoring ingredient

 

Ethylene oxide

1

S: fumigant

3.23E-02

Ethylene thiourea

2B

S: pesticidal breakdown product

2.22E-01

Formaldehyde

2A

N: Derived and added (preservative in defoaming agent; in food packaging).

Carcinogenicity by oral route uncertain

Glu-P-1 (2-Amino-6-methyldipyrido[1,2-a:3',2'-d]-imidazole

2B

N: Derived (cooking)

2.08E-03

Glu-P-2 (2-Aminodipyrido[1,2-a:3',2'-d]-imidazole)

2B

N: Derived (cooking)

7.14E-03

Glycidaldehyde

2B

N: Derived

 

Heptachlor

2B

S: pesticidal contaminant, in food chain

2.22E-03

Hexachlorobenzene

2B

S: pesticidal contaminant, in food chain

5.56E-03

Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH)

2B

S: pesticidal contaminant, in food chain

 

alpha isomer

2B

S: pesticidal contaminant, in food chain

3.70E-03

beta isomer

3

S: pesticidal contaminant, in food chain

6.67E-03

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

gamma isomer

3

S: pesticidal contaminant, in food chain

9.09E-03

technical grade

2B

S: pesticidal contaminant, in food chain

2.50E-03

Hot mate (Ilex paraguariensis)

2A

N: Added

 

Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene

2B

N: Pass-through; derived

 

Isoprene

2B

N: Constitutive

 

IQ (2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline)

2A

N: Derived (cooking)

7.14E-03

Lead and lead compounds, inorganic

2B

N: Pass-through

 

Me-A-alpha-C (2-Amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido-[2,3-b]indole)

2B

N: Derived (cooking)

8.33E-03

Medroxyprogesterone acetate

2B

S

 

MeIQ

2B

N: Derived (cooking)

4.76E-03

MeIQx

2B

N: Derived (cooking)

2.94E-03

Mestranol

(Steroidal estrogens, group 1; mestranol - sufficient in animals)

S: Estrogen steroid used in meat production

 

5-Methoxypsoralen (in the presence of UVA)

2A

N: Constitutive

 

8-Methoxypsoralen (xanthotoxin) plus UV radiation

1

N: Constitutive (excluding UV radiation)

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

Agent

IARC Classificationb

Occurrencec

TD01d (mg/kg-d)

5-Methylchrysene

2B

N: Pass-through (assume food plant uptake)

7.69E-05

Methylmercury compounds

2B

N: Derived

 

N-Methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine

2A

N: Derived

1.20E-03

Mirex

2B

S: pesticidal contaminant, in food chain

5.56E-04

5-(Morpholinomethyl)-3-[(5-nitrofurfurylidene-amino]-2-oxalolidione

2B

S: veterinary drug

2.56E-03

Nickel, metallic

2B

N: Pass-through

 

Nickel compounds

1

N: Pass-through

 

Nitrilotriacetic acid, and its salts

2B

S: Industrial use

1.89E+00

Nitrilotriacetic acid, trisodium salt monohydrate

(2B)

S: Industrial use

1.00E+00

6-Nitrochrysene

2B

S: byproduct of fuel combustion; assume uptake by food plants

2.50E-05

Nitrofen (technical grade)

2B

S: herbicide

1.22E-01

2-Nitrofluorene

2B

S: byproduct of diesel fuel combustion Assume deposition on food plants

1.28E-03

2-Nitropropane

2B

S: used in adhesives which contact food

3.70E-01

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

1-Nitropyrene

2B

N: incomplete combustion detected in grilled chicken; S: in diesel and gasoline exhaust particulates

9.09E-03

4-Nitropyrene

2B

S: byproduct of fuel combustion; assume deposition on food plants

4.00E-04

N-Nitroso-N-dibutylamine

2B

N: Derived

9.09E-04

N-Nitrosodiethylamine

2A

N: Derived

2.78E-04

N-Nitrosodimethylamine

2A

N: Derived (also constitutive in plant not consumed in US)

6.25E-04

N-Nitrosodi-N-propylamine

2B

N: Derived; also S (pesticidal impurity)

1.43E-03

N-Nitrosomethylethylamine

2B

N: Derived

4.55E-04

N-Nitrosopiperidine

2B

N: Derived

1.06E-03

N-Nitrosopyrrolidine

2B

N: Derived

4.76E-03

N-Nitrososarcosine

2B

N: Derived

7.14E-02

Ochratoxin A

2B

N: Acquired (mycotoxin)

4.76E-04

Pentachlorophenol

2B

S: wood perservative and herbicide, in food chain

5.56E-01

Phenyl glycidyl ether

2B

S: Food-packaging constituent

7.14E-02

o-Phenylphenate, sodium

2B

S: fungicide

3.33E+00

PhIP (2-Amino-1-methyl-6- phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine

2B

N: Derived (cooking)

2.00E-03

Pickled vegetables (traditional in China)

1

N and S

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

Agent

IARC Classificationb

Occurrencec

TD01d (mg/kg-d)

Polychlorinated biphenyls

2A

S: General industrial use, in food chain

1.30E-03

Polychlorinated biphenyls (> 60% chlorine by weight)

2A

S: General industrial use, in food chain

2.00E-03

Potassium bromate

2B

S: Flour bromination; low residue

2.04E-02

Progestins

2B

N: Constitutive S: synthetic hormones

 

Progestrone

 

N: Constitutive and added (drug residues)

 

Propylene oxide

2A

S: food product and package sterilant; used in food starch production

4.17E-02

Propylthiouracil

2B

S

1.00E-02

Radon and its decay products

1

N: Added through tap water

 

Saccharin

2B

S: Non-nutritive sweetening agent; was used as preservative

7.69E+01

Safrole

2B

N: Constitutive and added

4.55E-02

Salted fish (Chinese style)

1

N: Direct; a food

 

Silica, crystalline

2A

N: Added

Carcinogenicity by oral route uncertain

Sodium o-phenylphenate

2B

S: Fungicide and antibacterial agent

 

Sterigmatocystin

2B

N: Acquired (mycotoxin)

2.86E-04

Styrene

2B

N: Constitutive and added; (S: food-packaging constituent)

 

Styrene oxide

2A

S: food-packaging constituent

6.25E-02

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

Sulfallate

2B

S: herbicide

5.26E-02

 

Testosterone

(Androgenic steroid, group 2A; testosterone sufficient in animals)

N: constitutive and added (drug residue)

 

Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

2B

S: Widespread environmental contaminant in food chain

7.69E-08

Tetrachloroethylene

2B

S: General industrial use; contaminant of food and water

1.96E-01

Toluene diisocyanate

2B

S: Food-packaging constituent

2.56E-01

Toxaphene (polychlorinated camphenes)

2B

S: Pesticidal contaminant of food and water

8.33E-03

Toxins derived from Fusarium monilforme

2B

N: Acquired (mycotoxin)

 

Trp-P-1 (Tryptophan-P-1)

2B

N: Derived

3.85E-04

Trp-P-2 (Tryptophan-P-2)

2B

N: Derived

3.13E-03

Urethane (Ethyl carbamate)

2B

N: Derived

1.00E-02

Vinyl chloride

1

S: Food-packaging constituent

3.70E-03

a Agents identified by IARC as known (1), probable (2A), or possible (2B) human carcinogens or by the NTP as known or reasonably anticipated to be carcinogens (NTP K or NTP R, if the agent has not been classified as 1, 2A, or 2B by IARC).

b For definition of terms and overall evaluations, see Preamble, pp.28-29 (IARC 1993).

c Where possible, synthetic agents (S) are distinguished from naturally occurring (N) (as defined in Chapter 1). Naturally occurring agents are subclassified into constitutive, derived, acquired, or added (as defined in Chapters 1 and 2).

d TD01 is the chronic dose in mg/kg/day causing a 1% increase in tumors in experimental animals.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

Table B-2 Agentsa Previously But No Longer Encountered in U.S. Diets

Agent

IARC Classificationb

Occurrencec

TD01d (mg/kg-d)

Benzyl violet 4B

2B

S:Was direct food color additive

5.00E-01

Carbon black extracts

2B

S: Use of food colorant 'channel black' disapproved in 1976. Note IARC listing of extracts, not carbon black

 

Chloramphenicol

2A

N: Antibiotic, in soil. S: synthetically produced antibiotic; meat residues.

 

Chlorphenoxy herbicides

2B

S: All uses in food production cancelled by 1974.

 

Diethylstillbesterol

1

S: growth promoter in cattle production

2.86E-05

Dihydrosafrole

2B

S: was food flavorant (35 years ago)

2.27E-01

4-Dimethylaminoazo-benzene

2B

S: Was food colorant in U.S. prior to 1918

2.17E-03

1,1-Dimethylhydrazine (UDMH)

2B

S: agricultural chemical breakdown product

3.57E-03

Ethylene dibromide

2A

S: was widely used fumigant. Currently a groundwater contaminant in a few locations

4.00E-02

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

Agent

IARC Classificationb

Occurrencec

TD01d (mg/kg-d)

Methylthiouracil

2B

S: Was growth promoter in meat production (swine and sheep)

2.50E-02

N-[4-(5-Nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl]acetamide

2BS: used in veterinary applications6.67E-03

 

 

Oil Orange SS

2B

S: General food colorant until 1956

 

Ponceau 3R

2B

S: Food color delisted in 1961

6.25E-01

Thiourea

2B

N: Indirect additive (was citrus fungicide, chemical intermediate for pesticide production); is constitutive for nonfood plants.

1.39E-01

a Agents identified by IARC as known (1), probable (2A), or possible (2B) human carcinogens or by the NTP as known or reasonably anticipated to be carcinogens (NTP K or NTP R, if the agent has not been classified as 1, 2A, or 2B by IARC).

b For definition of terms and overall evaluations, see Preamble, pp.28-29 (IARC 1993).

c Where possible, synthetic agents (S) are distinguished from naturally occurring (N) (as defined in Chapter 1). Naturally occurring agents are subclassified into constitutive, derived, acquired, or added (as defined in Chapters 1 and 2).

d The TD01 is the chronic dose in mg/kg/day causing a 1% increase in tumors in experimental animals. Values derived from epidemiologic data are indicated in bold face.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

Table B-3 Agentsa Rarely or Accidentally Encountered in U.S. Diets

Agent

IARC Classificationb

Occurrencec

TD01d (mg/kg-d)

Acetamide

2B

N: Derived (constitutive in a non-food plant)

1.43E-01

Antimony trioxide

2B

N: metallic compound; uses include as glassware constituent

 

Auramine

2B

S: may have been food dye in some countries

1.14E-02

p-Chloroaniline

2B

S: intermediate; pesticide degradant

 

Cycasin

2B

N: Constitutive

 

Danthron (Chrysazin; 1,8-Dihydroxyanthraquinone)

2B

N: plant constituent drug; S: synthesized for use as drug.

1.32E-01

Glasswool

2B

S: Use in food processing

 

Hexamethylphosphor-amide

2B

S: General industrial use

1.61E-04

Methylazoxymethanol acetate

2B

N: Constitutive (of cycasin)

 

4,4'-Methylenedianiline

2B

S: Indirect food additive through use as curing agent in resins used to coat large containers in alcoholic beverage production

6.25E-03

4,4'-Methylenedianiline dihydrochloride

(2B)

S: See cell above

8.33E-03

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

Agent

IARC Classificationb

Occurrencec

TD01d (mg/kg-d)

N-Nitrosodiethanolamine

2B

S: Impurity in herbicide atrazine; contaminant in cutting fluids and some cosmetics

3.57E-03

N-Nitrosomethyl-vinylamine

2B

N: Derived

6.25E-05

N-Nitroso-N-methylurethane

2B

N: Derived

9.09E-05

Polybrominated biphenyls

2B

S: was flame retardant; now minimal and localized food chain contaminant

3.33E-04

Ponceau MX

2B

S: Was drug and cosmetic color in US; used as a food colorant elsewhere

2.22E+00

beta-Propiolactone

2B

S: Industrial use

7.14E-04

Reserpine

3

N: Indirectly added veterinary drug

9.09E-04

o-Toluidine

2B

S: Chemical intermediate (e.g., pesticides, dyes); N: constitutive

5.56E-02

o-Toluidine hydrochloride

(2B)

S

7.69E-02

a Agents identified by IARC as known (1), probable (2A), or possible (2B) human carcinogens or by the NTP as known or reasonably anticipated to be carcinogens (NTP K or NTP R, if the agent has not been classified as 1, 2A, or 2B by IARC).

b For definition of terms and overall evaluations, see Preamble, pp.28-29 (IARC 1993).

c Where possible, synthetic agents (S) are distinguished from naturally occurring (N) (as defined in Chapter 1). Naturally occurring agents are subclassified into constitutive, derived, acquired, or added (as defined in Chapters 1 and 2).

d The TD01 is the chronic dose in mg/kg/day causing a 1% increase in tumors in experimental animals.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

Table B-4 Agentsa Unlikely to Have Ever Been Present in U.S. Diets

Agent

IARC Classificationb

Occurrencec

TD01d (mg/kg-d)

2-Acetylaminofluorene

(NTP R)

S: was intended for pesticidal use but never marketed

2.63E-03

Adriamycin

2A

N: Antibiotic; also S (synthesized for use)

 

AF-2 (2-(2-furyl)-3(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide]

2B

S: Food additive previously in Japan

4.17E-02

2-Aminoanthraquinone

3 (NTP R)

S: dye and pharmaceutical intermediate

3.03E-01

0-Aminoazotoluene

2B

S: dye

2.63E-03

1-Amino-2-methylanthraquinone

3(NTP R)

S: dye intermediate

6.67E-02

2-Amino-5-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole

2B

S: drug

6.25E-04

0-Anisidine

2B

S: dye intermediate; water pollutant

7.14E-02

0-Anisidine hydrochloride

(2B)

S: dye intermediate

9.09E-02

Azaserine

2B

N: mycotoxin. S (synthesized) drug.

9.09E-04

Azacytidine

2A

N: antibiotic (drug)

 

Azathioprine

1

S: drug

5.56E-03

Benzidine based dyes

2A

S: dyes

 

Benzotrichloride

2B

S: Dye and herbicide intermediate

7.69E-04

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

Agent

IARC Classificationb

Occurrencec

TD01d (mg/kg-d)

Bischloroethyl nitrosourea (BCNU)

2A

S: drug

 

Bis(chloromethyl)ether

1

S: chemical intermediate

2.17E-04

Bischloromethyl methyl ether

1

S: chemical intermediate

 

Bleomycins

2B

N: antibiotic; drug

 

beta-Butyrolactone

2B

S: chemical intermediate

1.00E-02

Carrageenan, degraded

2B

S: produced synthetically from seaweed.

 

Ceramic fibres

2B

S: used in thermal insulation

 

Chlorambucil

1

S: drug

2.27E-05

Chlorendic acid

2B

S: chemical intermediate

1.10E-01

Chlornaphazine

1

S: drug

 

1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea

2A

S: drug

 

1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-(4-methylcyclohexyl)-1-nitrosourea

1

S: drug

 

Chloromethyl methyl ether (technical grade)

1

S: chemical intermediate

4.17E-03

4-Chloro-0-phenylenediamine

2B

S: dye intermediate

6.25E-01

Chlorozotocin

2A

S: drug

4.17E-05

C.I. Acid Red 114

2B

S: dye

 

C.I. Basic Red 9 monohydrochloride

(NTP R)

S: dye

4.00E-02

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

C.I. Direct Blue 15

2B

S: dye

 

Cisplatin

2A

S: drug

 

Coal-tars

1

S: used in various pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and biocidal preparations

 

Cupferron

(NTP R)

S: chemical reagent

4.55E-02

Cyclophosphamide (anhydrous)

1

S: drug

1.64E-02

Cyclophosphamide (hydrated)

1

S: drug

1.75E-02

Cyclosporin (Ciclosporin)

1

N: antibiotic. Drug.

 

Dacarbazine

2B

S: drug

2.04E-04

Danthron (Chrysazin; 1,8-Dihydroxyanthraquinone)

2B

N: plant constituent drug. S: Synthesized for use as drug.

1.32E-01

Daunomycin

2B

N: antibiotic. drug.

 

N,N'-Diacetylbenzidine

2B

S: dye intermediate

 

2,4-Diaminoanisole

2B

S: dye intermediate

4.35E-01

2,4-Diaminoanisole sulfate

(2B)

S: dye intermediate

7.69E-01

4,4'-Diaminodiphenyl ether (4,4'-Oxydianiline)

2B

S: chemical intermediate

7.14E-02

3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine

2B

S: dye intermediate; curing agent

8.33E-03

3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine dihydrochloride

(2B)

S: dye intermediate; curing agent

 

3,3'-Dichloro-4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether

2B

S: may not be commercially used

 

Diepoxybutane

2B

S: chemical intermediate, curing agent

 

1,2-Diethylhydrazine

2B

S: an experimental rocket fuel

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

Agent

IARC Classificationb

Occurrencec

TD01d (mg/kg-d)

Diglycidyl resorcinol ether (DGRE)

2B

S: used as or in epoxy resins

5.88E-03

Diisopropyl sulfate

2B

S: chemical intermediate

 

3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine (o-Dianisidine)

2B

S: dye and chemical intermediate

2.04E-03

3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine dihydrochloride

(2B)

S: dye and chemical intermediate

2.70E-03

trans-2-[(Dimethylamino)-methylimino]-5-[2-(5-nitro-2-furyl)vinyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazole

2B

S: possibly used in pharmaceutical

2.27E-02

2,6-Dimethylaniline (2,6-Xylidine)

2B

N: present in tobacco leaves; S: chemical intermediate

1.75E+00

3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine (o-Tolidine)

2B

S: dye intermediate

1.33E-04

3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine dihydrochloride

(2B)

S: dye intermediate

1.79E-04

Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride

2A

S: pesticide intermediate

7.69E-04

1,2-Dimethylhydrazine

2B

S: experimental rocket fuel

1.82E-05

Dimethylvinylchloride

(NTP R)

S: chemical intermediate

2.22E-01

Direct Black 38 (technical grade)

2A

S: dye

1.35E-03

Direct Blue 6 (technical grade)

2A

S: dye

1.35E-03

Direct Brown 95 (technical grade)

2A

S: dye

1.49E-03

Erionite

1

N: Natural zeolite

 

Ethyl methanesulfonate

2B

S: No evidence of commercial use

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

Formaldehyde

2A

N: pyrolysis product S: many industrial uses

5.56E-01

2-(2-Formylhydrazino)-4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)thiazole

2B

S: No evidence of commercial use

4.35E-03

Griseofulvin

2B

N: antibiotic. S/N (acquired): occasional veterinary drug

7.14E-01

HC Blue 1

2B

S: in hair dyes

1.96E-01

Hydrazine

2B

S: rocket fuel

5.88E-04

Hydrazine sulfate

2B

S: used in metal refining

3.33E-03

Hydrazobenzene (1,2-Diphenylhydrazine)

3 (NTP - R)

S: colorant of waxes, resins, soaps, fats

1.15E-02

Iron dextran complex

2B

S: drug

 

Lasiocarpine

2B

N: Acquired (contamination of cereal grains in Asia)

1.28E-03

Lead acetate

2B

S: general industrial uses. Was used in medicine and hair dyes

3.57E-02

Lead phosphate

2B

S: limited industrial use

 

Lead subacetate

2B

S: analytical reagent. Astringent in lotions.

2.63E-01

Magenta (containing CI Basic Red 9)

2B

S: dye

 

Melphalan

1

S: cancer drug

7.69E-05

Merphalan

2B

S: cancer drug

 

2-Methylaziridine (Propyleneimine)

2B

S: chemical and pharmaceutical intermediate

3.85E-04

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

Agent

IARC Classificationb

Occurencec

TD01d (mg/kg-d)

4,4'-Methylene bis(2-chloroaniline)

2A

S: curing agent for polyurethane prepolymers

6.67E-03

4,4'-Methylene bis(N,N-dimethyl)benzeneamine

3 (NTP - R)

S: dye intermediate; antioxidant in grease and oil

2.17E-01

4,4'-Methylene bis(2-methylaniline)

2B

S: dye intermediate

1.09E-02

Methyl methanesulfonate

2B

S: commercial use unknown

1.01E-01

2-Methyl-1-nitroanthraquinone (of uncertain purity)

2B

S: dye intermediate

2.33E-03

Metronidazole

2B

S: human drug; some veterinary use.

5.00E-02

Michler's ketone

(NTP R)

S: dye intermediate

1.16E-02

Mitomycin C

2B

N: antibiotic

1.22E-06

Monocrotaline

2B

N: Constitutive in bush teas; not believed consumed in US

1.00E-03

MOPP and other combined chemotherapy including alkylating agents

1

S: cancer drug

 

Mustard gas (sulfur mustard)

1

S: cancer drug

 

Myleran (1,4-butanediol dimethylsulfonate)

1

S: cancer drug

 

Nafenopin

2B

S: experimental drug

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

2-Naphthylamine (beta-Naphthylamine)

1

N: pyrolysis product (will clarify). S: dye intermediate

5.56E-03

Niridazole

2B

S: drug

 

5-Nitroacenaphthene

2B

S: dye intermediate not commercially used in US

7.69E-02

1-[(5-Nitrofurfurylidene)-amino]-2-imidazolidinone

2B

S: antibacterial agent, reported used to treat urinary tract infections

5.56E-03

Nitrogen mustard

2A

S: vesicant in chemical warfare. potential cancer drug.

 

Nitrogen mustard hydrochloride

(NTP - R)

S: antineoplastic and immunosuppressant in human and veterinary medicine

 

Nitrogen mustard N-oxide

2B

S: cancer drug and chemical sterilant

 

N-Nitroso-N-ethylurea

2A

S: No known commercial use. Environmental occurrence unknown

3.70E-04

3-(N-Nitrosomethyl-amino)propionitrile

2B

N: Derived

 

4-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)

2B

N: Derived

 

N-Nitroso-N-methylurea

2A

S: No known commercial use. Environmental occurrence unknown

8.33E-05

N-Nitrosomorpholine

2B

S: No evidence of commercial use. Impurity in methylene chloride and chloroform

1.49E-03

N'-Nitrosonornicotine

2B

N: Derived

7.14E-03

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

Agent

IARC Classificationb

Occurrencec

TD01d (mg/kg-d)

Noresthisterone

2B

S: human drug

 

Oxymethalone

(NTP R)

S: human drug

 

Panfuran S (containing dihdroxymethyl-furatrizine)

2B

S: human drug

 

Phenacetin

2A

S: human and veterinary analgesic and antipyretic

4.55E+00

Phenazopyridine

2B

S: human drug

5.88E-02

Phenazopyridine hydrochloride

2B

S: human drug

6.67E-02

Phenobarbital

2B

S: human and veterinary sedative and anticonvulsant

2.17E-02

Phenoxybenzamine

2B

S: human drug

3.23E-03

Phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride

2B

S: human drug

3.70E-03

Phenytoin

2B

human and veterinary anticonvulsant

 

Procarbazine

(2A)

S: cancer drug

7.14E-04

Procarbazine hydrochloride

2A

S: cancer drug

8.33E-04

1,3-Propane sultone

2B

S: chemical intermediate

4.17E-03

Rockwool

2B

S: thermal and acoustic insulant

 

Selenium sulfide

3 (NTP R)

S: topical drug in human and veterinary medicine

 

Slagwool

2B

S: thermal and acoustic insulant

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

Solar radiation

1

N

 

Streptozotocin

2B

N: antibiotic

9.09E-05

Talc containing asbestiform fibres

1

N

 

Tetranitormethane

(NTP R)

S: diesel and rocket fuel additive

7.69E-04

Thioacetamide

2B

S: previously used with mercury as mordant

1.64E-03

4,4'-Thiodianiline

2B

S: dye intermediate

6.67E-04

Thorium dioxide

(NTP K)

N: limited commercial use. was radio-opaque for x-ray imaging.

 

Treosulfan

1

S: cancer drug

 

Trichlormethine (Trimustine hydrochloride)

2B

S: cancer drug

 

Tris (1-aziridinyl)phosphine sulfide (Thiotepa)

1

S: cancer drug

8.33E-04

Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate

2A

S: flame retardant

4.35E-03

Trypan blue

2B

S: biological stain

 

Ultraviolet radiation A

2A

N

 

Ultraviolet radiation B

2A

N

 

Ultraviolet radiation C

2A

N

 

Uracil mustard

2B

S: cancer, immunosuppressive, antiviral and antibacterial drug

 

Vinyl bromide

2A

S: general industrial use

1.85E-02

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

Agent

IARC Classificationb

Occurrencec

TD01d (mg/kg-d)

4-Vinylcyclohexene

2B

S: Byproduct of chemical production processes

 

4-Vinylcyclohexene diepoxide

2B

S: General industrial use

 

a Agents identified by IARC as known (1), probable (2A), or possible (2B) human carcinogens or by the NTP as known or reasonably anticipated to be carcinogens (NTP K or NTP R, if the agent has not been classified as 1, 2A, or 2B by IARC).

b For definition of terms and overall evaluations, see Preamble, pp.28-29 (IARC 1993).

c Where possible, synthetic agents (S) are distinguished from naturally occurring (N) (as defined in Chapter 1). Naturally occurring agents are subclassified into constitutive, derived, acquired, or added (as defined in Chapters 1 and 2).

d The TD01 is the chronic dose in mg/kg/day causing a 1% increase in tumors in experimental animals.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×
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×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Agents with Potential Carcinogenic Activity and Their Occurrence...." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
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Next: Appendix C: Chemical Compounds Occurring in Dietary Plants that Have Been . . . »
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Despite increasing knowledge of human nutrition, the dietary contribution to cancer remains a troubling question. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens assembles the best available information on the magnitude of potential cancer risk--and potential anticarcinogenic effect--from naturally occurring chemicals compared with risk from synthetic chemical constituents. The committee draws important conclusions about diet and cancer, including the carcinogenic role of excess calories and fat, the anticarcinogenic benefit of fiber and other substances, and the impact of food additive regulation. The book offers recommendations for epidemiological and diet research. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens provides a readable overview of issues and addresses critical questions: Does diet contribute to an appreciable proportion of human cancer? Are there significant interactions between carcinogens and anticarcinogens in the diet? The volume discusses the mechanisms of carcinogenic and anticarcinogenic properties and considers whether techniques used to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of synthetics can be used with naturally occurring chemicals. The committee provides criteria for prioritizing the vast number of substances that need to be tested. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens clarifies the issues and sets the direction for further investigations into diet and cancer. This volume will be of interest to anyone involved in food and health issues: policymakers, regulators, researchers, nutrition professionals, and health advocates.

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