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Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances (1996)

Chapter: Appendix C: Chemical Compounds Occurring in Dietary Plants that Have Been . . .

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Chemical Compounds Occurring in Dietary Plants that Have Been . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
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Appendix C
Chemical Compounds Occurring in Dietary Plants that Have Been Reported to Inhibit Carcinogenesis in Vivoa

Class

Compound Name

Inducer

Species (Routeb)

Amino acid

Cysteine

1,2-Dimethylhydrazine

Mouse (po)

 

(DL)-Tryptophan

Benzidine

Mouse (po)

Arylheptanoid

Curcumin

Methylazoxymethanol; N-Methyl-N'nitroso-urea; Benzo(a)pyrene; TPA; TPA; 20-Methylcholanthrene; DMBA + Croton oil

Mouse (po); Rat (po); Rat (po); Mouse (ext); Mouse (ip); Mouse (sc); Mouse (ext)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Chemical Compounds Occurring in Dietary Plants that Have Been . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
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Class

Compound Name

Inducer

Species (Routeb)

Benzenoid

Gingerol

Azoxymethane

Rat (po)

Carotenoid

Canthaxanthin

Benzo(a)pyrene; DMBA

Mouse (po); rat (po)

Carotenoid

-Carotenal, 8-Apo

Benzo(a)pyrene

Mouse (po)

 

-Carotene

Spontaneous liver CA

Mouse (po)

 

-Carotene

Benzo(a)pyrene; N-methyl-N'-nitroso-urea; DMN-OAC; DMBA

Mouse (ext); Rat; Hamster (po); Mouse (ext)

 

Fucoxanthin

N-Ethyl-N'-Nitro-N-nitroso-guanidine

Mouse (po)

Coumarin

Aesculetin

DMBA

Rat (po)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Chemical Compounds Occurring in Dietary Plants that Have Been . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

 

Coumarin

Benzo(a)pyrene

Mouse (po)

 

Umbelliferone

Benzo(a)pyrene

Mouse (po)

Cyclitol

Myoinositol

 

Mouse (po)

 

Phytic acidc

DMBA

Rabbit (po)

Diterpene

Cafestol

DMBA

Hamster (po)

 

Cafestol Palmitate

DMBA

Rat (po)

 

Kahweol

DMBA

Hamster (po)

Flavonoid

Amorphinospirone

TPA

Mouse (ext)

 

Apigenin

DMBA/TPA

Mouse (ext)

 

Myricetin

DMBA + Benzo(a)pyrene + TPA

Mouse

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Chemical Compounds Occurring in Dietary Plants that Have Been . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

Class

Compound Name

Inducer

Species (Routeb)

 

Quercetinc

Azoxymethanol; DMBA; Teleocidin; Benzo(a)pyrene; Benzo(a)pyrene; Benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide

Mouse (po); Rat (po); Mouse (ext); Mouse (ext); Mouse (ip); Mouse (ip)

 

Robinetin

Benzo(a)pyrene; Benzo(a)pyrene; Benzo(a)pyrene diol

Mouse (ext); Mouse (ip); Mouse (ip)

 

Rutin

Azoxymethanol

Mouse (po)

Indole Alkaloid

Indole-3-carbinol

4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide; Diethylnitrosamine +; N-methylnitrosourea +; N,N-dibutyl-nitrosamine; Spontaneous mammary tumors

Rat (po); Rat (po); Mouse (po)

Isoflavonoid

Biochanin A

Benzo(a)pyrone

Mouse (ip)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Chemical Compounds Occurring in Dietary Plants that Have Been . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

Lactone

-Angelicalactone

Benzo(a)pyrene

Mouse (po)

Lignan

Sesamin

DMBA

Rat (po)

Monoterpene

Carveol

DMBA

Rat (po)

 

Limonenec

DMBA; 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone; Same; N-Ethyl-N-Hydroxy-nitrosamine

Rat (po); Rat (po); Rat (ip); Rat (po)

 

(-) Menthol

DMBA

Rat (po)

 

para-Mentha-2-8-dien-1-ol

Benzo(a)pyrene

Mouse (po)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Chemical Compounds Occurring in Dietary Plants that Have Been . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

Class

Compound Name

Inducer

Species (Routeb)

Organic acid

Fumaric acid

N-Methyl-N'-nitroso-urea; N-Methyl-N-benzylnitrosoamine; N-Ethyl-N-nitrosurea; 3'-Methyl-4-(Dimethylamino)azobenzene

Hamster (po); Rat (po); Rat (po); Rat (po)

Phenolic acid

Gallic acid

 

Mouse (po)

 

Protocatechuic acid

Azoxymethane

Rat (po)

Phenylpropanoid

Caffeic acid

4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide Benzo(a)pyrene

Rat (po); mouse (po)

 

Chlorogenic acid

4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide

Rat (po)

 

Cinnamic acid, ortho-hydroxy

Benzo(a)pyrene

Mouse (po)

 

Eugenolc

DMBA

Mouse (ext)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Chemical Compounds Occurring in Dietary Plants that Have Been . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

 

Ferulic acid

4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide; Benzo(a)pyrene

Rat (po); Mouse (po)

 

Myristicin

Benzo(a)pyrene

Mouse (po)

 

Myristicin, dihydro

Benzo(a)pyrene

Mouse (po)

Sesquiterpene

Nerolidol

Azoxymethane

Rat (po)

Sterol

Sitosterol

MNU

Rat (po)

Sulfur compound

Diallyldisulfide

DMBA or TPA

Mouse (ext)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Chemical Compounds Occurring in Dietary Plants that Have Been . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

Class

Compound Name

Inducer

Species (Routeb)

 

Diallysulfide

Nitrosomethylbenzylamine; DMBA; DMBA; DMBA or TPA; MNNG; 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine; Diethylnitrosamine; + N-methylnitrosourea; + N,N-dibutylnitrosamine; N-Nitrosodiethylamine; 4-(Methylnitrosoamino)-1 butanone; N-Nitrosodimethylamine

Rat (po); Hamster (po); Rat (po); Mouse (ext); Rat (po); Mouse (po); Pig (po); Rat (ip); Rat (ip); Rat (ip)

 

Benzyl isothiocyanate

Diethylnitrosamine; Diethylnitrosamine; Benzo(a)pyrene; NNK; 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone

Rat (po); Mouse (po); Mouse (po); Mouse (po); Mouse (po)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Chemical Compounds Occurring in Dietary Plants that Have Been . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

 

Isothiocyanate, Phenethyl

4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3- pyridyl)-1- butanone; N-Nitrosomethylbenqyl-amine; Same; NNK

Mouse (po); Rat (po); Mouse (po); Mouse (po)

 

Sinigrin

4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide

Rat (po)

Tannin

Ellagic acid

4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3- Pyridyl)-1- butanone; 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide; N-Nitrosobenzmethylamine; Azoxymethane; DMBA; Benzo(a)pyrene; Benzo(a)pyrene; Benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide; Benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide; 3-Methylcholanthrene

Mouse (po); Rat (po); Rat (po); Rat (po); Rat (po); Mouse (ext); Mouse (ip); Mouse (ext); Mouse (ip); Mouse (po)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Chemical Compounds Occurring in Dietary Plants that Have Been . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

Class

Compound Name

Inducer

Species (Routeb)

 

(-)-Epigallocatechin-3- gallate

X-ray; Spontaneous liver tumors; N-Ethyl-N'Nitro-N- nitrosoguanidine; Nitrosamine-4-(methyl- nitrosamino)-1-(3- pyridyl)-1-butanone

Rodents; Mouse (po); Mouse (po); Mouse (po); Mouse (po)

 

Tannic acid

DMBA + benzo(a)pyrene +; TPA; Benzo(a)pyrene

Mouse; Mouse (po)

Triterpene

Glycyrrhetinic acid

Teleocidin; Azoxymethane; Methylazoxymethane; DMBA; DMBA or TPA

Mouse (ext); Rat (po); Mouse (po); Mouse (po); Mouse (ext)

 

Limonin

DMBA

Hamster (ext)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Chemical Compounds Occurring in Dietary Plants that Have Been . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

 

Oleanolic acid

Azoxymethane; DMBA; TPA

Rat (po); Mouse (ext); Mouse (ext)

 

Ursolic acid

DMBA; TPA

Mouse (ext); Mouse (ext)

Triterpene glycoside

Glycyrrhizin

DMBA

Mouse (po)

Xanthine Alkaloid

Caffeinec

Estradiol + progesterone; Diethylstilbestrol

Mouse (po) rat (ip)

a Data obtained from the NAPRALERT database of natural products. On-line access is available through the Scientific and Technical Network (STN) of Chemical Abstract Services. Data presented are intended to be illustrative but may not be complete.

b The following abbreviations are used to indicate route:

ext: external
po: oral, in diet or drinking water, sometimes gastric administration
ip: intraperitoneal
sc: subcutaneous

c Plant species containing this compound are listed in Appendix A.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Chemical Compounds Occurring in Dietary Plants that Have Been . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Chemical Compounds Occurring in Dietary Plants that Have Been . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Chemical Compounds Occurring in Dietary Plants that Have Been . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×
Page 408
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Chemical Compounds Occurring in Dietary Plants that Have Been . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×
Page 409
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Chemical Compounds Occurring in Dietary Plants that Have Been . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×
Page 410
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Chemical Compounds Occurring in Dietary Plants that Have Been . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Chemical Compounds Occurring in Dietary Plants that Have Been . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×
Page 412
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Chemical Compounds Occurring in Dietary Plants that Have Been . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×
Page 413
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Chemical Compounds Occurring in Dietary Plants that Have Been . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Chemical Compounds Occurring in Dietary Plants that Have Been . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Chemical Compounds Occurring in Dietary Plants that Have Been . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×
Page 416
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Chemical Compounds Occurring in Dietary Plants that Have Been . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×
Page 417
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Chemical Compounds Occurring in Dietary Plants that Have Been . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
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Despite increasing knowledge of human nutrition, the dietary contribution to cancer remains a troubling question. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens assembles the best available information on the magnitude of potential cancer risk--and potential anticarcinogenic effect--from naturally occurring chemicals compared with risk from synthetic chemical constituents. The committee draws important conclusions about diet and cancer, including the carcinogenic role of excess calories and fat, the anticarcinogenic benefit of fiber and other substances, and the impact of food additive regulation. The book offers recommendations for epidemiological and diet research. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens provides a readable overview of issues and addresses critical questions: Does diet contribute to an appreciable proportion of human cancer? Are there significant interactions between carcinogens and anticarcinogens in the diet? The volume discusses the mechanisms of carcinogenic and anticarcinogenic properties and considers whether techniques used to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of synthetics can be used with naturally occurring chemicals. The committee provides criteria for prioritizing the vast number of substances that need to be tested. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens clarifies the issues and sets the direction for further investigations into diet and cancer. This volume will be of interest to anyone involved in food and health issues: policymakers, regulators, researchers, nutrition professionals, and health advocates.

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