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Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances (1996)

Chapter: Appendix A: Selected Substances in Food Subjected to Some Degree of . . .

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Selected Substances in Food Subjected to Some Degree of . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
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Appendix A
Selected Substances in Food Subjected to Some Degree of Carcinogenicity Testing in Animals and for Which Some Positive Results Have Been Reported

Substance

Nature of Supporting Evidence

Extent of Natural Occurrence in Foods

References

From Higher Plants

 

 

 

Allyl isothiocyanate

Bladder papillomas in male rats; negative in mice and female rats; clastogenic, mutagenic

Raw cabbage, 0.04-2.7 ppm; horseradish, 2,000 ppm; black mustard seed, 10,000 ppm

NTP, 1982; Ishidate et al., 1988; McGregor et al., 1988

Anthraquinone, 1-hydroxy

Cecum, colon, and liver tumors in male rats

 

Mori et al., 1990

Asarone,à - and á- (oil of calamus)

Malignant tumors in the duodenal region'' in male and female rats

Asarum and acorns spp (sweet flag) ≈ 20,000 ppm

Taylor et al., 1967

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Selected Substances in Food Subjected to Some Degree of . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

Substance

Nature of Supporting Evidencea

Extent of Natural Occurrence in Foodsb

Referencesc

Benzaldehyde

Forestomach tumors in male and female mice

Found in over 40 foods; fruits and vegetables, 0.2-1 ppm; white bread, 5.0-10 pm; wines, 0.01-1.0 ppm; cocoa, coffee, tea, 2.0 ppm; shellfish, 0.01 ppm

NTP, 1990a

Caffeine

Increased multiplicity but not incidence of spontaneous mammary gland tumors in female mice

Tea, coffee, maté, guaraná, cola nuts; 0.5 to 5.0% of the plant product

Welsch et al., 1988

Capsaicin

Duodenal adenocarcinoma in male and female mice (significant only when all treated groups combined); not mutagenic

In pungent (hot) red peppers (q.v.); <0.1 to 1.0% of dry fruit

Toth et al., 1984 (as reported by Watts, 1985)

Capsicum annuum; (hot) peppers

Liver tumors in rats

Widely used spice, especially in warmer climates

Hoch-Ligeti, 1950

Chrysazin

Colon tumors in male rats

 

Mori et al., 1985

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Selected Substances in Food Subjected to Some Degree of . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

Ecdysone, alpha

Liver tumors in male and female Egyptian toads

Insects and crustaceans, spinach, plants, relationship to food

El-Mofty et al., 1987

Estragole

Liver tumors in female mice; forms DNA adducts

Apple, bilberry <0.03 ppm; basil and oregano ≈ 100 ppm; tarragon ≈ 1%; anise and star anise ≈ 5.0%

Miller et al., 1983; Randerath et al., 1985

Ethyl acrylate

Negative in 2 strains of male and female rats; forestomach tumors in male mice, male and female rats

Dill ≈ 1.0 ppm; pineapple, 0.8 ppm; raspberry; durian

Miller et al., 1985; NTP, 1986

Eugenol

Data equivocal for liver tumors in female and male mice.

Oranges, cherries and many fruits ≈ 0.02 ppm; tomato, carrot ≈ 0.2 ppm, wines, liquors ≈ 0.1 ppm; cottage cheese, fish ≈ 3.0 ppm; anise ≈ 0.2%; cloves ≈ 10%

NTP, 1983

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Selected Substances in Food Subjected to Some Degree of . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

Substance

Nature of Supporting Evidencea

Extent of Natural Occurrence in Foodsb

Referencesc

Furfural

In male rats 2/50 at high-dose only showed cholangio-carcinomas; none in females. In male mice, increased incidence of adenomas and carcinomas in high-dose group; in females, increased incidence of adenomas at high-dose

Cocoa, coffee, 55-255 ppm; wine, tr-10 ppm; whiskies, cider, sherry, wines, 1-30+ ppm, sauerkraut, tomato, cinnamon, cloves, wheaten bread, 1-14 ppm; many fruits, tr.-1 ppm

NTP, 1990

Gossypol

Neck myxosarcomas in female mice

Cottonseed meal, limit of .045% (U.S.) and .06% (P.A.G.) free gossypol

Dhaliwal et al., 1987

D-Limonene

Kidney tumors in male rats

Citrus juices ≈ 200 ppm; citrus oils 50-90%; other fruits and vegetables 1-30 ppm; coffee, tea ≈ 1 ppm; spices, trace -5%

NTP, 1990b

Piper nigrum; (black and white) pepper

Lung, liver, and skin tumors in male and female mice; liver tumors in male and female Egyptian toads

Widely used spice

Concon et al., 1979; El-Mofty et al., 1988; El-Mofty et al., 1991

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Selected Substances in Food Subjected to Some Degree of . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

Phytic acid

Kidney tumors in male and female rats

Oil seed, legumes, cereal grains

Hiasa et al., 1992

Ptaquiloside

Ileal, mammary, and bladder tumors in female rats

Bracken fern ("fiddleheads")

Hirono et al., 1984; Hirono et al., 1987

Quercetin

Intestinal and bladder tumors in male and female "albino" rats; kidney tumors in male F344/N rats; liver tumors in female F344 rats; mutagenic

Ubiquitous in food plants, esp. in rinds of plant fruits

Pamukcu et al., 1980; Dunnick and Hailey, 1992; NTP, 1992

Safrole

Liver tumors in 3 strains male and female mice; liver tumors in 2 strains male rats, 1 strain female rats; clastogenic, forms DNA adducts

Cocoa, nutmeg, mace, black pepper, ≈ 0.2%

Lipsky et al., 1981; Innes et al., 1969; Vesselinovitch et al., 1979; Wislocki et al., 1977; Borchert et al., 1973; Boberg et al., 1983; Miller et al., 1983; Ishidate et al., 1988; Randerath et al., 1985

Sesamol

Forestomach tumors in male rats and male and female mice

Sesame seeds and oil

Hirose et al., 1990; Tamano et al., 1992

Shikimic acid

Leukemia in male and female mice; glandular stomach tumors in male mice

Important biosynthetic precursor in most plants

Evans and Osman, 1974

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Selected Substances in Food Subjected to Some Degree of . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

Substance

Nature of Supporting Evidencea

Extent of Natural Occurrence in Foodsb

Referencesc

8-methoxypsoralen (Xanthotoxin)

Kidney and Zymbal's gland tumors in male rats; mutagenic, clastogenic

 

NTP, 1989

Xylitol

Bladder tumors in mice; adrenal gland tumors in rats

Carrots, lettuce, onions, raspberries, and spinach

Anonymous, 1977

In addition to the list above, the committee is aware of other data on carcinogenic effects of benzene, cycasin, methoxyazoxymethylacetate, and styrene. See Appendix B.

From Edible Fungi

 

 

 

Acetaldehyde methylformyl-hydrazone

Lung, forestomach, clitoral tumors in female mice; preputial, lung tumors in male mice

Several species of edible mushrooms, especially of the genus Gyromitra

Toth et al., 1981

Glutamyl p-hydrazino-benzoic acid

Subcutaneous tumors in male mice

Edible mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) and several Gyromitra species

Toth, 1986

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Selected Substances in Food Subjected to Some Degree of . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

p-Hydrazino-benzoic acid

Aorta and large artery tumors in male and female mice

Several species of edible mushrooms, especially of the genus Gyromitra

McManus et al., 1987

From Fungal Contaminants of Food

In addition to aflatoxin B1, the committee is aware of other data on carcinogenic effects for aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G2, aflatoxin G2, Fusarium monliforme toxins, Penicillium islandicum toxins (e.g., islanditoxin), T-2 toxin, ochratoxins, and sterigmatocystin. See Chapter 2 and Appendix B.

Carcinogens Formed During Traditional Preparation and Processing

Benz[a]anthracene

Benign liver and lung tumors in mice

Coconut oil, 0.5-13.7 ng/g; broiled meat, 0.2-1.1 ng/g; broiled fish, 0.6-2.9 ng/g; smoked fish, 0.2-189 ng/g; ham, 1.3-12 ng/g; cereal, 0.4-6.8 ng/g; lettuce, 6.1-15.4 ng/g; tomatoes 0.3 ng/g; spinach, 16.1 ng/g; roasted coffee, 0.5-42.7 ng/g; tea, 2.9-36 ng/g; whisky, 0.04-0.08 ng/g

Klein, 1963

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Selected Substances in Food Subjected to Some Degree of . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

Substance

Nature of Supporting Evidencea

Extent of Natural Occurrence in Foodsb

Referencesc

Benzo[a]pyrene

Forestomach tumors in mice; mammary tumors in female rats

Margarine, 0.9-36 ng/g; coconut oil, 0.3-8.2 ng/g; broiled meat, 0.17-50 ng/g; broiled fish, 0.2-0.9 ng/g; smoked fish, 1-78 ng/g; ham, <0.5-14.6 ng/g; bacon, 0.16-0.25 ng/g; cereal, 0.19-4.13 ng/g; potatoes, 0.09 ng/g; flour, 0.73; bread, 0.23; toasted bread, 0.39-0.56; lettuce, 2.8-12.8; tomatoes, 0.2-0.22; spinach, 7.4; fruits, 0.5-30; roasted coffee, 0.3-15.8; tea, 3.9-21.3; whisky, 0.04

Neal and Rigdon, 1967; McCormick, 1981

Catechol

Glandular stomach tumors in male and female rats

 

Hirose et al., 1990

Dibenz[a,h]-anthracene

Forestomach and lung tumors in mice

 

Larinow and Soboleva, 1938; Lorenz and Stewart, 1948; Snell and Stewart, 1962, 1963

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Selected Substances in Food Subjected to Some Degree of . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

In addition to the list above, the committee is aware of other data on carcinogenic effects of 7H-Dibenzo[c,g]-carbazole, Dibenzo[a,h]-pyrene, Dibenzo[a,i]-pyrene, Me-A-alpha-C(2-Amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido-[2,3-b]indole), and 5-methylchyrysene. N-Nitroso-N-demethylamine is discussed in Chapter 2, and the committee also is aware of other data on carcinogenic effects on N-Nitroso-N-dibutylamine, N-Nitroso-diethylamine, N-Nitroso-methylethylamine, N-Nitroso-nornicotine, N-Nitroso-piperidine, and N-Nitroso-pyrrolidine. See Appendix B.

IQ(2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline)

Lung, liver, and forestomach tumors in male and female mice; mammary gland, Zymbal gland, and liver tumors in female rats; liver, Zymbal gland, colon, and small intestine tumors in male and female rats; liver tumors in male and female monkeys

Fried ground beef, 0.5-20 ng/g; broiled beef, 0.19 ng/g; sun-dried, broiled sardines, 20 ng/g; broiled salmon, 0.3-1.8 ng/g; fried fish, 0.16 ng/g; fried egg, 0.1 ng/g

Ohagaki et al., 1984, 1986; Tanaka et al., 1985; Takayama et al., 1984; Adamson et al., 1990, 1991

MeIQ

Liver tumors in female mice; forestomach tumors in male and female mice; Zymbal gland, oral cavity, and colon tumors in male and female rats; mammary gland tumors in female rats; skin tumors in male rats

Fried fish, 0.03 ng/g; grilled, sun-dried sardines, 20-72 ng/g; broiled sardines, 16.6 ng/g

Ohgaki et al., 1986; Kato et al., 1989

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Selected Substances in Food Subjected to Some Degree of . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

Substance

Nature of Supporting Evidencea

Extent of Natural Occurrence in Foodsb

Referencesc

MeIQx

Liver tumors in male and female mice; lung tumors in female mice; lymphoma and leukemia in male mice; liver and Zymbal gland tumors in male and female rats; clitoral gland tumors in female rats; skin tumors in male rats.

Fried ground beef, 0.45-12.3 ng/g; broiled beef, 2.11 ng/g; fried fish, 6.44 ng/g; broiled mutton, 1.01 ng/g; broiled salmon, 1.4-5 ng/g; dried, smoked mackerel, 0.8 ng/g; broiled chicken, 2.33 ng/g; canned roasted eel, 1.1 ng/g

Ohgaki et al., 1987, Kato et al., 1988

PhIP2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-]pyridine

Lymphoma in male and female mice, colon tumors in male rats, mammary gland tumors in female rats, and colon tumors in female rats

Broiled chicken 38.1 ng/g, broiled 42.5 ng/g, fried fish 69.2 ng/g, fried ground beef 15 ng/g

Felton et al 1986, Esumi et al 1989, Ito et al 1991, Wakabayashi et al 1992

In addition to PhIP, the committee is aware of other data on carcinogenic effects of A-alpha-C (2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole), Glu-P-1 (2-Amino-6-methyldipyrido[1,2-a:3',2'-d]-imidazole, Glu-P-2 (2-Aminodipyrido[1,2-a:3',2'-d]-imidazole, Trp-P-1 (Tryptophan-P-1), and Trp-P-2 (Tryptophan-P-2).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Selected Substances in Food Subjected to Some Degree of . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

References

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Dunnick, J.K., and J.R. Hailey. 1992. Toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of quercetin, a natural component of foods. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 19(3):P423-P431.


El-Mofty, M., I. Sadek, A. Soliman, A. Mohamad, and S. Sakre. 1987. Alpha-ecdysone, a new bracken fern factor responsible for neoplasm induction in the Egyptian toad (Bufo regularis). Nutr. Cancer 9(2-3):103-107.

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Selected Substances in Food Subjected to Some Degree of . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

El-Mofty, M.M., V.V. Khudoley, and M.H. Shwaireb. 1991. Carcinogenic effect of force-feeding an extract of black pepper (Piper nigrum) in Egyptian toads (Bufo regularis). Oncology 48(4):347-350.

Esumi, H., H. Ohgaki, E. Kohzen, S. Takayama, and T. Sugimura. 1989. Induction of lymphoma in CDF1 mice by the food mutagen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 80, 1176-1178.

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Felton, J.S., M.G. Knize, N.H. Shen, P.R. Lewis, B.D. Andresen, J. Happe, and F.T. Hatch. 1986. The isolation and identification of a new mutagen from fried ground beef: 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Carcinogenesis (7):1081-1086.


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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Selected Substances in Food Subjected to Some Degree of . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Selected Substances in Food Subjected to Some Degree of . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Selected Substances in Food Subjected to Some Degree of . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Selected Substances in Food Subjected to Some Degree of . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Selected Substances in Food Subjected to Some Degree of . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Selected Substances in Food Subjected to Some Degree of . . .." National Research Council. 1996. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5150.
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Despite increasing knowledge of human nutrition, the dietary contribution to cancer remains a troubling question. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens assembles the best available information on the magnitude of potential cancer risk--and potential anticarcinogenic effect--from naturally occurring chemicals compared with risk from synthetic chemical constituents. The committee draws important conclusions about diet and cancer, including the carcinogenic role of excess calories and fat, the anticarcinogenic benefit of fiber and other substances, and the impact of food additive regulation. The book offers recommendations for epidemiological and diet research. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens provides a readable overview of issues and addresses critical questions: Does diet contribute to an appreciable proportion of human cancer? Are there significant interactions between carcinogens and anticarcinogens in the diet? The volume discusses the mechanisms of carcinogenic and anticarcinogenic properties and considers whether techniques used to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of synthetics can be used with naturally occurring chemicals. The committee provides criteria for prioritizing the vast number of substances that need to be tested. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens clarifies the issues and sets the direction for further investigations into diet and cancer. This volume will be of interest to anyone involved in food and health issues: policymakers, regulators, researchers, nutrition professionals, and health advocates.

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