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Suggested Citation:"G TREATMENT OPTIONS QUERY." National Research Council. 1996. Stemming the Tide: Controlling Introductions of Nonindigenous Species by Ships' Ballast Water. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5294.
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APPENDIX G Treatment Options Query

A ballast water treatment options query developed by the committee, which is provided below, was sent to suppliers and developers of candidate water treatment systems and to research organizations.

BALLAST WATER TREATMENT OPTIONS QUERY

System A: Flow rate of 2,000 cubic meters per hour, and tank volumes up to 25,000 cubic meters with residence times as short as 24 hours

System B: Flow rate of 20,000 cubic meters per hour, and tank volumes up to 25,000 cubic meters with residence times as short as 24 hours

For each of the two system flow rates described as System A and System B above, please complete the following query.

Technology Requirements and Capabilities
  1. Treatment technology name and developer or vendor:

  2. Typical application of technology (e.g., drinking water sterilization, etc.) OR is this technology at the experimental level:

  3. Typical treatment endpoints or goals (e.g., 95 percent to 99.9 percent removal or sterilization, species-specific biocide, etc.):

  4. Typical equipment requirements (configuration requirements such as in the tank or engine room):

  5. Space Requirements (length, width, and height in either feet or meters would suffice):

Suggested Citation:"G TREATMENT OPTIONS QUERY." National Research Council. 1996. Stemming the Tide: Controlling Introductions of Nonindigenous Species by Ships' Ballast Water. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5294.
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  1. Costs—capital, operation and maintenance, unit treatment costs:

    System operation, maintenance, and reliability:

  2. Training/Manning:

  3. Monitoring capabilities (monitoring capabilities built into the system, or requires additional equipment):

  4. Residuals formed during the use of the technology (chemicals or gases remaining after the process):

  5. Retrofit capabilities (requires dry-docking a vessel, or can be retrofitted while afloat):

  6. Safety concerns (human health threat or danger in application of this technology?):

  7. Similar installations (any examples of where the equipment has been used or tested successfully):

  8. Special permit requirements:

Application Considerations of Technologies
  1. Effects of salinity levels of 0 to 30 parts per thousand or specific gravities of 1 to 1.025:

  2. Effects of temperature (does temperature have any impact on the operation of the proposed equipment?):

  3. Effects of sediment loads up to 10 percent (sediment load directly impacts the turbidity, and this may have a negative impact on some types of treatment such as infrared):

  4. Effects of increases in treatment goals on how well the system performs:

  5. Effects of ship motions:

RESPONSES

Completed responses were received from the following suppliers, developers, and research organizations:

Alten Water Treatment Corporation, Palo Alto, California: ozone treatment (P)1

Aquafine Corporation, Valencia, California: ultraviolet treatment

Center for Advanced Ship Repair and Maintenance (CASRM), Inc., Norfolk, Virginia: pulsed electric field treatment (P)

Defence Research Establishment Atlantic, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: ultrasonic treatment

1  

 (P) indicates that a representative from the named organization also gave a presentation to the committee at one of the technology workshops (see Appendix B).

Suggested Citation:"G TREATMENT OPTIONS QUERY." National Research Council. 1996. Stemming the Tide: Controlling Introductions of Nonindigenous Species by Ships' Ballast Water. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5294.
×

Enviro-Plasma, Inc., Fairfax, Virginia: pulse plasma treatment

E.T. Ventures, Johns Island, South Carolina: modified bentonite clay for hydrocarbon remediation and water filtration applications (P)

Scienco Inc., St. Louis, Missouri: chlorination

ZMT Industries, Inc., Fort Wayne, Indiana: magnetic treatment (P)

The following organizations provided information on candidate treatment technologies but did not complete the query:

Center for Biological Macrofouling Research, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas: oxygen deprivation

Culligan International Company, Northbrook, Illinois: filtration systems

Hayward Industries, Inc., Elizabeth, New Jersey: filtration systems

Sonalysts, Inc., Waterford, Connecticut: acoustic and ultrasonic systems (P)

T.P. Technology plc, High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom: use of silver and copper ions as biocides (P)

Suggested Citation:"G TREATMENT OPTIONS QUERY." National Research Council. 1996. Stemming the Tide: Controlling Introductions of Nonindigenous Species by Ships' Ballast Water. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5294.
×
Page 119
Suggested Citation:"G TREATMENT OPTIONS QUERY." National Research Council. 1996. Stemming the Tide: Controlling Introductions of Nonindigenous Species by Ships' Ballast Water. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5294.
×
Page 120
Suggested Citation:"G TREATMENT OPTIONS QUERY." National Research Council. 1996. Stemming the Tide: Controlling Introductions of Nonindigenous Species by Ships' Ballast Water. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5294.
×
Page 121
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The European zebra mussel in the Great Lakes, a toxic Japanese dinoflagellate transferred to Australia--such biologically and economically harmful stowaways have made it imperative to achieve better management of ballast water in ocean-going vessels.

Stemming the Tide examines the introduction of nonindigenous species through ballast water discharge. Ballast is any solid or liquid that is taken aboard ship to achieve more controlled and safer operation. This expert volume

  • Assesses current national and international approaches to the problem and makes recommendations for U.S. government agencies, the U.S. maritime industry, and the member states of the International Maritime Organization.
  • Appraises technologies for controlling the transfer of organisms--biocides, filtration, heat treatment, and others --with a view toward developing the most promising methods for shipboard demonstration.
  • Evaluates methods for monitoring the effectiveness of ballast water management in removing unwanted organisms. The book addresses the constraints inherent in ballast water management, notably shipboard ballast treatment and monitoring. Also, the committee outlines efforts to set an acceptable level of risk for species introduction using the techniques of risk analysis.

Stemming the Tide will be important to all stakeholders in the issue of unwanted species introduction through ballast discharge: policymakers, port authorities, shippers, ship operators, suppliers to the maritime industry, marine biologists, marine engineers, and environmentalists.

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