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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1996. Stemming the Tide: Controlling Introductions of Nonindigenous Species by Ships' Ballast Water. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5294.
×

Index

A

Acoustic energy, ballast treatment with, 54, 69, 88, 116-117

Adenosine triphosphate analysis, 80, 122

Anti-fouling coatings, 19-20

for ballast water treatment, 55, 70

Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force, 49

recommendations for, 8, 9, 90

Asian river clam, 18

Australia, 11, 49, 77

B

Ballast

capacity, 23

definition, 23

improved ship design for, 106-108

role of, 2, 22, 24, 25

sediment formation, 16, 29, 30-31, 35-36

Ballasting operations

cleaning of tanks, 31

complexity of, 17, 18

controlling trim, 27

coordinated with cargo plans, 41, 87

diversity of, 22-24

equipment and techniques, 29-31

flow rate/velocities, 23, 35, 53-54

heavy weather conditions, 25-26

oceangoing ballast change, 2, 27, 32, 33, 36-38, 86-87, 107

options for implementation of control strategy, 53-54

record-keeping, 6, 8, 10, 33, 43-44, 79-80, 91

safe practice, 24-25

sailing with full tanks, 26-27

transverse stability considerations, 26, 27

voyage approach to biota control, 33

See also Portside ballasting;

Shipboard ballast treatment

Barnacles, 19

Baseline studies

for demonstration projects, 67

port biota. 7

port-water sampling, 77

recommendations for, 9, 91

Biocides

discharge of ballast water treated with, 71

effectiveness, 64-65, 88

monitoring of ballast treatment with, 64-65, 81

nonoxidizing, 66

oxidizing, 65-66, 68

safety, 65

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1996. Stemming the Tide: Controlling Introductions of Nonindigenous Species by Ships' Ballast Water. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5294.
×

for shipboard ballast water treatment, 54, 64-66, 68, 88

Biocontrols for shipboard ballast water, 55, 70

Black Sea, 11

C

Cargo loading/unloading

ballasting patterns, 28, 29

distribution of load, 28

Cargo plans, 41, 87

Chesapeake Bay, 45, 46-47

Chile, 44

Chlorination of ballast water, 54, 57, 65-66

monitoring, 82

Cleaning of ballast tanks, 31

Climate differences, 16

Coast Guard, Canadian, 38, 64

Coast Guard, U.S., 7, 45

Ballast Exchange Education Program, 43

monitoring of maritime trade by, 48

recommendations for, 8, 9, 89-90

Comb jellyfish, 11

Compliance monitoring, 5, 48

Congress, U.S., 1, 44

Control strategies

challenges, 2, 18

changing ballast at sea, 2, 36-38

complexity of ballasting patterns and, 17

consideration of local conditions, 33, 35

current technology, 86

discharge of ballast on arrival, 38-40

evaluation methodology, 3-4, 55-60

flexibility, 3

intake of ballast at departure, 33-36

limitations, 3

monitoring for compliance and effectiveness, 48

monitoring of ballast, 5-7

need for, 1, 13

non-ballast vectors, 18-20

objectives, 18, 32

options, 3, 41-42

research needs, 3

risk-based approaches, 3, 48-51

training of crew for, 48

voyage approach, 33

Crew considerations

cost of ballast treatment systems, 58

training, 48

D

Demonstration projects

recommendations for, 90

shipboard ballast treatment, 67

Deoxygenation of ballast water, 55, 70, 88

Dinoflagellates

in ballast sediment, 16

Japanese, in Australia, 11, 44

thermal treatment, 82, 111

Dispersal of organisms from ballast

extent, 11, 13

mechanisms, 1-2, 13

research needs, 88-89

Diversity of ballast biota, 2, 15-16

ballasting patterns leading to, 17

size range, 15

E

Economic considerations

cost-effectiveness of monitoring, 5-6

cost of electric pulse/pulse plasma systems, 115-116

cost of monitoring ballast, 80

cost of thermal treatment systems, 113

in risk analysis for control strategy, 49, 51

shipboard ballast treatment, 58

Electric pulse treatment of ballast water, 54, 58, 67, 68-69, 88, 113-116

Engine cooling water, 41, 66

Environmental impact of shipboard ballast treatments, 57, 66, 71-72 , 82

Equipment for ballasting, 29-30

continuous monitoring systems, 80

Evaluation of potential control strategies

ballast treatment technologies, 55-60

rating criteria, 4-5

representative scenarios, 4, 56

F

Filtration

discharge of filtered material, 71

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1996. Stemming the Tide: Controlling Introductions of Nonindigenous Species by Ships' Ballast Water. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5294.
×

media filtration systems, 61-63

monitoring, 82

recommendations for research and development, 90

screening size, 63

self-cleaning strainers, 61

shipboard ballast water treatment, 54, 60-61, 63-64, 72, 88

two-stage system, 64

Flow cytometry, 123-124

Fouling organisms, 19-20

G

Great Lakes

ballast-mediated introductions in, 11

control strategy for Ruffe, 46, 109-110

monitoring efforts, 48, 74

regulatory effort, 38, 44, 45, 45, 47

Zebra mussel in, 11, 18

Great Lakes Ballast Water Control Guidelines, 38

H

Hudson River, 44, 47

Hulls of ships as dispersal vectors, 19-20

I

Immunofluorescence, 124

Implementation of control strategies identifying basis for standards , 84

in immediate future, 33

Indicator species, 80-81

Inoculation, 16

International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, 44

International efforts, 42-44

coordination of, 7-8, 47, 87

guidelines for ballast management, 7

recommendations for, 8-9, 10

unilateral controls, 87

International Maritime Organization, 1, 47

guidelines for ballast management, 7, 42, 43-44, 86

operations and procedures, 42

recommendations for member states, 9, 10, 91

Israel, 44

J

Japan, 44

L

Lightering, 40

Lipid phosphate analysis, 124

Local conditions considered in control strategies, 33, 35

M

Magnetic field treatment of ballast water, 55, 69-70, 88

Maritime industry

recommendations for, 9, 90-91

use of ballast, 22

MARPOL 73/78, 7, 8, 40, 42-43, 87, 90

Monitoring of ballast operations

advanced biological analysis, 81, 123-124

after treatment of ballast water, 81-82

ballast conditions and, 76, 78-79

ballast water quality, 79, 80

bioactivity in ballast water, 80-81, 122

biocidal ballast treatment, 64-65, 81

challenges, 7

cost-effectiveness, 5-6

current practice, 48, 74

examination of ships' records, 79-80

forms of, 48

importance of, 5, 48, 74-75, 89

levels of, 6, 77-81

organizational structure for, 48

port-water/sediment sampling, 77, 83

recommendations for research and development, 90

sampling and dispatch, 76-77, 89

sampling issues, 82-83

sediment accumulation, 79, 83

setting standards for, 84

system requirements, 5, 75-76

training for, 48

treatment systems, 58, 72

N

Navy, U.S., 45

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1996. Stemming the Tide: Controlling Introductions of Nonindigenous Species by Ships' Ballast Water. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5294.
×

Nonindigenous species

definition, 11-13

fate of, 16-17

non-ballast dispersal vectors, 11-13

Nutrient assessment, 80

O

Oceangoing ballast change, 2, 27, 32, 33

effectiveness, 38, 86-87

hazards of, 38

improved ship design for, 107

rationale, 36-37

techniques, 37

Oil industry, 40

Ozonation of ballast water, 54,67, 68

P

Photosynthetic pigment analysis, 80

Phytoplankton, 15

immunofluorescence analysis, 124

Plants, 15

Portside ballasting

on arrival, 38-40

to ballast lighters, 40

during cargo loading, 28, 29

for controlling trim, 28, 29

distribution of load and, 28

intake before departure, 33-36

local conditions, 33, 35

port-water sampling, 77

for predicted voyage conditions, 29

role of, 27

shipboard ballast water treatment options, 53-54

treatment facilities, 3, 38-40

Pulse plasma treatment of ballast, 54, 58, 67, 68-69, 113-116

R

Record keeping

for monitoring ballast water management, 6, 8, 33

recommendations for, 10

Record-keeping

international agreements, 43-44

monitoring of, as control strategy, 79-80

recommendations for, 91

Regional efforts, 8, 45-47

limitations of, 47

Regulatory environment

international conventions, 43

international coordination, 7-8, 47, 87

at national level, 44-45, 87

recommendations for, 8-9, 89-90

regarding oceangoing ballast change, 38

at regional level, 45-47

Research

international coordination, 44

knowledge base for risk analysis, 49-51, 88-89

recommendations for, 9, 90

Risk assessment

in current guidelines, 49

for identifying level of monitoring, 78-79

implications for control strategies, 49-51

knowledge base for, 49-51, 88-89

limitations, 3, 16, 48-49, 84

setting standards for ballast water quality, 84

RNA/DNA analysis, 123-124

Ruffe, 46, 109-110

S

Safety

of ballast control systems, 4

in ballasting operations, 24-25

biocidal ballast treatment systems, 65-66

of oceangoing ballast change, 38

of shipboard ballast treatment systems, 56-57

Sampling and dispatch, 76-77, 89

San Francisco Bay

Asian clam in, 18

ballast-mediated introductions in, 11

Sea chests, 19, 29

Seastars, 19

Seaweed/seagrasses, 15

Sediment

accumulation of, 29, 30-31, 35-36

advanced biological analysis, 81

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1996. Stemming the Tide: Controlling Introductions of Nonindigenous Species by Ships' Ballast Water. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5294.
×

composition, 31

diversity of biota in, 16

monitoring, 79, 83

Shipboard ballast treatment, 3

chemical residues, 57, 71

cost considerations, 58

criteria for systems evaluation, 4-5, 56-58

environment impact of discharge, 71-72, 88

inappropriate techniques, 69-70

indications for demonstration projects, 67

maintenance of systems, 58

monitoring, 6-7, 72, 74-75, 81-82

obstacles to, 3, 52-53, 87

options with limited applications, 67-69

power supply, 57

promising options, 60-67, 72, 88

ranking of, 58-60

recirculating systems, 57

safety, 57

size of systems, 58

technical evaluation, methodology for, 55-60

technologies for, 4, 53-55.

See also specific technology

voyage approach to control, 36

Ship design

for ballasting, 29-31

for biota control, 33

cleaner ballast tanks, 107-108

for improved at-sea ballast exchange107

limiting ballast, 106-107

principles of stability, 102-105

Snails19

Starfish, 19

Storm ballast, 25-26

Survival of nonindigenous species, 16-17

T

Taxonomic assessment, 81

Thermal treatment, 41

byproducts, 113

discharge of ballast water treated by, 71

effectiveness, 111-112

monitoring, 82, 113

shipboard ballast water treatment, 54, 66-67, 88

technical requirements, 112-113

Transverse stability, 26, 27, 102-105

Treatment facilities, 3

effectiveness, 36, 39

land-based, 35-36, 38-40, 87

oil refineries, 40

transport of ballast to, 40

treatment ship, 39

See also Shipboard ballast treatment

Turbidity monitoring, 80, 82, 83, 89

U

Ultraviolet irradiation of ballast water, 54, 69, 88

W

Water characteristics, 53

advanced biological analysis, 81, 123-124

assessment parameters, 79

ballast monitoring, 79, 80

bioactivity measures, 80-81, 122

Z

Zebra mussels

in Great Lakes, 11, 18

thermal treatment, 111-112

Zooplankton, 15

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1996. Stemming the Tide: Controlling Introductions of Nonindigenous Species by Ships' Ballast Water. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5294.
×
Page 137
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1996. Stemming the Tide: Controlling Introductions of Nonindigenous Species by Ships' Ballast Water. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5294.
×
Page 138
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1996. Stemming the Tide: Controlling Introductions of Nonindigenous Species by Ships' Ballast Water. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5294.
×
Page 139
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1996. Stemming the Tide: Controlling Introductions of Nonindigenous Species by Ships' Ballast Water. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5294.
×
Page 140
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1996. Stemming the Tide: Controlling Introductions of Nonindigenous Species by Ships' Ballast Water. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5294.
×
Page 141
Stemming the Tide: Controlling Introductions of Nonindigenous Species by Ships' Ballast Water Get This Book
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The European zebra mussel in the Great Lakes, a toxic Japanese dinoflagellate transferred to Australia--such biologically and economically harmful stowaways have made it imperative to achieve better management of ballast water in ocean-going vessels.

Stemming the Tide examines the introduction of nonindigenous species through ballast water discharge. Ballast is any solid or liquid that is taken aboard ship to achieve more controlled and safer operation. This expert volume

  • Assesses current national and international approaches to the problem and makes recommendations for U.S. government agencies, the U.S. maritime industry, and the member states of the International Maritime Organization.
  • Appraises technologies for controlling the transfer of organisms--biocides, filtration, heat treatment, and others --with a view toward developing the most promising methods for shipboard demonstration.
  • Evaluates methods for monitoring the effectiveness of ballast water management in removing unwanted organisms. The book addresses the constraints inherent in ballast water management, notably shipboard ballast treatment and monitoring. Also, the committee outlines efforts to set an acceptable level of risk for species introduction using the techniques of risk analysis.

Stemming the Tide will be important to all stakeholders in the issue of unwanted species introduction through ballast discharge: policymakers, port authorities, shippers, ship operators, suppliers to the maritime industry, marine biologists, marine engineers, and environmentalists.

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