National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9645.
×

Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants

Volume 3

Subcommittee on Military Smokes and Obscurants

Committee on Toxicology

Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology

Commission on Life Sciences

National Research Council

National Academy Press
Washington, D.C.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9645.
×

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

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The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

This project was supported by Contract Nos. DAMD17-89-C-9086 and DAMD 17-99-C-9049 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Defense. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.

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Additional copies of this report are available from:
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Copyright 1999 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9645.
×

SUBCOMMITTEE ON MILITARY SMOKESAND OBSCURANTS

MICHELE A. MEDINSKY (Chair),

Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

KEVIN E. DRISCOLL,

The Procter and Gamble Company, Cincinnati, Ohio

CHARLES E. FEIGLEY,

University of South Carolina School of Public Health, Columbia, South Carolina

DONALD E. GARDNER,

Inhalation Toxicology Associates, Raleigh, North Carolina

SIDNEY GREEN,

Howard University, Washington, D.C.

ROGENE F. HENDERSON,

Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico

CAROLE A. KIMMEL,

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

HANSPETER R. WITSCHI,

University of California, Davis, California

GAROLD S. YOST,

University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah

Staff

KULBIR S. BAKSHI, Program Director for the Committee on Toxicology

ABIGAIL STACK, Project Director

RUTH E. CROSSGROVE, Editor

MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Information Specialist

LINDA V. LEONARD, Senior Project Assistant

LUCY V. FUSCO, Project Assistant

CHRISTINE PHILLIPS, Project Assistant

Sponsor

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9645.
×

COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGY

BAILUS WALKER, JR. (Chair),

Howard University Medical Center, Washington, D.C.

MELVIN E. ANDERSEN,

Colorado State University, Denver, Colorado

GERMAINE M. BUCK,

State University of New York at Buffalo

GARY P. CARLSON,

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

JACK H. DEAN,

Sanofi Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Malveme, Pennsylvania

ROBERT E. FORSTER II,

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

PAUL M.D. FOSTER,

Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

DAVID W. GAYLOR,

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Arkansas

JUDITH A. GRAHAM,

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

SIDNEY GREEN,

Howard University, Washington, D.C.

WILLIAM E. HALPERIN,

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, Ohio

CHARLES H. HOBBS,

Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute and Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico

FLORENCE K. KINOSHITA,

Hercules Incorporated, Wilmington, Delaware

MICHAEL J. KOSNETT,

University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado

MORTON LIPPMANN,

New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, New York

THOMAS E. MCKONE,

University of California, Berkeley, California

ERNEST E. MCCONNELL,

Toxpath, Inc., Raleigh, North Carolina

DAVID H. MOORE,

Battelle Memorial Institute, Bel Air, Maryland

GÜNTER OBERDÖRSTER,

University of Rochester, Rochester, New York

JOHN L. O'DONOGHUE,

Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York

GEORGE M. RUSCH,

Allied Signal, Inc., Morristown, New Jersey

MARY E. VORE,

University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky

ANNETTA P. WATSON,

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Staff

KULBIR S. BAKSHI, Program Director

SUSAN N.J. PANG, Program Officer

ABIGAIL STACK, Program Officer

RUTH E. CROSSGROVE, Publications Manager

KATHRINE J. IVERSON, Manager,

Toxicology Information Center

LUCY V. FUSCO, Project Assistant

LEAH PROBST, Project Assistant

EVELYN SIMEON, Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9645.
×

BOARDON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIESAND TOXICOLOGY

GORDON ORIANS (Chair),

University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

DONALD MATTISON (Vice Chair),

March of Dimes, White Plains, New York

DAVID ALLEN,

University of Texas, Austin, Texas

INGRID C. BURKE,

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado

WILLIAM L. CHAMEIDES,

Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia

JOHN DOULL,

The University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas

CHRISTOPHER B. FIELD,

Carnegie Institute of Washington, Stanford, California

JOHN GERHART,

University of California, Berkeley, California

J. PAUL GILMAN,

Celera Genomics, Rockville, Maryland

BRUCE D. HAMMOCK,

University of California, Davis, California

MARK HARWELL,

University of Miami, Miami, Florida

ROGENE HENDERSON,

Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico

CAROL HENRY,

Chemical Manufacturers Association, Arlington, Virginia

BARBARA HULKA,

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

JAMES F. KITCHELL,

University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin

DANIEL KREWSKI,

University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario

JAMES A. MACMAHON,

Utah State University, Logan, Utah

MARIO J. MOLINA,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts

CHARLES O'MELIA,

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

WILLEM F. PASSCHIER,

Health Council of the Netherlands

KIRK SMITH,

University of California, Berkeley, California

MARGARET STRAND,

Oppenheimer Wolff Donnelly & Bayh, LLP, Washington, D.C.

TERRY F. YOSIE,

Chemical Manufacturers Association, Arlington, Virginia

Senior Staff

JAMES J. REISA, Director

DAVID J. POUCANSKY, Associate Director and Senior Program Director for Applied Ecology

CAROL A. MACZKA, Senior Program Director for Toxicology and Risk Assessment

RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Senior Program Director for Environmental Sciences and Engineering

KULBIR BAKSHI, Program Director for the Committee on Toxicology

LEE R. PAULSON, Program Director for Resource Management

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9645.
×

COMMISSIONON LIFE SCIENCES

MICHAEL T. CLEGG (Chair),

University of California, Riverside, California

PAUL BERG (Vice Chair),

Stanford University, Stanford, California

FREDERICK R. ANDERSON,

Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft, Washington, D.C.

JOHN C. BAILAR III,

University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois

JOANNA BURGER,

Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey

SHARON L. DUNWOODY,

University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin

DAVID EISENBERG,

University of California, Los Angeles, California

JOHN EMMERSON,

Portland, Oregon

NEAL FIRST,

University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin

DAVID J. GALAS,

Keck Graduate Institute of Applied Science, Claremont, California

DAVID V. GOEDDEL,

Tularik, Inc., South San Francisco, California

ARTURO GOMEZ-POMPA,

University of California, Riverside, California

COREY S. GOODMAN,

University of California, Berkeley, California

HENRY HEIKKINEN,

University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, Colorado

BARBARA S. HULKA,

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

HANS J. KENDE,

Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan

CYNTHIA KENYON,

University of California, San Francisco, California

MARGARET G. KIDWELL,

University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona

BRUCE R. LEVIN,

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia

OLGA F. LINARES,

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Miami, Florida

DAVID LIVINGSTON,

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts

DONALD R. MATTISON,

March of Dimes, White Plains, New York

ELLIOT M. MEYEROWITZ,

California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California

ROBERT T. PAINE,

University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

RONALD R. SEDEROFF,

North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina

ROBERT R. SOKAL,

State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York

CHARLES F. STEVENS,

The Salk Institute, La Jolla, California

SHIRLEY M. TILGHMAN,

Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey

JOHN L. VANDEBERG,

Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, Texas

RAYMOND L. WHITE,

University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah

Staff

WARREN R. MUIR, Executive Director

JACQUELINE K. PRINCE, Financial Officer

BARBARA B. SMITH, Administrative Associate

KIT W. LEE, Administrative Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9645.
×

OTHER REPORTSOF THE BOARDON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIESAND TOXICOLOGY

Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: II. Evaluating Research Progress and Updating the Portfolio (1999)

Ozone-Forming Potential of Reformulated Gasoline (1999)

Risk-Based Waste Classification in California (1999)

Arsenic in Drinking Water (1999)

Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio (1998)

Brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Area (1998)

The National Research Council's Committee on Toxicology: The First 50 Years (1997)

Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests (1997)

Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet (1996)

Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest (1996)

Science and the Endangered Species Act (1995)

Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries (1995)

Biologic Markers (5 reports, 1989-1995)

Review of EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (3 reports, 1994-1995)

Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment (1994)

Ranking Hazardous Waste Sites for Remedial Action (1994)

Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993)

Issues in Risk Assessment (1993)

Setting Priorities for Land Conservation (1993)

Protecting Visibility in National Parks and Wilderness Areas (1993)

Dolphins and the Tuna Industry (1992)

Hazardous Materials on the Public Lands (1992)

Science and the National Parks (1992)

Animals as Sentinels of Environmental Health Hazards (1991)

Assessment of the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Studies Program, Volumes I-IV (1991-1993)

Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants (1991)

Monitoring Human Tissues for Toxic Substances (1991)

Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution (1991)

Decline of the Sea Turtles (1990)

Copies of these reports may be ordered from the National Academy Press

(800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 www.nap.edu

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9645.
×

OTHER REPORTS OF THE COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGY

Review of the U.S. Army's Health Risk Assessments for Oral Exposure to Six Chemical-Warfare Agents (1999)

Assessment of Exposure-Response Functions for Rocket-Emissions Toxicants (1998)

Review of A Screening Level Risk Assessment for the Naval Air Facility at Atsugi, Japan (Letter Report) (1998)

Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants, Volume 1 (1997), Volume 2 (1999)

Review of Acute Human-Toxicity Estimates for Selected Chemical-Warfare Agents (1997)

The National Research Council's Committee on Toxicology: The First 50 Years (1997)

Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests (1997)

Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions (1997)

Toxicity of Alternatives to Chlorofluorocarbons: HFC-134a and HCFC-123 (1996)

Permissible Exposure Levels for Selected Military Fuel Vapors (1996)

Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants, Volume 1 (1994), Volume 2 (1996), Volume 3 (1996)

Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water (1995)

Guidelines for Chemical Warfare Agents in Military Field Drinking Water (1995)

Review of the U.S. Naval Medical Research Institute's Toxicology Program (1994)

Health Effects of Permethrin-Impregnated Army Battle-Dress Uniforms (1994)

Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride (1993)

Guidelines for Developing Community Emergency Exposure Levels for Hazardous Substances (1993)

Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants (1992)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9645.
×

Preface

THE U.S. ARMY uses smokes and obscurants to shield armed forces from view, signal friendly forces, and mark positions. Military personnel are exposed to smokes and obscurants during training exercises. The Army would like to ensure that exposures to these substances during training do not adversely affect the health of Army personnel or the public living and working near military-training facilities. To assist with this effort, the Army requested the National Research Council (NRC) to review independently the available toxicity data on certain smokes and obscurants and to recommend exposure guidance levels for each. In response, the NRC's Committee on Toxicology (COT) convened the Subcommittee on Military Smokes and Obscurants, which prepared this report.

This report (Volume 3 in the series) assesses toxicity data for seven colored smoke formulations. In Volume 1 of the series, fog oil, diesel fuel, red phosphorus, and hexachloroethane smokes were reviewed, and in Volume 2, white phosphorus, brass, titanium dioxide, and graphite smokes were reviewed.

Several individuals assisted the subcommittee by providing information on the uses and toxicity of the colored smokes addressed in this report. We gratefully acknowledge Colonel Francis L. O'Donnell, Major James Martin, Colonel David Wilder, and the Office of the Surgeon General of the U.S. Army for their interest and support of this project. We also

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9645.
×

thank Winnifred Palmer, Sandra Thomson, and Michael Burnham of the U.S. Army for providing information to the subcommittee.

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee for reviewing NRC and Institute of Medicine reports. The purpose of this independent review was to provide candid and critical comments to assist the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals, who are neither officials nor employees of the NRC, for their participation in the review of this report: Michael Dorato, Lilly Research Laboratories; Andrea Hubbard, University of Connecticut; Robert Phalen, University of California, Irvine; Mary Vore, University of Kentucky; and George Rusch, Allied Signal Inc. (Review Coordinator). These individuals provided many constructive comments and suggestions. It must be emphasized, however, that responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the NRC.

We are grateful for the assistance of the NRC staff in the preparation of this report. The subcommittee wishes to acknowledge Kulbir Bakshi, program director of the Committee on Toxicology, and Abigail Stack, project director for this report. Other staff members contributing to this report were Paul Gilman, former executive director of the Commission on Life Sciences; James Reisa, director of the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology; Carol Maczka, senior program director for toxicology and risk assessment; Ruth Crossgrove, editor; and Lucy Fusco, Linda Leonard, and Christine Phillips, project assistants.

Finally, we would like to thank all the members of the subcommittee for their expertise and dedicated effort throughout the study.

Michele A. Medinsky, Ph.D.

Chair, Subcommittee On Military Smokes and Obscurants

Bailus Walker, Ph.d., M.P.H.

Chair, Committee On Toxicology

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9645.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9645.
×
Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9645.
×

LIST OF ABBREVATIONS


AEHA

U.S. Army Environment Hygiene Agency

ACGIH

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists


BZA

benzanthrone


CO

carbon monoxide

COT

Committee on Toxicology


DAA

1,4-diaminoanthraquinone

DBC

vat yellow 4 (dibenzochrysenedione)

DDA

1,4, diamino-2,3-dihydroanthraquinone

DMA

disperse red 11 (1,4-diamino-2-(2-quinolyl)-1,3-indandione)

DOD

U.S. Department of Defense


EEGL

emergency exposure guidance level

EPA

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency


HGPRT

hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase


LCt50

lethal concentration multiplied by exposure time for 50% of the test animals

LD50

lethal dose for 50% of the test animals

LOAEL

lowest-observed-adverse-effect level


MAA

disperse red 9 (1-(methylamino)-9,-10-anthracenedione)

MBN

solvent red 1 (α-menthozbenzenazo-β-napthol)


NOAEL

no-observed-adverse-effect level

NCI

National Cancer Institute

NRC

National Research Council


PTA

solvent green 3 (1,4-di-p-toluidino-9,10-anthraquinone)


QID

solvent yellow 33 (2-(2-quinolyl)-1,3-indandione)


REGL

repeated exposure guidance level (referred to as permissible exposure guidance level in Volume 1)

RPEGL

repeated public exposure guidance level (referred to as permissible public exposure guidance level in Volume 1)


SPEGL

short-term public emergency guidance level

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1999. Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9645.
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Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants

Volume 3

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A variety of smokes and obscurants have been developed and used to screen armed forces from view, signal friendly forces, and mark positions. Smokes are produced by burning or vaporizing particular products. Obscurants are anthropogenic or naturally occurring particles suspended in the air. They block or weaken transmission of particular parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, such as visible and infrared radiation or microwaves. Fog, mist, and dust are examples of natural obscurants. White phosphorus and hexachloroethane smokes are examples of anthropogenic obscurants.

The U.S. Army seeks to reduce the likelihood that exposure to smokes and obscurants during training would have adverse health effects on military personnel or civilians. To protect the health of exposed individuals, the Office of the Army Surgeon General requested that the National Research Council (NRC) independently review data on the toxicity of smokes and obscurants and recommend exposure guidance levels for military personnel in training and for the general public residing or working near military-training facilities.

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